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NATURAL 
HISTORY 



THE JOURNAL OF 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

OF NATURAL HISTORY 



VOLUME LXXIV 
1965 



Published by 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

OF NATURAL HISTORY 

NEW YORK, N.Y. 



CONTENTS OF 
VOLUME LXXIV 



Janl'aky. No. 1 

Books IN Review: James S. Pickering 6 

"Oldest Science" Updated 

The Sea Gypsies of China Wilmon Menard 12 

The Bull-horn Acacia Virgil N. Argo 22 

Australia's Spotted DiAMONDBiRDs Allen Keasl 28 

Sky Reporter: Globular Cluster . Thomas D. Nicholson 32 

The Building Blocks OF THE Clouds John A. Day 36 

Patterns IN Wood Paul Villiard 44 

Ornamental Eccs of the Insects Alvah Peterson 46 

Phoenix of Astronomers Colin A. Ronan 52 
Naturalists' Notebook: 

The Art of the Biological Photographer 58 

About the Authors . 62 
Science in Action: 

New Age for Hydrology Raymond L. Nace 63 

Suggested Additional Reading 70 



February, No. 2 

Books in Review: Jane Oppenheimer 6 

Perspectives in Biology 
Components of Recognition in Ducklings 

Gilbert Gottlieb 12 
Majestic Workboats of a Portuguese Lagoon 

Nancy Flowers 20 

Ears of Dipodomys Douglas B. Webster 26 

Sky Reporter: Milky Way Thomas D. Nicholson 34 

Flowers, Insects, and Evolution Herman F. Becker 38 

Aboriginal Art and Mythology 

Stuart Scougall and Philip C. Gifford 46 

Desert Arachnids Emerge Robert H, Wright 54 

About the Authors 60 

Nature and Photography: 

A Planned Approach to Zoo Movies Sam Dunton 61 

Travel Far and Near : 

The African Poison Test Merlin Ennis 67 

Suggested Additional Reading 70 

March, No. 3 
Books in Review: Harry Bober 6 

A Gallery of Antiquity 

Heritage of Survival Robert M. Netting 14 

Day Length and Food Caches Illar Muul 22 

Green Al ;ae Divide to Multiply Winton Patnode 28 

Mystery of a Milupede T. Eisner and H. E. Eisner 30 

Sky Reporter: Andromeda Galaxy 

Thomas D. Nicholson 38 

Study IN Specificity Richard K. Benjamin 42 

Naturalists' Notebook: 

A King Snake Dines on a Sparrow Egg 

Photographs by Robert H. Wright 50 
Spread of a Parasite 

Frank C. Hawksworth and Thomas E. Hinds 52 

About the Authors 58 

Nature and Photography: 

A Second Camera May Prove Valuable David Linton 59 
Science in Action: 

Hoaxes and Half-truths Robert Silverberg 62 

Suggested Additional Reading 66 



April, No. 4 
Books in Review: Richard G. Van Gelder 4 

Dedicated to Mammals 
Fossil Lakes from the Eocene 

Bobb Schaeffer and Marlyn Mangus 10 
A Weed Is Where You Find It 

Photographs by E. Javorsky 22 
The Threshing Sledge Jacques Bordaz 26 

Nesting of the Wood Stork 

George Heinzman and Dorotha Heinzman 30 

Mirages David Linton 36 

The Cross AND Orb in Egypt John D. Cooney 40 

Sky Reporter: Mars Studies Thomas D. Nicholson 50 

Figurines of the Caraja . . Photographs by Kurt Severin 54 

About the Authors 56 

Science IN Action: 

Winter Bark, Slow Fire Dudley C. Lunt 57 

Nature and the Microscope: 

Hexagons, Prisms, and Cubes Julian D. Corrington 61 
Suggested Additional Reading 68 



May, No. 5 

Books in Review: Robert Cushman Murphy 4 

Man Against the Insects 

Sabino Grove Ecology Study Eric Leshan, Nelson 

Samuels, Bruce Hobson, and Charles Coughlan 14 

African Pink-backed Pelican James Hancock 24 

Sky Reporter : Mariner IV and Mars 

Thomas D. Nicholson 30 
Nature Behind the Scenes 

Photographs by Gert Berliner 34 
Water, History, and the Indus Plain 

George C. Taylor, Jr. 40 
Life Cycle of Seclusion Ralph J. Donahue 50 

Courtship Behavior of Arachnids Theodore Savory 52 

About the Authors 57 

Travel Far and Near: 

Kinishba Pueblo Ruins Jay Ellis Ransom 58 

Science in Action: 

Steps to a New Astronomy George A. Rothrock 64 

Suggested Additional Reading 70 



June- July, No. 6 

Books IN Review: Eugene Eisenmann 6 

Of Interest to Birders 

Trinidad and Bat Research Arthur M. Greenhall 14 

Mating of Groupers Eugenie Clark 22 

Insect's Scales Are Asset in Defense Thomas Eisner 26 

The Ecology of Man and the Land Ethic 

Stewart L. Udall 32 

Sky Reporter: Naval Observatory Thomas D. Nicholson 42 

Chocos of the Taparal J. W. L. Robinson 46 

Biology of Reproduction in Ferns ... Kenneth A. Wilson 52 

About the Authors 60 

Science in Action: 

The Sounds of Singing G. Stuart Keith 61 

Nature and Photography: 

Varying Exposure for Desired Effect Jack Couffer 66 

Suggested Additional Reading 70 



August-September, No. 7 

Books in Review: Syd Radinovsky 8 

Studies in Entomology 

Men, Beeswax, and Molten Metal Paul J. Baus 18 

Mechanics of a Turnover Virgil N. Argo 26 

Channel Island Skunk Richard G. Van Gelder 30 

Desert Nomads' Economy Depends on Camel 

Photographs by Niki Ekstrom 36 

Evolution of Nest Building Nicholas E. Collias 40 

Sky Reporter: Star Evolution Thomas D. Nicholson 48 

Floras of the Tundra Paul D. Kilburn 52 

About the Authors ■. 60 



Resources and Legislation: 

Washington Newsletter Paul Mason Tilden 62 

Science in Action: 

Mixing Oceans and Species Ira Rubinoff 69 

Suggested Additional Reading 74 



October, No. 8 

Books in Review: Douglas Newton 6 

Art in a New Context 
The Floating Community of Amazonas 

Fernando Dias de Avila-Pires 13 
Master Goldsmiths of Sitio Conte . Andre Emmerich 18 

The Elusive Musk Ducks Paul A. Johnsgard 26 

Sky Reporter: Life of a Star Thomas D. Nicholson 30 

Siesta Time— Or Royalty Out on a Limb 

Photographs by Sally Anne Thompson 34 
Rare Cypress Clings to Coast Habitat 

Sherwin Carlquist 38 
Dorylines: Raiding and in Bivouac: Part I 

T. C. Schneirla 44 
Interaction Between Light and Minerals 

Paul E. Desautels 52 

About the Authors 59 

Science in Action: 

Confessions of a Curator Sydney Anderson 60 

Films in Review: 

Decade of Improvement Linda S. Gordon 66 

Suggested Additional Reading 70 



November, No. 9 

1965 Survey of Science Books for Young People 4 

Search for Greece of the Stone Age E. S. Higgs 18 

Giant Snail Is Used for Muscle Studies 

Celso Paulo Jaeger 26 
Sky Reporter: Space Observatories 

Thomas D. Nicholson 28 
Brown Pelican Is Victim of Gull Piracy 

Andrew J. and Robert Meyerriecks 32 

Guelta of the Bleak Sahara W. Gurnee Dyer 36 

Dorylines: Raiding and in Bivouac: Part II 

T. C. Schneirla 40 
Effects and Views of the Moon 

Photographs by Irwin Dermer 48 
Reality of Drought Is Always With Us 

Harold E. Thomas 50 

About the Authors 58 

Portrait in Science: 

Jefferson's Avocation Lowell D. Holmes 59 

Cousin to Mite and Spider 

Linda J. Gandek and David Pramer 63 
Nature and Photography: 

Taking Movies of a Home Aquarium Paul Villiard 64 

Suggested Additional Reading 67 



December, No. 10 

Books in Review William Vogt 4 

Man's Ecological Crisis 

Territorial Needs and Limits Edward T. Hall 12 

Big Men and Disks of Shell Harold W. Scheffler 20 

"Sleeping One" of the Hopis Edwin Way Teale 26 

Base and Noble Metals in Illumination 

Shirley Alexander 30 

The Migration of a Plant Robert W. Schery 40 

Sky Reporter : The Pleiades Thomas D. Nicholson 46 
Sedimentary Origins of Rock Layering 

Paul Edwin Potter 50 

About the Authors 56 

Nature and Photography: 

Movie Problems in Public Aquariums Sam Dunton 58 

Science in Action : 

Survey of the Bahamas C. Lavett Smith 62 

Suggested Additional Reading 66 



INDEX TO 
VOLUME LXXIV 

AUTHORS AND TITLES 



. S., Base and Noble Metals in 
ATioN, Dec, p. 30 
S., Science in Action: Confes- 
a Curator, Oct., p. 60; Reviews, 



B 

'S, Jan., p. 10 
;iHs P. J., Men, Beeswax, and Molten 

■ i iL. Aug., p. 18 
1 , H. F., Flowers, Insects, and Evo- 

mx, Feb., p. 38 
liiiimin, H. K., Study in Specificity, 
Mar., p. 42 

lerliner, G., Nature Behind the Scenes, 
May, p. 34 
Sober, H., Reviews, Mar., p. 6 
Boriiaz, J., The Threshing Sledge, Apr., 
.26 



Carlquist, S., Rare Cypress Clings to 

Coast Hauitat, Oct., p. 38 
Carlcr, T. D., Reviews, Jan., p. 10 
Clark, E., Mating of Groupers, June, p. 22 
Coe, M. D., Reviews, June, p. 9 
CciDias, N. E., Evolution of Nest Building, 

Aug., p. 40 
Cooney, J. D., The Cross and Orb in Egypt, 

Apr., p. 40 
Corrington, J. D., Nature and the Micro- 
scope: Hexagons, Prisms and Cubes, Apr., 

p. 61 
Couffer. J., Nature and Photography: 

Varying Exposure for Desired Effect, 

June, p. 66 
Coughlan, C, Sabino Grove Ecology 

Study, May, p. 14 

D 

Davis, J. A., Jr., Reviews, Jan., p. 11 

Day, J. A., The Building Blocks of the 
Clouds. Jan., p. 36 

Bermer, I., Effects and Views of the 
Moon, Nov., p. 45 

Desautels, P. E.. Interaction Between 
Light and Minerals, Oct., p. 52 

Donaliue, R. J., Life Cycle of Seclusion, 
May, p. 50 

Bunion, S.. Nature and Photography: A 
Plnnnctl Approncll to Zoo Movies, Feb., 
p. 61 ; Movie Problems in Public Aquar- 
iums, Dec., p. 58 

Dyer, W. G., Guelta of the Bleak Sahara. 



Dyson, R. H., Jr., Re' 



Eisenmann, E., Revie 



, p. 8 



Eisner, H. E., MYSTERY OP A Millipede, 
Mar., p. 30 

Eisner, T.. Mystery of a Millipede, Mar., 
p. 30; Insect's Scales are Asset in De- 
fense, June, p. 26 

Ekholm, G. F., Reviews, Mar., p. 9 

Ekstrom, N., Desert Nomads' Economy 
Depends on Camel, Aug., p. 36 

Emmericb, A., Master Goldsmiths of Sitio 
CoNTE, Oct., p. 18 

Ennis, M., Travel Far and Near: Tbe Afri- 
can Poison Test, Feb., p. 67 



Flowers, N., Majestic Workboais of ; 

Portuguese Lagoon, Feb., p. 20 
Fosburgh, P., Reviews, Aug., p. 16; Oct. 

p. 11 
Franklin, K. L., Reviews, June, p. 10; Nov. 

p. 5 
Freed, S. A., Reviews, Dec, p. 7 



Gandek, L. J., Cousin to Mite and Spider, 
Nov., p. 63 

George, W. G., Reviews, Oct., p. 10a 

Gifford, P. C, Aboriginal Art and Myth- 
ology, Feb., p. 46 

Goldman, B., Reviews, Feb., p. 8; May, p. 
8; Dec, p. 9. 

Gordon, L. S., Films in Review: Decade of 
Improvement, Oct., p. 66 

Gottlieb, G., Components of Recognition 
IN Ducklings, Feb., p. 12 

Greenhall, A. M., Trinidad and Bat Re- 
search, June, p. 14 



H 






Hall, E. T., Territorial 1 
Dec, p. 12 

Hammond, P. C, Reviews, Jan., p. 9 

Hancock, J., African Pink-backed Peli- 
can, May, p. 24 

Hawksworth, F. C, Spread of a Parasite, 
Mar., p. 52 

Heinzman, D., Nesting of the Wood Stork, 
Apr., p. 30 

Heinzman, G., Nesting of the Wood Stork, 
Apr., p. 30 

Higgs, E. S., Search for Greece of the 
Stone Ace, Nov., p. 18 

Hinds, T. E., Spread of a Parasite, Mar., 
p. 52 

Hobson, B., Sabino Grove Ecology Study, 
May, p. 14 

Holmes, L. D., Portrait in Science: Jef- 
ferson's Avocation, Nov., p. 59 



Jaeger, C. P.. Ginat Snail is Used for Mus- 
cle Studies, Nov., p. 26 

Javorsky, E., A Weed is Where You Find 
It, Apr., p. 22 

Johnsgard. P. A., The Elusive Musk Ducks. 
Oct., p. 26 



Keast, A., Australia's Spotted Diamond- 

Keitb, G. S., Science in Action : The Sounds 
of Singing, June, p. 61 



Kilburn, P. D., Floras of the Tundr 

Aug.. p. 52 
Klein, R. M., Reviews, Oct., p. 10 
Koyama, T., Reviews, Dec, p. 9 
Kubler, G., Reviews, Aug., p. 11 
Lanyon, W. E., Reviews, Feb., p. 9; Mai 

p. 11 



Leshan, E., Sabino Grove Ecology Study, 
May, p. 14 

Linton, D., Nature and Photography: A 
Second Camera May Prove Valuable. 
Mar., p. 59; Mirages, Apr., p. 36; Re- 
views, Mar, p. 8 

Luce, W., Reviews, May, p. 11 

Lunt, D. C. Science in Action: Winter 
Bark, Slow Fire, Apr., p. 57 



Ronan, C. A., Phoenix of Astronomers, 



. 52 



McCormick, J., Reviews, Apr., p. 8; Nov., 
p. 8 

Mangus, M., Fossil Lakes from the Eo- 
cene, Apr., p. 10 

Mason, B. H., Reviews, June, p. 11 

Mead, M., Reviews, Dec, p. 6 

Menard, W., The Sea Gypsies of China, 
Jan., p. 12 

Melraux, R., Reviews, Nov., p. 4 

Meyerriecks, A. J., Brown Pelican is Vic- 
tim of Gull Piracy, Nov., p. 32 

Meyerrieclts, R., Brown Pelican is Victim 
OF Gull Piracy, Nov., p. 32 

Murphy, R. C. Reviews, May, p. 4 

Muul. I., Day Length and Food Caches, 
Mar., p. 22 

N 

Nace, R. L, Science in Action: New Age 

for Hydrology, Jan., p. 63 
Netting, R. M., Heritage of Survival, Mar., 

p. 14 
Newton, D., Reviews, Oct., p. 6 
Nicholson, T. D., Sky Reporter, Jan., p. 32; 

Feb., p. 34; Mar., p. 38; Apr., p. 50; May, 

p. 30; June, p. 42; Aug.. p. 4«; Oct., p. 30; 

Nov., p. 28; Dec., p. 46 

o 



Palmer, R. S., Reviews, Mar., p. 12 

Patnode, W., Green Algae Divide to Mul- 
tiply, Mar., p. 28 

Peterson, A,, Ornamental Eggs of the In- 
sects, Jan., p. 46 

Pickering, J. S., Reviews, Jan., p. 6 

Pires, F. D., The Floating Community of 
Amazonas, Oct., p. 12 

Potter, P. E., Sedimentary Origins of 
Rock Layering, Dec, p. 50 

Pramer, D., Cousin to Mite and Spider, 
Nov., p. 63 



Radinovsky, S., Reviews, Aug., p. 8 

Rand, A. L.. Reviews, Dec. p. 8 

Ransom, J. E., Travel Far and Near: Kin- 

ishba Pueblo Ruins, May, p. 58 
Reekie, G., Reviews, Dec, p. 8 
Robinson. J. W. L., Chocos of the Tapahal, 

June, p. 46 



Rosen, D. E., Reviews, May, p. 10 
Rothrock, G. A., Science in Action : Steps 

to a New Astronomy, May, p. 64 
Rubinoff, I.. Science in Action: Mixing 

Oceans and Species, Aug., p. 69 



Samuels, N., Sarino Grove Ecology Study, 
May, p. 14 

Savory, T., Courtship Behavior of Arach- 
nids, May, p. 52 

Schaeffer, B., Fossil Lakes from the Eo- 
cene, Apr., p. 10 

Scheffler, H. W., Bic Men and Disks of 
Shell, Dec, p. 20 

Schery, R. W., The Migration of a Plant, 
Dec, p. 40 

Schneirla, T. C, DoRYLiNES : Raiding and in 
Bivouac, Oct., p. 44; Nov., p. 40 

Scholtz, E., Reviews, Aug., p. 11 

Scougall, S., Aboriginal Art and Mythol- 
ogy, Feb., p. 4« 

Severin, K., Figurines of the Caraja, Apr., 
p. 54 

Shapiro, H. L., Reviews, June, p. 12 

Shaw, E., Reviews, Mar., p. 10, Nov., p. 13 

Silverberg, R., Science in Action: Hoaxes 
and Half-truths, Mar., p. 62 

Smith, C. L., Science in Action: Survey of 
the Bahamas, Dec, p. 62 

Spofford, W. R., Reviews, Aug., p. 14 

Squires. D., Reviews, Oct., p. 9 



Tavolga, W. N., Reviews, May, p. 4 

Taylor. G. C, Jr., Water, History, and the 
Indus Plain, May, p. 40 

Teale, E. W., "Sleeping One" of the Hopis, 
Dec, p. 26 

Thomas, H. E., Reality of Drought is Al- 
ways With Us, Nov., p. 50 

Thompson, S. A., Siesta Time-or Royalty 
Out on a Limr, Oct., p. 34 

Tilden, F., Reviews, Oct., p. 11 

Tilden, P. M., Resources and Legislation: 
Washington Newsletter, Aug., p. 62 

Turnbull, C. M., Reviews, May, p. 6; June, 
p. 11; Aug., p. 12; Oct., p. 11 

U 
Udall, S. L., The Ecology of Man and the 
Land Ethic, June, p. 32 



van de Kamp, P., Reviews, Apr., p. 8 

Van Gelder, R. G.. Channel Island Skunk, 
Aug.. p. 30; Reviews, Apr., p. 4; June, 
p. 10 

Vaurie, C, Reviews, Apr., p. 7 

Villiard, P., Patterns in Wood, Jan., p. 44; 
Nature and Photography: Taking Mov- 
ies of a Home Atiuarium, Nov., p. 64 

Vogt, W., Reviews, Mar., p. 11 ; Dec. p. 4 



Webster, D. B., Ears of Dipodomys, Feb., p. 

26; Reviews, Dec, p. 10 
Wilson, K. A., Biology of Reproduction in 

Ferns, June, p. 52 
Wright, R. H.. Desert Arachnids Emerge, 

Feb., p. 54; Naturalists' Notebook: A 

King Snake Dines on a Sparrow Egg. 

Mar., p. 50 



SUBJECT MATTER 

Aborigines, Australian bark painting, Feb., 

p. 46 
Acacia, bull-horn, Jan., p. 22 
Africa, poison test, Feb., p. 67 
Algae, green, reproduction of, Mar., p. 28 
Amphieians and Reptiles 

King snakes, Mar., p. 50 
Andromeda galaxy. Mar., p. 38 
Animal Behavior 

Ants, doryline. Oct., p. 44; Nov., p. 40 

Birds, nest evolution, Aug., p. 40 

Diamondbirds, spotted, Jan., p. 28 

Ducklings, behavior, Feb., p. 12 

Groupers, hermaphroditic, June, p. 22 

Jellyfish, locomotion of, Aug., p. 26 

Kangaroo rat, Feb., p. 26 

Millipedes, Mar., p. 30 

Musk Ducks, Oct., p. 26 

Pelican, Brown, Nov.. p. 32; Pink-backed, 
May, p. 24 

Poor-will, Nuttall's, Dec, p. 26 

Scorpion, birth of, Feb., p. 54; courtship. 
May, p. 52 

Space requirements, Dec, p. 12 

Squirrel, flying. Mar., p. 22 

Wood stork, nesting, Apr., p. 30 
Ants, doryline, Oct., p. 44; Nov., p. 40 
Aquariums, movies of, Nov., p. 64; Dec, p. 58 
Arachnids, see also Scorpions, Tardigrades 

Spider webs, June, p. 26 
Archeology 

Greece Stone Age, Nov.. p. 18 

Panama, pre-Columbian, Oct., p. 18 
Art 

Bark paintings, Australia, Feb., p. 46 

Caraja Indians, Brazil, Apr., p. 54 

Coptic, Apr., p. 40 

Illuminations, Dec, p. 30 

Lost-wax process, Aug., p. 18 

Pre-Columbian, Panama, Oct.. p. 18 
Astronomy 

Andromeda galaxy. Mar., p. 38 

Brahe, Tycho, Jan., p. 52 

Globular cluster, Hercules, Jan., p. 32 

Mars, Apr., p. 50; May, p. 30 

Milky Way, Feb., p. 34 

New astronomy. May, p. 64 

Pleiades, Dec, p. 46 

Space observatories, Nov., p. 28 

Star, evolution of, Aug., p. 48; life of, Oct., 
p. 30 

U.S. Naval Observatory, June, p. 42 
Bahama Islands, survey of, Dec, p. 62 
Bats, Trinidad, June, p. 14 

Diamondbirds, spotted, Jan., p. 28 

Ducklings, Feb., p. 12 

Musk Ducks, Oct., p. 26 

Nest evolution, Aug., p. 40 

Pelican, Brown, Nov., p. 32; Pink-backed, 

May, p. 24 
Poor-will, Nuttall's, Dec, p. 26 
Songs, recording of, June, p. 61 
Wood stork, Apr., p. 30 
Botany 

Acacia, bull-horn, Jan., p. 22 
Algae, green, Mar., p. 28 
Bluegrass, Kentucky, Dec, p. 40 
Colorado tundra floras, Aug., p. 52 
Cypress, Monterey, Oct., p. 38 
Dwarfmistlctoe, Mar., p- 52 ,'' ■ 

Fern reproduction, June, p. 52 



Fungi, Laboulbeniales. Mar., p. 42 
Wildflowers. Apr., p. 22 
Brahe. Tycho, Jan., p. 52 
Camels, Aug., p. 36 
Cameras, see Pholography 
Canoe building, Indian. Apr., p. 57 
Canyoniands National Park, June, p. 32 
Caraja, Brazilian Indians, Apr,, p. 54 
Channel Island skunks, Aug.. p. 30 
Cliocos Indians, Colombia, June, p. 46 
Cloud structure, Jan., p. 36 
Conservation, June. p. 32 
Coptic art, Apr., p. 40 
Cypress, Monterey, Oct., p. 38 
Diamondbirdfi, spotted, Jan., p. 26 
Drought, Nov., p. 50 
Ducklings, behavior, Feb., p. 12 
Dwarfmistletoe. seed dispersal, Mar., p. 52 
Ecology 
Colorado tundra, Aug., p. 52 
Monterey cypress, Oct., p. 38 
Of man, June, p. 32 
Sabino grove, Mexico, May, p. 14 
Eggs, insert, Jan., p. 46 
Egypt, Coptic art of, Apr., p. 40 
Ethnology 
Aborigines, Australia, Feb., p. 46 
Carajd Indians, Brazil, Apr., p. 54 
Chocos Indians, Colombia, June, p. 46 
Kofyar agriculture Nigeria, Mar., p. 14 
Melanesia, shell money of, Dec, p. 20 
Portuguese boats, Feb., p. 20 
Sea gypsies, Hong Kong, Jan., p. 12 
Turkey, threshing methods of, Apr., p. 26 
Evolution, flowers and insects, Feb., p. 38 
Fern reproduction, June, p. 52 
Films in Review, Oct., p. 66 
Fish 

Groupers, hermaphroditic, June, p. 22 
Fung), Laboulbeniales, Mar., p. 42 
Geology and Mineralogy 
Minerals and ligbt, Oct., p. 52 
Sedimentary rock. Dec, p. 50 
Giant snail, muscles of, Nov., p. 26 
Greece, Stone Age, Nov., p. 18 
Groupers, hennapbroditic, June, p. 22 
Hercules, globular cluster in, Jan., p. 32 
Hoaxes, scientific. Mar., p. 62 
Hydrology 
Drought, Nov., p. 50 
Indus Plain, May, p. 40 
International Hydrological Decade, Jan, 
p. 63 
lluminations, manuscript, Dec, p. 30 

Brazil, Apr., p. 54 
Colombia, June, p. 46 
Maine, Apr., p. 57 
ndus Plain, hydrology in. May, p. 40 



. p. 40 



Ants, doryline, Oct., p. 44; No 
Eggs of, Jan., p. 46 
Moth, imperial, May, p. 50; defense, June, 
p. 26 
[nternational Hydrological Decade Jan o 
63 ' " 

NVEBTEBRATES 

JellyfiBh, locomotion, Aug., p. 26 
Snail, giant. Nov.. p. 26 



Indus Plain, May, p. 40 
Nigeria, Mar., p'. 14 
fefferson, Thomas, anthropologist. No 



Jellyfish, locomotion, Aug., p. 26 
Kangaroo rat, ear studies, Feb., p. 26 
Kentucky bluegrass, Dec, p. 40 
Kinishba ruins, Arizona, May, p. 58 
Kofyar agriculture, Nigeria, Mar., p. 14 
Laboulbeniales, Mar., p. 42 
Legislation, Washington, Aug., p. 62 
Lions, Oct., p. 34 
Lost-wax process, Aug., p. 18 
Mammals 

Bats, Trinidad, June, p. 14 
Camels. Aug., p. 36 
Flying squirrels. Mar., p. 22 
Kangaroo rats, Feb., p. 26 
Lions, Oct., p. 34 
Skunks, Aug., p. 30 
Manaus, floating city of, Oct., p. 12 
Mariner IV. May, p. 30 
Mars, Apr., p. 50; May, p. 30 
Meteorology, cloud structure, Jan., p. 36 
Microscopy, crystals. Apr., p. 61 
Milky Way. Feb.. p. 34 
Millipede, defenses. Mar., p. 30 
Mirages, Apr., p. 36 
Moon, pictures of, Nov., p. 48 
Moths, defenses of. June, p. 26; imperial. 

May, p. 50 
Movies, see also Photography 
Animalsin wild, June, p.66 
Home aquariums, Nov., p. 64 
Public aquariums, Dec, p. 58 
Zoo, Feb., p. 61 
Museums 

Bahama Islands Survey, Dec, p. 62 
Curators, duties of, Oct., p. 60 
Exhibitions, May, p. 34 
Musk Ducks, Oct., p. 26 
Naturalists' Notebook 
Biopholographers, Jan., p. 58 
King snakes. Mar., p. 50 
Paleontology 
Flower/insect evolution, Feb., p. 38 
Green River fossils, Apr., p. 10 
Parasitism 
Dwarfmistletoe, Mar., p. 52 
Laboulbeniales, Mar., p. 42 
Pelican, Brown, Nov., p. 32; Pink-backed, 

May, p. 24 
Photography, still, see also Movies 

Equipment, Mar., p. 59 
Pleiades, Dec, p. 46 
Poison test, Africa, Feb., p. 67 
Poor-will, Nuttall's, Dec, p. 26 
Portrait in Science, Thomas JefiFerson, Nov., 

p. 59 
Portuguese boats, Feb., p. 20 
Resources and Legislation 

Washington Newsletter, Aug., p. 62 
Rock, sedimentary, Dec, p. 50 
Sabino grove, Mexico, ecology of. May, p. 14 
Sahara, Tchad, Nov., p. 36 
Science in Action 
Bahamas survey. Dec. p. 62 
Birchbark canoes. Indian, Apr., p. 57 
Bird song recordings, June, p. 61 
Curatorial duties, Oct., p. 60 
International Hydrological Decade, Jan 

p. 63 
New astronomy. May, p. 64 
Scientific hoaxes. Mar., p. 62 
Sea-level canal, Aug., p. 69 
Scorpions, birth of, Feb., p. 54; courtship. 

May, p. 52 
Sea gypsies. Hong Kong. Jan.. p. 12 



Sea-level canal, Aug., p. 69 

Shell money, Melanesia, Dec, p. 20 

Skunks, Channel Island. Aug., p. 30 

Sky Reporter, see Astronomy 

Snail, giant, Nov., p. 26 

Space observatories, Nov., p. 28 

Space requirements, Dec, p. 12 

Spiders, webs of, June, p. 26 

Squirrel, flying. Mar., p. 22 

Star, evolution, Aug., p. 48; life of, Oct., p. 

30 
Tardigrades, Nov., p. 63 
Threshing methods, Turkey. Apr., p. 26 

Kinishba ruins, May, p. 58 

Poison test, Feb., p. 67 
Trinidad, bat research, June, p. 14 
Tundra, Colorado, Aug., p. 52 
Tycho Brahe, Jan., p. 52 
U.S. Naval Observatory, June, p. 42 
Veneers, Jan., p. 44 
Washington Newsletter, Aug., p. 62 
Water, see Hydrology 
Wildflowers, Apr., p. 22 
Wood stork, nesting of, Apr., p. 30 
Wood, veneers, Jan., p. 44 



Books in Review 

African Sculpture, June, p. 11 

Age of Reptiles, The, Dec, p. 10 

Ambidextrous Universe, The, June. p. 10 

American Gem Trails, June, p. 11 
Animal Communication, May, p. 4 

Asterisks, Apr,, p. 8 

Australian Aboriginal Art, Oct., p. 6 

Aztecs, The: The History of the Indies oj 
New Spain, March, p. 9 

Balls, The, March, p. 6 

Beneficial Insects, May, p. 4 

Bird Migration, March, p. 11 

Birds of Arizona, The, June, p. 6 

Birds of Colombia, The, Oct., p. 10a 

Birds of Prey of the World. Aug., p. 14 

Birds of the New York Area, Feb., p. 9 

Birds of the Palearctic Fauna: Non Passeri- 
formes, Dec, p. 8 

Birds of the World, June, p. 6 

Book of Exotic Fish, The, May, p. 10 

Breath of Life, Tfie, Dec, p. 4 

Budongo: An African Forest and Its Chim- 
panzees, Oct., p. 8 

Burton: A Biography of Sir Richard Francis 
Burton, Aug., p. 12 

Cats of the World, Apr., p. 4 

Celtic Britain, March, p. 6 

Clean the Air!, Dec, p. 4 

Crisis in Our Cities, Dec, p. 4 

Dangerous to Man, Apr., p. 4 

Deadly Harvest: A Guide to Common Poi- 
sonous Plants, Dec, p. 9 

Deep and the Past, The, Oct., p. 9 

Discovery, March, p. 8 

Early Anthropology in the Sixteenth and 
Seventeenth Centuries, June, p. 12 

Eternal Present, The: Volume //. The Be- 
ginnings of, Architecture. Feb., p. 8 

Etruscans, The, May, p. 8 

Europe: A Natural History, Apr., p. 7 

Evolution of Biology, The, Feb., p. 6 

Field Guide to the Stars and Planets A 
Feb., p. 10 ' ' 

Flammarion Book of Astronomy, The, Jan. 
p. 6 



From Cave to Cathedral, Dec, p. 9 
Genetics and the Social Behavior of the Dog, 



Dec 



. 10 



Glory That Was Greece, The, May, p. 8 

Home is the Desert, Aug., p. 16 

Hungry Nations, March, p. 11 

Iberians, The, March, p. 6 

Indian Art in Middle America, June, p. 9 

Insects, The, Aug., p. 8 

Inside Passage, The, Oct., p. 11 

In the Beginnings, Jan., p. 8 

Life of Insects, The, Aug., p. 8 

Livingstone's African Journal: 1853-1856, 

Aug., p. 12 
Long Death, The, Dec, p. 7 
Making Friends with the Stars, Jan., p. 6 
Mammals of the World, Apr., p. 4 
Management of Wild Mammals in Captivity, 

The, Apr., p. 4 
Meriwether Lewis, Dec, p. 7 
Museums, V.S.A., Dec, p. ^ 
Mystery of Physical Life, Feb., p. 6 
Natural Geography of Plants, The, Apr., p. 8 
Natural History of Mammals, The, Jan., p. 

10 
Odyssey Book of American Wildflowers, The. 

Aug., p. 11 
Overtures to Biology, Feb., p. 6 
Oxford Book of Birds, The, June, p. 6 
Paths of Culture, The, Dec, p. 6 
Pesticides and the Living Landscape, May, 

p. 4 
Planet Mercury, The, Jan., p. 6 
Revolution in Biology, Feb.. p. 6 
Roadless Area, Oct., p. 11 
Rock Art of South Africa, The, Oct.. p. 6 
Rocks Remain, The, Jan., p. 11 
Sardinia, March, p. 6 
Science in Archaeology, Jan.. p. 9 
Senufo Sculpture from W^est Africa, June, 

p. 11 
SharJcs and Survival, March, p. 10 
Song and Garden Birds of North America, 

June, p. 6 
Standing Up Country, May, p. 11 

Tall Trees and Far Horizons, Oct., p. 10 

Theory and Method in Ethnomusicology , 
May, p. 6 

Time and the River Flowing: Grand Can- 
yon, May, p. 11 

Tropical Aquarium Fish, May, p. 10 

Ulendo, Jan., p. 10 

Wantoat, Oct., p. 6 

Watchers of the Skies, Jan., p. 6 

Week in Yanhuitldn, Aug.. p. 11 

Wildfiower Portraits, Aug., p. 11 

Wildlife Biology, June, p. 10 

Wild Life of India, The, Apr., p. 4 

With Every Breath You Take, Dec, p. 4 

World of Birds, The, March, p. 12 
Zambesi Doctors, The: David Livingstone's 
Letters to John Kirk, Oct., p. 11 









Adelie Penguins of the Antarctic, p. 66 
Echinoderms-Sea Stars and Their Relatii 

p.66 
Eruption of Kilauea, 1959-1960, p. 67 
Hunters, The, p. 68 
Leaf Thieves, The, p. 67 
Legend of the Raven, p. 68 
Plant Traps-Insect Catchers of the B 

Jungle, p. 67 



1 Young People- 



African Wildlife, p. 16.\ 

All About Biology, p. 16a 

All About Elephants, p. 15 

All About the Universe, p. 6 

Animal Ancestors, p. 16 

Anthropologists and What They Do, p. 5 

Archeology, p. 4 

Beyond the Solar System, p. 6 

Bird is Born, A, p. 14a 

Birds and Their Beaks, p. 14a 

Butterfly is Born, A, p. 17 

Chemistry of Life, p. 17 

Cortez and the Aztec Conquest, p. 5 

Courtship of Animals, The, p. 16a 

Crete, Island of Mystery, p. 4 

Deserts, p. 13 

Digs and Diggers, p. 4 

Dinosaur Hunt. p. 13 

DNA-Ladder of Life, p. 17 

Everyday Miracle, p. 15 

Exploring the World of Fossils, p. 12 

Exploring Under the Sea, p. 13 

Face of North America, p. 10 

Fiji: Islands of the Dawn, p. 5 

First Around the World, p. 11 

First Book of the Jungle. The, p. 10 

Forever the Land of Men, p. 5 

Forgotten Empire, The, p. 4 

Glorious Age in Africa, A, p. 4 

Gull's Way, The, p. 14 

Habitable Earth, The, p. 12 

How and Why Wonder Book of Trees, p. li 

Ifrikiya, p. 4 

Introduction to Birds, An, p. 14 

Journey Into Ice, p. 11 

Life in Other Solar Systems, p. 6 

Loneliest Continent, The, p. 11 

Lore of Living Plants, Th., p. 8 

Menagerie Manor, p. 14a 

Mesopotamia, p. 4 

/V/ys(ery Monsters, The, p. 15 

Never Pet a Porcupine, p. 15 

Nigerian Pioneer, p. 4 

Northmen, The, p. 5 

Our Fellow Immigrants, p. 16 

Our World in Space, p. 6 

Pictorial Guide to the Planets, p. 5 

Portrait of an Island, p. 10 

Riddle of the Past. The, p. 4 

Seafarers of the Pacific, p. 5 

Secrets of the Dolphin, The, p. 14 

Secrets of Tutankhamen's Tomb. The, p. 4 

Shadow of the Hawk, p. 5 

Space Around Us, The, p. 8 

Stars and Planets, p. 5 

Story of Ants, The, p. 17 

Story of Moslem Art, The, p. 5 

Sun, Moon and Stars, p. 5 

Taming Asia's Indus River, p. 13 

This Thirsty World, p. 13 

Tide Pools and Beaches, p. 13 

To the Zoo in a Plastic Box, p. 14a 

Treasures of Yesterday, p. 4 

Tree is Born, A, p. 10 

Triumphs of Modern Science, p. 17 

Two Reigns of Tutankhamen, The, p. 4 

Watchers, Pursuers and Masqueraders, p. 16 

Wonders of Hummingbirds, p. 14a 

Wonders of the Animal World, p. 15 

Wonder World of Microbes, p. 8 

World Beneath the Oceans, p. 13 

World of the Raccoon, The, p. 16 



January 1965 • 50^ 



\atural History 

KOrporating Nature Magazirm ^ 




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MALE FRIGATE BIRD displays 
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OFF TO BED goes the gorilla 
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SKELETONS OF HORSE AND 

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Natural History 

Incorporating Nature Magazine 



THE JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



Vol. LXXIV 



JANUARY 1965 



ARTICLES 
THE SEA GYPSIES OF CHINA 
THE BULL-HORN ACACIA 
AUSTRALIA'S SPOTTED DIAMONDBIRDS 
THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE CLOUDS 
PATTERNS IN WOOD 
ORNAMENTAL EGGS OF THE INSECTS 
PHOENIX OF ASTRONOMERS 

DEPARTMENTS 
BOOKS IN REVIEW 
SKY REPORTER 



No. 1 



Wilmon Menard 12 

Virgil N. Argo 22 

Allen Keast 28 

John A. Day 36 

Paul Villiard 44 

Alvah Peterson 46 

Colin A. Ronan 52 



James S. Pickering 6 
Thomas D. Nicholson 32 



NATURALISTS' NOTEBOOK: 

THE ART OF THE BIOLOGICAL PHOTOGRAPHER 

ABOUT THE AUTHORS 



SCIENCE IN ACTION: 

NEW AGE FOR HYDROLOGY 



ADDITIONAL READING 



58 
62 



Raymond L. Nace 63 
70 




COVER: Hong Kong Harbor, photographed here in moonlight by Burt Glinn, is 
one of the world's greatest and busiest ports. The harbor is also the home of 
more than 200,000 people who live and work aboard their colorful sampans and 
crowded fishing junks. Driven from the land many centuries ago, the Shui-jen, 
or water people, have developed a culture distinctly different from the South 
Chinese civilization on the shore. Their way of life, now being challenged by the 
modern world, is described by Dr. Wilmon Menard, starting on page 12. He lived 
in Hong Kong and has traveled widely in the Far East and the South Pacific. 

The American Museum is open to the public without charge every day 
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No part of this periodical may be reproduced without the written conse 
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The opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily refle 
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rican Museum of Natural History. 
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ct The American Museum's poller. 
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the themes, the roles, the very lines which have 
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THE 




OF 
INDIA 



by 



Survival Service Commission 
of the International Union for 
the Conservation of Nature 
and Natural Resources 

with a foreword by 

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU 

In an eloquent camera-vs -gun 
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unique creatures of India, one 
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ties on wild life gives a pano- 
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wild life resources and the dedi- 
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to preserve them. 

His enthralling tour includes 
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white tigers of Rewa, the bird 
mystery in Assam, the Kashmir 
stag, wild asses on the Rann, the 
great Indian bustard, dancing 
swamp deer of Kanha, the 
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DUTTON AND COMPANY 



BOOKS! IN REVIEW 



'Oldest science" updated 



I By James S. Pickering 

The Flammarion Book of Astronomy, 
prepared by Gabrielle Camille Flam- 
marion and Andre Danjon. Simon and 
Schuster, $22.95; 670 pp., illiis. 
Watchers of the Skies, by Willy Ley. 
The Viking Press, $8.50; 528 pp., illus. 
The Planet Mercury, by Werner Sand- 
ner. The Macmillan Co., $3.95; 94 pp., 
illus. Making Friends with the Stars, 
by Arthur J. Zadde. revised by Theodore 
A. Smits. Barnes & Noble, Inc., $3.50; 
144 pp., illus. 

Several astronomy books published 
in the last decade have been similar 
in form to The Flammarion Book of As- 
tronomy. I must place this one at the top 
of the bookmaking heap. 

Mark Twain once tried to describe 
the Taj Mahal. Words failed him and he 
wound up by giving only its dimensions. 
So it is with the Flammarion work. It 
is 11% inches tall, 9 inches wide, and 
21/4 inches thick. It contains 670 pages. 
There is at least one illustration per 
page and more than that on most. Many 
occupy a full page; some are in excel- 
lent color. Bare statistics, however, can- 
not begin to give the true impression of 
this magnificent book. It must be seen. 

The text is complete in its coverage of 
astronomical events up to what must 
have been the last possible minute be- 
fore publication. It even mentions those 
strange, recently observed anomalies 
known as quasi-stellar objects. It could 
not, of course, tell the story of the mar- 
velous adventures of Ranger VII or the 
Russians' first multiple-passenger orbit. 
This situation is common with all books 
on astronomy and. I imagine, all other 
sciences. The law decrees that on the 
date of publication something strange 
and wonderful will occur and then it's 
back to the typewriter again. 

This volume is divided into eight large 
sections called "books," each of which 
contains several chapters. Their titles 
will give a broad picture of the scope of 
the entire work: "The Earth," "The 
Moon," "The Sun," "The Planets," 
"Comets. Meteorites and Meteors," "The 
Sidereal Universe," "The Instruments of 
Astronomy," and "Space Vehicles." 

Camille Flammarion was a nineteenth- 
century pioneer in the popularization of 
astronomy. His classic. Astronomie Popu- 
laire, has been used as the framework 
for the text and arrangement of this 
book. An impressive list of modern 
French astronomers, all internationally 
famous and all masters in their various 



fields, have revised and augmented the 
text that was prepared under the direc- 
tion of Madame Flammarion and M. 
Danjon. Director of the Paris Observa- 
tory. I have explored their effort, looking 
for the pitfalls that have almost in- 
evitably tripped editors in similar books, 
but have found no error or misinterpre- 
tation. The translation is uneven— per- 
haps because of the original text. 

Flammarion was famous for his scien- 
tific honesty. Let me quote a passage as 
an illustration. "Who can assure us that 
astronomers cannot go wrong in their 
calculations? Who is to say even that 
they do not impose upon a credulous 
public? . . . Therefore, positive science, 
far from forbidding doubt, approves of it 
and tries to give it an answer." 

To repeat, this is a magnificent book. 
If you have an astronomer— amateur or 
professional— in your life, and if you can 
afford it, get it! 

Willy Ley's subtitle to Watchers of 
the Skies is "An Informal History of As- 
tronomy from Babylon to the Space 
Age." I was stunned by the tremendous 
amount of research that must have pre- 
ceded the writing of this book. It can be 
imagined that the author collected bits 
and pieces of information for years, pos- 
sibly during the writing of a half-dozen 
other books on astronomy and on space. 

From what must have been a most 
capacious trunk, he has dug out, or- 
ganized, and assembled in an eminently 
readable style the story of man's gradual 
understanding of the universe. 

The first section of the book covers 
early efforts to chart the sky, to account 
for the obviously cyclic motions of the 
objects seen, and to force these phenom- 
ena into various systems that would 
maintain the ruling central position of 
the earth and its inhabitants. 

In the second section, the author takes 
the reader step by step from the dis- 
covery of astronomical instruments 
through man's attempts to grasp the true 
nature of his surroundings and the con- 
sequent crumbling of his egotistical, 
geocentric concepts. Every discovery 
within the solar system, every advance, 
every setback is recounted in minute de- 
tail, from Galileo's first sight of the four 
major Jovian satellites to the discovery 
of Pluto 320 years later. There is an 
amazing amount of minutiae in this sec- 
tion. How, for example, did Dante know 
of the Southern Cross, which he had 
never seen, and which had not been so 
placed that it could be seen by northern 



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THE 



POLE 
INDIANS 

by 
Joseph H. Wherry 



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SIGNS 

AND 

WONDERS 

UPON 
PHARAOH 

by JOHN A. 
WILSON 

One of the great 
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cient Egypt — from 
Thomas Jefferson's 
hopes to the outstand- 
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Reisner, Breasted, and 
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ANCIENT 
MESOPOTAMIA 

by A.Leo Oppenheim 

A deft portrait and wise ap- 
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Illustrated. $8.50 

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peoples for thousands of years before 
Dante was born? Willy Ley produces a 
sound and logical answer. 

The third section tells of the investi- 
gation of the stars, which did not really 
begin until the middle of the eighteenth 
century. This part of the book is greatly 
outweighed by the two sections preced- 
ing it. At least, it does not contain details 
found in the earlier portions. 

Finally, there is a short segment de- 
voted to various completely impossible 
and unscientific theories of the nature 
of the universe that have been advanced, 
most of them in recent times. 

There can be no doubt about the fas- 
cination of astronomy and of man's prog- 
ress in this oldest of sciences, and Willy 
Ley has succeeded notably in project- 
ing his own enthusiasm through the 
pages of his book. Many footnotes giving 
sources for much of the less familiar bits 
of information attest to the meticulous 
research behind it. There could have 
been more illustration. 

On a more specific subject is Dr. 
Sandner's small book about a small 
planet. Mercury is the smallest planet in 
the solar system and is closer to the sun 
than any of the other planets. Because 
of the atrocious conditions under which 
it must be observed, it has been studied 
less than any planet except Pluto. 



^^ 



WORLD 
DIFFERENCE 



OF 
IN 



0/" 



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What little is known of elusive Mer- 
cury can be found here. Dr. Sandner 
gives a detailed account of the work of 
the few astronomers who have made 
most of the observations. The book's 
drawings bear witness to the lack of defi- 
nition in even the most painstaking ob- 
servations. Possible surface conditions, 
lack of atmosphere, and peculiarities of 
Mercury's motion are well covered. The 
language of the book is non-technical 
and the interested reader, even though 
he may not be versed in astronomy, has 
before him all the salient facts and prob- 
abilities about Mercury. 

Making Friends ivith the Stars is a 
friendly, pleasant introduction to the 
small segment of the universe available 
to middle-northern latitude observers 
who do not use instruments. Mr. Zadde, 
author of the original version of this 
now-revised edition, devised a star chart 
that requires some study but is accurate 
—although somewhat overinvolved. The 
updating of the book by Professor Smits 
could have been more thorough. For in- 
stance, the book, originally published in 
1948, still refers to certain stars being 
common to two constellations although 
this situation was corrected by the Del- 
porte Commission in 1932. A recent revi- 
sion of stellar magnitudes is overlooked 
in one section and used in another. 

These are relatively minor defects, 
however, and do not detract sufficiently 
from the charm of the book to destroy 
its usefulness, 

Mr. Pickering is Assistant Astronomer, 
The American Museum-Hayden Plane- 
tarium. "Asterisks," his latest book, was 
published by Dodd, Mead and Company. 



In The Beginnings, by H. R. Hays. G. P. 
Putnam's Sons, $10.00; 575 pp., illus. 

THE author of From Ape to Man, H. R. 
Hays, has now produced a volume 
on early religion. The book, subtitled 
"Early Man and His Gods," covers both 
prehistoric religions (Paleolithic Europe, 
the ancient Near East. Neolithic to Iron 
Age Europe, the Indus Valley, Bronze 
Age China, and ancient Egypt) and the 
religions of modern non-literate peoples 
in Africa, Oceania, and the Americas. 
The subject is seen through the eyes 
of traditional descriptive anthropology 
combined with selected concepts from 
"depth psychology" as expressed by 
Roheim, Freud, and others. 

"The study of early religion involves 
the investigation of all of man's psychic 
life," says the author. What is religion? 
"Religion is not only a technique for 
obtaining practical benefits, it becomes 
a solace for the deepest anxieties." It 
"unites the social unit, channelizes hu- 
man anxiety into aesthetic forms and 
lends poetry and meaning to man"s con- 
ception of the universe and himself." In 



slioit, the book is about the non-scienlific 
udjustment of man to his world of emo- 
tional anxieties. Since this world of 
anxieties is all-encompassing to primi- 
tive man, all of his activities are partially 
religious in nature. Thus any study of 
"early religion" necessarily involves a 
sludy of man's activities beyond mere 
myths and incantations. Hays sees the 
primary concerns that underlie these ac- 
tivities as centering in one way or an- 
other upon sex— desire for sexual prow- 
ess, fear of castration, desire of the older 
generation to subdue the younger chal- 
lenging males, battle frenzy, sexual 
sadism, and so forth. This emphasis on 
the sexual side of man's religious activ- 
ity restores an important aspect of the 
subject long suppressed by Victorian at- 
titudes. At the same lime, the siiarj) em- 
phasis on it, almost to the exclusion of 
other considerations, suggests that sex- 
ual concerns currently prevalent in our 
own society are too conspicuously repre- 
sented to provide an undislorted view. 

It is inevitable in a book of such scope 
that some materials will not be entirely 
up to date, and sucii is the case with 
some parts of In The Beginnings, espe- 
cially the chapters dealing with the Su- 
merians and the Indus Valley. Hays at- 
tributes to the Sumerians the founding 
of cities and the formation of the irri- 
gation system in southern Iraq. Yet there 
is considerable evidence to indicate that 
this population was non-Sumerian. The 
linguistic term "Sumerian" has meaning 
only with the appearance of the lan- 
guage in written form during the Jem- 
det Nasr period, ca. 3000 B.C. It is to the 
following periods that developed cities 
and the Royal Tombs at Ur belong, not 
to the fourth millennium, as stated in 
the text. Although writing precedes the 
Jemdet Nasr period (appearing with cyl- 
inder seals but not demonstrably "de- 
rived from" them), there is uncertainty 
as to what language was being written. 

A further refinement of our under- 
standing of the fate of the Indus Valley 
civilization is also possible. It was once 
thought that it came to an abrupt and 
complete end. but we now know, through 
recent work in Pakistan and India, that 
only the area around Harappa was de- 
stroyed. In southern and southwestern 
regions (as far south as Bombay) it car- 
ried on right into the Iron Age without 
interruption. There is thus good arche- 
ological evidence now available on which 
to argue a considerable carry-over of 
Harappan ideas into historic India (as 
the author has already suggested on 
other grounds). 

A book that makes people think is 
always welcome, even with its errors: 
new insights are suggested, new per- 
spectives are drawn, and, at the very 
least, specialists are roused from their 
slumber to a reconsideration of the is- 
sues. This book is successful in just this 



way. It is provocative, well written, and 
comprehensive. It makes both enlighten- 
ing and entertaining reading, at the same 
time challenging the reader to tliink 
about the nature of man's early gods. 

RofsKHT H. Dyson, Jn. 
University Museum, i niv. of I'enn, 

Science In Arciiaeoi.ocv, edited by Don 
Brothwell and Eric Higgs. Basic Books, 
Inc., $17.50; 595 pp., illus. 

AriciiEOl,o<;Y has a new climate— scien- 
■ tific interdisciplinary co-operation 
and research. The editors of this volume 
have advanced this climate admirably by 
collecting articles of specialists in a va- 
riety of fields— all focused upon their 
relationship to archeology. They have 
achieved the prime objective of their vol- 
ume: "to provide a systematic conspectus 
of the bearing of the natural sciences on 
archaeological investigation." 

The book is divided into five areas: 
Dating. Environment. Man. Artifacts, 
and Prospecting. These divisions contain 
a total of fifty-four selected articles 
focusing attention upon specific aspects 
of each topic. No real attempt is made 
to correlate, or even to relate, the indi- 
vidual articles— an approach that I highly 
applaud. Rather, the reader is plunged 
into each individual author's specialty. 
A general introduction assists in orient- 
ing the reader to the articles that fol- 
low under the specific headings. 

The division on dating is composed of 
eight articles that cover the latest tech- 
nological advances available from the 
physical sciences for chronometry. rang- 
ing from bone dating to measurement of 
the ages of ceramics. The section devoted 
to environment is the largest in the vol- 
ume, as might be expected. Subdivisions 
on climate, soils, plants, and animals 
manage to touch upon all possible areas 
of interest to the anthropologist-arche- 
ologist today. Perhaps the prehistorian 
may find this section of the book more 
to his taste than will the historical arche- 
ologist. but the emphasis on technique, 
collection methods, statistical and other 
evaluation should be of interest to both. 
These thirty-five articles emphasize the 
non-morphological aspects of modern 
science, and place great stress upon soci- 
ological problems, field methods, and 
practical expedients from which the 
archeologistin any area may learn much. 

The study of man has a full dozen 
articles devoted to methodology and 
evaluation techniques; the physiological 
aspects of investigation are heavily ac- 
cented. At least three of the articles (by 
Geneves and Wells) may cause a serious 
re-evaluation of approach in anthropo- 
logical circles. Once again, technique is 
stressed to good, practical advantage. 

In that area of artifacts and their eval- 
uation, the reader is only treated to a 
glimpse of the newest techniques, with a 



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few unfortunate omissions. However, the 
standards of the rest of the book are 
maintained, and the section moves from 
petrology and spectroscopy to fiber iden- 
tification. Here, also, the major accent is 
upon methodology. 

The final division of the book contains 
only two articles on prospecting, which 
one might have anticipated finding at the 
beginning of the list. Surprisingly, how- 
ever, the subject fits into last place quite 
logically. In these two discussions, the 
reader is treated to one of the finest sum- 
maries of modern survey methods to be 
found in print. Happily, neither the bi- 
zarre nor the "special purpose" gadgetry 
obtrude into the discussions of physics 
and subsurface detection devices. Un- 
happily, a few interesting areas of detec- 
tion-survey technology were omitted. 

The bibliographies for every subject 
area are appended to each article. This 
feature further enhances the value of the 
material included in the volume itself. 
The photographs and drawings are ex- 
cellent, the tables and charts are in- 
formative, and the indexes are most help- 
ful and complete. It must be noted that 
this is a reference and source book, not 
a collection of manuals. As such, how- 
ever, it will become a mandatory back- 
ground work for professionals in the 
field of archeology. Some mild provin- 
cialism is evident, but this does not de- 



tract from the general value of the 
volume. The lively differences of opinion 
found here and there among the con- 
tributing authors serve as a warning to 
all that the latest word is yet to come 
in every scientific field—but that inter- 
disciplinary liaison and teamwork have 
become the archeologist's best friends. 
Philip C. Hammond 
Princeton Theological Seminary 

The Natural History of Mammals, 
by Frangois Bourliere. Alfred A. Knopf, 
$6.95; 387 pp., illus. 

Francois Bourliere's The Natural 
History of Mammals, now revised, 
was first published in the United States 
in 1954. beautifully translated from the 
French by the late H. M. Parshley. The 
clear, thoughtful text, and the amusing 
as well as instructive drawings by Paul 
Barruel. brought the book immediate 
recognition among zoologists. It remains 
the best general summary that we have, 
from a world point of view, of the be- 
havior of mammals. 

Bourliere has aptly called his book a 
"natural history." With this title, he can 
relate behavior, environmental condi- 
tions, and general physiology in a way 
made difficult when such special terms 
as "ecology" or "comparative psychol- 
ogy" are used. For me it is cheering to 



Japan is an emotion! 

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Japan is the delight of 
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see the idea of natural history as science 
gaining increasing scholarly acceptance 
in recent years. 

The book starts with locomotion: 
walking, running, galloping, leaping, 
brachiating. swimming, gliding, flying. 
The number of ways that different mam- 
mals have developed for getting about 
in the world is astonishing. But locomo- 
tion, as Bourliere notes, "is in a way the 
fundamental activity of an animal, that 
which conditions most of its other activi- 
ties, and in particular the search for food 
and for a mate. Parallel with the struc- 
tural modifications of the skeleton and 
the muscles, therefore, one must expect 
to find physiological adaptations of the 
nervous system, the sense organs, and 
behavior. . . ." 

Bourliere goes on to discuss mam- 
malian food and feeding habits, territory 
and home range, defense, reproductive 
behavior, growth, migration, social life, 
environmental relations, and finally pop- 
ulation dynamics. The text is clear and 
simple enough to be understood by any 
interested reader, yet is sophisticated 
enough not to cause raised eyebrows 
among the experts. Over and over again 
the author underlines our ignorance at 
the same time that he summarizes our 
knowledge so that, in reading the book, 
one is constantly aware of how much we 
have yet to learn about these animals. It 
is, in short, a book that should have a 
place in every nature library. 

The text has been revised to include 
the results of the more significant in- 
vestigations published in the last ten 
years. For the most part, the changes are 
rather minor, but the last chapter, on 
"The Structure and Dynamics of Natural 
Populations." has been completely re- 
written. An appendix has been added 
on "certain eco-physiological problems," 
which covers, necessarily in a rather 
sketchy manner, aspects of perception 
(vision and smell), activity rhythms, 
and daily food intake. The bibliography 
has been enlarged and rearranged, with 
a cross-index by topics that should in- 
crease its usefulness. 

Marston Bates 

The University of Michigan 

Ulendo, by Archie Carr. Alfred A. 
Knopf, $5.95; 258 pp., illus. 

DR. ARCHIE CARR, a Professor of Biol- 
ogy at the University of Florida and 
also a Research Associate in Herpetol- 
ogy in The American Museum of Natural 
History, is perhaps best-known for his 
researches on marine turtles. He has 
traveled extensively in Central America 
and Africa. Fortunately for the general 
public, besides being a capable scientist 
he is also a very gifted writer, as Ulendo 
(which means journey in Chinyanja, a 
language spoken by natives in Nyasa- 
land) abundantly proves. 



Dr. CaiT lias riiiidc fuiir joiiiiii.-ys 
hrdiJfili Africa. On llic lirsl one lie went 
:j jjiinl snails and ni()S(|uilo(;s thai are 
nicrrnfidiale hosts for diseases that af- 
ect the natives of Nyasaland and Mo- 
unihique. His later tri[)s made him re- 
lizc the appalling changes thai are 
ccurrinii llir(iiit;hoiU Africa, and he- 
ause he understands the great need for 
onservalion, he devotes many pages of 
(lis book to the problem. 

Dr. Carr is an ardent theorist, and 
luch of this book is made up of descrip- 
lons and explanations of interesting 

lenomena he has encountered, such as 
be vast swarms of midges on Lake 
Jyasa, the queer distribution of the cich- 
d fishes in the lake, and the increase 
f the cattle egret throughout the world. 

lllcndo is an interesting and very 
eadable book. 

T. Donald Carter 
The American Museum 

The Rocks Remain, by Gavin Maxwell. 
i. P. DiUton & Co., $4.95; 209 pp., illus. 

BOOKS written about tame wild ani- 
mals generally fall into one of two 
lasses: those written by zoologists, 
vhich are often readable but uninspired; 
ind those by professional writers, who 
00 frequently produce works that are 
ibhorrent to the zoologist. Gavin Max- 
veil is a professional writer, but he is 
ilso a careful reporter, and his narrative 
)f the exploits of his two African claw- 
ess otters, and later his pair of Eurasian 
itters, provides information that is of 
cientific interest; it is also entertaining. 

Those who expect this sequel to Ring 
if Bright Water to deal only with ani- 
nals will be disappointed; the story 
ften leaves them to range from an 
iccount of the recent earthquake in 
VIorocco, to a boatwreck. to the theft and 
iestruction of the author's sports car. 

In another respect, too, this book is 
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'pet" otter. 

It is considered good form for a re- 
viewer to take exception with at least 
one item in a book, but despite several 
years of having lived with otters I am 
unable to question, from the standpoint 
of zoological credibility, anything in 
Maxwell's narrative. 

Joseph A. Davis, Jr. 
N. Y. Zoological Park 



The annual index for Natural 
History, Volume LXXIII (Jan- 
uary through December, 1964) 
may be obtained by writing to: 

INDEX 

American Museum of Natural History 

Central Park West at 79 Street 

New York, New York 10024 



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II 



Tlie Sea Gypsies oi 




Cki 



ina 





Hong Kong's crowded harbor has long 
been the home for the Shui-jen people. 



Iradilional junk has fiat lines idth a 
high poop deck and overhanging prow. 



WATER IS THEIR DOMAIN 



T first saw the sea gypsies of South 
i China, the S/u//-ye" 1 water people ) . 
from the forward deck of a liner that 
was approaching the rocky islands 
that suard the entrance to Britain s 
Cro« n Colony of Hong Kong. The flo- 
tilla of careening, high-pooped junks 
and purse seiners suddenly appeared 
like a Chinese armada of a thousand 
years aao, with huge, single lugsails 
flappim; in the variable wind. Some 
showed"" the white wake of auxiliary 
marine engine propulsion. 

A British resident of Hong Kong, an 
importer, handed me his binoculars, 
remarking: "Fishing junks manned by 
the best seamen of the Orient-the 
Tankas. or Shui-jen." I brought one of 
the boats into sharp focus and could 
see the activity on deck-men. women, 
and children moving with effortless 
precision to perform nautical duties 
older than those of the Norsemen. 

As we moved up the heavily traf- 
ficked Victoria Harbor of Hong Kong, 
I saw that the vessels moored to buoys 
in the center were surrounded by small 
iunks and one-masted lighters, the 
aristocrats of the Tanka fleet, whose 
owners enjoy a measure of social re- 
spect according to the type of cargo 
loaded into their holds or on deck for 



discharge ashore. The wide "road- 
•stead" was congested with Chinese 
craft of every conceivable design and 
color of sails, seemingly guided, or 
ju-/o/)-ed (stern sculled with a long 
sweep) on erratic courses that only 
narrowly missed the freighters, passen- 
ger vessels, and Star ferries, which 
moved like busy ducks between Hong 
Kong Island and Kowloon. 

I later discovered that the sea gyp- 
sies of South China purposely cut 
closely to larger boats because they 
believe that this transfers their "bad 
luck devils'' into the custody of for- 
eign ships-a hazardous custom that 
ocMsionally results in some of them 
getting run down. 

Now and again I glimpsed a three- 
masted junk, the imposing "long-liner ' 
of deep-sea travel and fishing, with a 
sail set well forward of its huge main- 
sail, where one would normally expect 
to see a jib on any other craft. Some of 
the sails were so fantastically mended 
that they resembled a grandmother's 
patchwork quilt rigged in sudden 
emergency; others were so ravaged 
by wear or wind that it seemed incred- 
ible that the rent sails could hold wind 
-yet these cumbersome craft sailed. 
Many times junks and seiners look 



htf Wilmon Menard 



13 




tampans (above) ferry people and 
cargo between the junks and the shore. 



■^fter a fishing journey, the Shui-jen 
spread their catch on mats at pier. 




alike, but the long-liner junk of deep 
sea travel is the largest, of course. A 
seiner is usually a diminished version 
about 35 to 40 feet long. The lighters 
which appear in many forms, are 
often converted from small junks and 
afford more space on deck and in the 
hold. Other lighters are similar to the 
level-decked Malay proa, which is 
without the high rise of the traditional 
high-pooped junk. The colorful sam 
pans, 9- or 10-foot boats that are used 
by the purse seiners as dories, are dis 
tinguished by a half-circle ribwork 
and awning over their midsection, and 
can be sculled by a single person. 

ONCE ashore in Hong Kong, one of 
my first interests was the sea 
gypsies. I learned that they are not 
pure Chinese. There are many theorie 
about their origin, perhaps the most 
supportable being that they were the 
traditional and centuries-old "water 
people" from the deltas of Kwangtung 
Province of South China, who later 
settled as far north as Shanghai. They 
apparently were forced from the deltas 
onto the sea by the land Hakkas from 
Central China and the Indo-Chinese 
ancestors of today's Cantonese. My 
own studies lead me to think that their 
point of origin may have been India, 
from where they migrated to South 
China. In any event, they have, in the 
latter part of their long history, rarely 
settled ashore. They own large sea- 
going junks and control deep-sea and 
coastal fishing. Ancient Chinese laws 
once forbade them to intermarry, to 
come onto the land to settle, or to be 
eligible for the Imperial Examination, 
which was the only way that one could 
rise above a low caste. But during the 
reign of K'ang Hsi (1662-1723) the 
land ban against the Tankas was re- 
laxed and they were permitted to build 
shacks on the waterfront. However, 
acquiring an education or marrying 
into another caste, such as the Hakkas 
or the Hok-lo (a fishing and agricul- 
tural group), was still taboo. 

Because of these prohibitions, the 
Tankas have been for centuries an out- 
cast people, largely illiterate and ra- 
cially exclusive, but fiercely proud. The 
land people of South China gave them 
the nickname Tankas. or Tanmans, 
which literally means "egg families" 
or "egg people," insinuating that they 
float like eggs in a sea, without pur- 
pose or direction, propelled only by 
the wind, waves, and currents. But 
students of Chinese claim that the 



(Jliificse "egg-character" Iradilioiially 
applied lo Uiem was meant only to rep- 
resctnt the sound of the term designat- 
ing water people. The sea gyjjsies do 
not like to he called Tanka, l)ecause 
they consider it abusive. 'I'hey might 
employ it jokingly among themselves, 
but resent an outsider using the term. 
The water people are still disinclined 
to settle ashore, and have an inherent 
suspicion and distrust of land people. 
They have a saying: "We always sail 
away from 'land troubles.'" (How- 
ever, at Tai-o, on Lantao Island, near 
Hong Kong, I found a large group 
living ashore— or rather partly ashore, 
because their primitive huts were con- 
structed on pilings over the inlet.) 

Until the Chinese Revolution of 
1912, the land people of South China 
shunned them, and if there was a rare 
instance of a Tanka child being born 
to one of their women, it was imme- 
diately put to death and cast into the 
sea. The water people did not deserve 
this ostracism, however, because they 
were then, as today, a peaceful and 
an industrious race. Originally, they 
spoke a non-Chinese language, con- 
ceivably Malay, which was then grad- 
ually corrupted by Hakka, Hok-lo, and 
Cantonese. Today they speak a crude 
Cantonese dialect that they adopted 
early in the fourteenth century during 
the Yuan Dynasty. 

There has not been an official cen- 
sus taken by the Crown Colony gov- 
ernment for a long time, but a popu- 
lation estimate of the Tankas, whom I 
shall refer to hereafter, out of respect, 
as the Shui-jen, is close to 200,000. 
Half of them are fishermen, and the 
rest engage mainly in trading and in 
cargo and passenger transportation. 

THE Shui-jen^s prestige is vested in 
his large, seagoing cargo and fish- 
ing junk, or purse seiner, or his bulky 
lighter, called kam sing ten, to be seen 
every day banked close to the hulls of 
freighters. Some also own the colorful 
sampans. The Shui-jen^s capital is in- 
vested completely in his vessel, and if 
he must borrow money to make re- 
pairs or modernize, he makes certain 
that his creditor belongs to a member 
of his allied family. He takes no 
chances of losing his floating home— 
which, if large, might accommodate 
up to a hundred people— by borrowing 
from a crafty moneylender ashore. 

With this great responsibility, it is 
easy to understand why the Shui-jen 
master, or family head, controlling as 




Today, a Shui-jen mother may bring 
her child to a doctor on the shore, 



many as four generations of his family 
aboard the junk, cannot act hastily or 
listen to concerned government wel- 
fare workers who keep insisting that 
he send his children ashore to schools 
for a formal education. 

His challenge to the "land meddlers" 
might well be: "Will reading out of 
books and learning to count make my 



although historically all water people 
have been suspicious of land people. 



son a better seaman, or my daughter 
a better cook and more nimble with 
her fingers in repairing clothes or torn 
sails and nets? An education in some 
school ashore would make my children 
wary of this life we lead; there are 
schools here in the shelter where they 
can learn the simple, necessary things. 
On this ugly, unpainted junk we were 

15 




lo position a boat for repairs, the 
Shui-jen anchor it over a rocky base 

born, we work, eat, and sleep— and die. 
The sea is our world, the fish our 
quarry. It has always been so with us. 
It is our survival." 

A more specialized craft, perhaps 
more adaptable to the Shui-jeri's work, 
might upset the order, customs, and 
discipline to which generations of his 
ancestors have been accustomed, and 
change is not easy for these people. If 
one bought a j unk with a diesel engine, 
neither the master nor his sons nor 
grandsons would be technically quali- 
fied to act as engineers, so some out- 
sider would have to be hired. Yet, to 
survive, the Shui-jen must work on a 
purely family basis. A stranger on 
board could drive a serious wedge into 
the once-perfect family unity, and the 
economy would be weakened. 

I was to spend many days being 
sculled along the watery laby- 
rinths of the junk shelter formed by 
the moored junks and sampans. Wide, 
open channels run the length of this 
"world on the water," bisected by nar- 
row waterways— gray-black canals of 
polluted water from which a sulphur- 
ous stench rises from centuries of con- 
tamination. The entire surface appears 
to be a pestilential flow of garbage and 
excrement. Yet the Shui-jen children 
splash, dive, and play happily. 

Sampans and bumboats (long, open 
dories ) manned by the Shui-jen deliver 
fresh water, firewood, vegetables, and 
groceries to the junks. The Shui-jen 
have their floating dry docks for scrap- 
ing and repairing hulls; their coffin- 
maker (they have always had inter- 
ment ashore) ; a yodeling postman; 
an ancient fortuneteller; and their 

i6 



at high tide. Then, ivhen the tide is 
low, the craft is in solid dry dock. 

aquatic quack to dispense mysterious 
pills, powders, and elixirs to those who 
may be ailing. On small junks with 
top-heavy verandas, the Shui-jen can 
drink and listen to radio or phono- 
graph music. They have the boat 
schools and, of course, the customary 
double row of sampans with pretty 
prostitutes in the stern calling softly to 
passing boatmen and tourists. And 
every junk and sampan has its Bud- 
dhist or Taoist shrine, with burning 
joss sticks, paper flowers, and effigies 
that hold the revered family tablets. 
It is, indeed, a complete world. 

The more time I spent among the 
Shui-jen of Hong Kong, the Kowloon 
typhoon-shelter harbor inlets, and the 
numerous anchorages in the New Ter- 
ritories and adjacent islands, the more 
I came to admire and respect them for 
their happy, industrious, patient dis- 
positions, which permit them to live 
in primitive, close-packed harmony 
on their small craft. Everything is ship- 
shape aboard, even though every inch 
of space is taken up by family mem- 
bers of several generations. The scenes 
of routine activity are always pleasant 
and diverting: the mother (whom 
everyone worships) squatting with 
her daughters tending open galley 
fires, scrubbing pots, and preparing 
food; the father and master of the 
craft attending to or overseeing major 
repairs and adjustments to rigging 
and sail and seine; the eight-year- 
old daughter spreading washed clothes 
over a boom to dry and at the same 
time keeping a vigilant eye on a crawl- 
ing infant to be sure it has not slipped 
its waistcloth and line and is not in 
danger of falling overboard; the young 



son swabbing down the deck. AH ol 
this is carried out without bickering. , 
interference, or carelessness. 

Because of their inherent distrust ol 
land people, it is not easy to make 
friends with the Shui-jen. It was only 
through the efforts of a Kowloon fish- 
dealer that, after a few months, I was 
finally accepted as a "foreign friend" 
by Li Hsuan, caUed The Old One, the 
70-year-old master of a 35-foot purse 
seiner, or ku-chai— one of 2,000 or 
more based in local waters. His vessel 
had a foresail installed where Western 
craft commonly carry the jib, and its 
beam was broad and heavy and drew 
about three feet of water, allowing a 
clearance of a little more than two feet 
when fully loaded. It had been con- 
structed of fine fir and teak many 
years before at a cost of about $750. 
The foredeck of the ku-chai was occu- 
pied by the seine, a large net of fine 
mesh, which permits no fish, regardless 
of size, to escape. Behind the main- 
mast the space on deck was given over 
to living quarters. Three arched sec- 
tions had an awning with canvas side- 
shields that could be lowered to ex- 
clude gusts of wind or driven spray. 

Li Hsuan's quarters were forward, 
and just behind were the communal 
family areas for two other generations 
—a total of eighteen people. Adjacent 
was the tidy galley, and behind was 
just sufficient space on the poop for 
the helmsman. The bedroom awning 
amidships was so arranged that it 
could be dismantled at a moment's 
notice to accommodate the sweeps, or 
yu-loh— the oars for sculling. Judging 






ast generalKiiis iioi r idllan or ramie 
Ids. Modern Shui-jcn boy itsi'S nylon. 



from the muscular legs and arms of 
the family, this form of propulsion is 
the most consistent with the Shui-jcn. 
During rainy weather, when all the 
awnings are installed, one cannot stand 
erect, and passage to the galley is 
made on hands and knees. 

One afternoon, when I came aboard 
to visit The Old One, he was squatting 
on the projecting wooden platform at 
the stern, glaring wrathfully toward 
the mainland of Kowloon. Through a 
son-in-law, who spoke some English, 
I asked, "Where are the young folk?" 

Li Hsuan gestured toward the water- 
ifront of Kowloon and said: "At a 
movie house on Nathan Road watch- 
ing an American dance contest per- 
formed by land people teen-agers ! The 




W oven nets (above) are hung up to 
dry in the rigging of a purse seiner. 



Jr'isherman sculls his loaded sampan 
with two long oars known as sweeps. 




"^Biiih^ 




J\.lthough banned for centuries from 
settling on shore, a large group of 



Shui-jen now live in huts built on 
pilings over an inlet on Lantao Island. 




hvimmer risks his life (above) to get 
first choice of fish before the launch 



docks. On the pier (below), the catch 
is unloaded for sale in the market. 




last war changed many things for the 
Shui-jen. Now even my sons and 
daughters overrule me when I try tc 
keep the rebellious ones away froir 
the influence of the land people who' 
conspired against us for centuries." 

This is partly true. The younger 
generation of the Shui-jen are gradu' 
ally discarding the ancient belief thai 
they are a race apart, jettisoning rigid 
customs, and adopting the more divert- 
ing practices of shore dwellers. Today, 
the Shui-jen take advantage of the 
Crown Colony's free medical services, 
although in the past they would never 
have dreamed of consulting a land 
doctor. Once babies were delivered by 
the head of the family on shipboard. 
Today the women go to the maternity 
ward in Kowloon. But when the 
mothers return from a shore hospital 
with their infants, most of them still 
adhere to an old Shui-jen custom: the; 
mothers must be picked up by the 
family junk, for it is considered bad 
luck to be taken out in a sampan. 

The children of many of the Shui- 
jen are succumbing to the benefits of 
shoreside schools, and even though 
The Old One was fierce in his opposi- 
tion to change, he had, under pressure 
from his daughters, reluctantly al-i 
lowed his second wife (concubinage 
is permitted in the Crown Colony of 
Hong Kong, although forbidden in' 
Taiwan and Communist China) toj 
move ashore into an apartment, where] 
she acted as a sort of agent to arrange 
contracts for his fish hauls and, if the 
purse seiner had not returned from a 
fishing cruise, as custodian of the chil- 
dren returning from the boat school. 



The Old One's resistance to moflcrn 
influences had weakcnefl in other ways, 
too. For instance, lie would study pic- 
tures ill hoolclels |jui)lished hy the 
Fisheries Research Unit of Hong Kong 
University. A son-in-hiw explained the 
texts to him, and he was particularly 
interested in one that advocated using 
nets made from nylon monofilament 
instead of the too-fine seines of cotton 
and ramie that were depleting the sea 
of young fishes and ruining fishing 
prospects for seasons to come. 

The young and pretty daughters of 
the Shiii-jpn likewise stray more and 
more ashore. The colorful shops along 
Nathan Road in Kowloon, filled with 
dress goods and sundry trinkets, lure 
them— and, to buy. they sometimes sell 
themselves to seamen from cargo and 
passenger ships docking in Kowloon. 
Since ancient times, landsmen have 
considered the women of the Shui-jen 
to be highly immoral. Their wanton- 
ness, however, has been confined to 
their own floating world. Most of the 
Tanka couples in the junk shelter 
never marry and the women are fickle. 
Incestuous relationships, attendant to 
the crowded conditions aboard junks, 
sampans, and purse seiners, are com- 
monplace. Unwanted children, partic- 
ularly girl babies, once were dropped 
into the sea, or were sold ashore. This 
practice, although prohibited by the 
Hong Kong government, is still carried 
on surreptitiously. 

DURING the postwar period the 
water people made their first sig- 
nificant contacts with foreign civiliza- 
tion, compelling them to discard some 
of their taboos. Largely, these contacts 
consisted of open fraternization with 
landsmen following the liberation of 
Hong Kong from the Japanese. For 
instance, with the huge profits they 
had derived from carrying cargo be- 
tween ships and godowns (ware- 
houses), the Shui-jen could afford to 
patronize the expensive restaurants in 
Kowloon. Apparently, considerable 
havoc was caused when the family of 
The Old One perched on their heels on 
the edges of the chairs or sat on the 
tables with their feet in the chair seats 
of an exclusive hotel dining room in 
Hong Kong. 

Fortunately, the more important 
and basic traditions of the Shui-jen 
have been retained. The hygiene 
aboard is excellent, and clothes, gear, 
quarters, and deck are kept scrupu- 
lously clean. In addition, the Shui-jen 



dispense order, charity, and justice 
through their self-governing councils. 
Their only legal rebuke from the land 
seems to stem from overloading their 
craft with passengers, or from acci- 
dentally colliding with another boat in 
the harbor. Even then, although the 
harbor master will sit in on the result- 
ant hearing, the Shui-jen settle such 
problems in their own particular man- 
ner and time, and according to their 
own strict code of etiquette. 

There came the ilay when the 
friendship between The Old One and 
his family and myself finally pro- 
gressed to the point where he accorded 
our relationship the greatest honor: he 
invited me to accompany them on a 
fishing voyage, which was to include 
his junk and that of his nephew. 

The real work of the purse seiners 
of the Hong Kong fishing fleet begins 
before sunset, just after the evening 
meal and wash-up. Aboard Li Hsuan's 
craft, dinner was prepared by the 
youngest wife in the family and was 
eaten on the open jjrow . Then, with the 
nephew's purse seiner ready to leave, 
The Old One gave the order to cast off. 



Night overtook us beyond the head- 
lands of Hong Kong, and the Mattered 
rocky islands merged with the dark- 
ness. Forward, the eldest son plaved 
his flute, and others joined in with 
stringed instruments, percussion 
blocks, and cymbals. We arrived at 
the fishing grounds about midnight, 
and the sampan from each purse seiner 
was lowered over the side, its reflec- 
tor-type lamp illuminating the depth 
to attract the shoals of fish. The two 
purse seiners then sailed in opposite 
directions and began to circle widely 
around the two sampans in the center, 
the nets being paid out from their 
foredecks to encircle the area com- 
pletely. There were usually two men 
to each sampan, one sculling and the 
other beating the water with wooden 
blocks or illuminating the water with 
lamps to draw fish into the seine. 

Then, at a shouted signal from The 
Old One, the seiner crews began to 
draw in the purse line connected to the 
lower meshes of the seine to close the 
gigantic sea pouch, while the men in 
the sampans hauled gradually on either 
end of the surface mesh. The sampans. 




illiam Kinkade, of the Oriental 
Boat Mission, entertains Shui-jen 



children with his trumpet, operating 
the valves with a monkey-puppet glove. 



19 




■Laper prayers pasted on boat's stern 
wish both family and craft good luck. 

sculled strongly, now shot smartly out- 
side the diminishing net circle, the 
men yodeling loudly and beating the 
water's surface. Then the sea pouch 
was hauled in by the two junks. This 
circling and hauling operation took 
about forty-five minutes and was re- 
peated several times. The catches were 
far above average, so the crews were 
in a festive mood, and with traditional 
Shui-jen politeness, they said they were 
sure that my presence aboard had 
brought them good luck. Just after 
dawn, the sampans were hoisted on 
deck, the junks raised sail, and we set 
a course back to Hong Kong. 

While we were sailing into Hong 
Kong Harbor, a Chinese swimmer 
grabbed our tire fender and nimbly 
scrambled up over the side to the deck. 
Around his waist was a net. He was 
one of the many advance scouts hired 
by fish-stall owners of Hong Kong 
Island and Kowloon to board purse 
seiners ahead of the dockside buyers 
in order to have the first selection of 
the best fish. This is a dangerous occu- 
pation, and sometimes, with diesel 
junks or fast motor launches that are 
traveling too rapidly, the swimmers 
miss their grab and are swept back 
into the propeller blades. But because 
they are poor, young boys take such 
risks every morning, and they say that 
they prefer to die that way, if it is to 
be their fate, rather than to starve. 

INSIDE the junk shelter, The Old One 
gave the order for incense to be 
burned at the bow as an offering of 
thanks to Tin Hau, the Queen of the 
Heavens, who is the patron saint of the 
Shui-jen. As with fishermen the world 
over who contend with the changeable 
and mysterious sea, the Shui-jen are 
deeply religious, and the majority of 

20 




.tyemun Island temple statues are 
of Tin Hau, patron saint of Shui-jen. 

them are Taoists. Aboard Li Hsuan's 
junk the shrine to Tin Hau occupies a 
major position in the port cabin, with 
a light always burning in front of it. 
During the Chinese New Year, the 
women have charge of incense and 
candles, the burning of paper clothes, 
or launching paper boats and lanterns 
across the waters of the bay. The men 
are made guardians of the shrines, 
which will determine their luck for 
the entire year, and the one custodian 
is determined by casting lots. Two 
wooden objects, one flat, the other 
rounded on one side, are dropped over 
the side by each contestant. If both 
land the same way, the luck will be 
phenomenal, but if a round and a flat 
side bob on the surface, their luck will 
be canceled out. Each man is permitted 
ten tries while he kneels in prayer 
before the divinity, and the one with 
the greatest number of good-luck 
tosses keeps the shrine in his cabin for 
the entire year. But he must be up at 
dawn to burn incense before it; if he 



vening falls as boats sail out froi 
Victoria Harbor on a fishing voyag 

oversleeps, the shrine is taken from 
his custody. 

It is interesting to note that the 
Chinese word for fish and abundance 
is the same— yw. The South China Sea 
has always provided ample sea life, 
which is a staple of the Shui-jen' s diet; 
its reproductive effects are considered 
magical, so it has become a symbol of 
regeneration. Also, it is thought that 
the fish is completely content in its 
marine world, so the fish, or yu, is the 
epitome of marital happiness. Further- 
more, it is the talisman to avert evil, 
and is one of the eight basic symbols 
of Buddhism. 

The Shui-jen's ship is his floating 
domain. It is the cradle of his family, 
his working vessel at sea, and his 
entire world. His control is absolute. 
He keeps a firm hand on the tiller and 
knows every caprice of the sea. The 
Shui-jen culture is slowly vanishing, 
but it will be a reluctant effacement 
because the water people are resistant 
to change. They are the proud outcasts. 







21 



The Bull-horn Acacia 





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Mexican symbionts 
offer new study area 

By Virgil N. Argo 



WiriON ihe conquistadors described 
llie remarkable |)lanls encoun- 
lircil in the Western Hemisphere their 
fcivor was justifiable; in deserts, on 
liifih mountains, and in humid jungles, 
I hey had seen large and spectacular 
lOiiiis unknown to Europeans. Many 
(.1 ihe striking new plants were carried 
back to Europe by the botanists who 
[(illowed close upon the heels of the 
military men. (The cacti that today 
grow in such abundance and variety 
of species around the Mediterranean 
stand as testimonials to the zeal of 
the early plant collectors in the New 
World.) In the year 1570, Francisco 
Hernandez, a court physician, was sent 
out by Philip II of Spain to what is 
now Mexico to investigate the natural 
resources of New Spain. In a report of 
his findings, written in 1575, he de- 
scribed, among other things, a shrub 
or small tree he had observed in 
coastal northeastern Mexico, near what 
is now Tampico. It is a species of aca- 
cia that possesses a pair of extraordi- 
narily large stipular thorns at the base 
of each of the bipinnate leaves, and 
which has, as a result, been commonly 
called bull-horn acacia. The hollow 
thorns serve as nests for colonies of 
ants, which swarm out pugnaciously 
to repel any human or other animal 
that touches the plant. This defense of 
their domain is highly efficient, since 
each of the multitude of current and 
previous years' thorns on the plant is 
inhabited. The insects possess fiery 
stings and are fleet of foot, nervous, 
and belligerent. Hernandez made a 
woodcut of the plant's leaves and 
thorns to illustrate his report, describ- 
ing the plant so well that today the 
species from this region has been 
named Acacia hernandezii. 

Most of the many species of the 
L'enus Acacia— 4:50 in all— produce le- 
gumes, the seed pods so characteristic 
of the family Leguminosae. At matur- 
ity, these pods split open along one or 
both of two sutures. The Mexican ant 
acacias discussed here do not split in 
the regular fashion ; instead, the seeds 
are liberated only when the seed cap- 
sules dry out and open irregularly. 
The flowers are minute and clustered 




Six-foot plant of A. sphaemcephnla 
grows near Pan-American Highway 



together to form spherical heads or 
cylindrical spikes of what appear to be 
nothing but stamens, although the in- 
dividual florets actually have the full 
complement of five tiny petals and 
much-reduced calyx lobes. The associ- 
ated ants belong to the genus Pseiido- 
myrma. Biologists of the nineteenth 
century were most interested in these 
myrmecophilous plants, and a number 
of species have been described from 
Mexico and Central America. In 1872, 
Thomas Belt, in his widely read The 
Naturalist in Nicaragua, described in 
detail the extrafloral nectaries on the 
petiole and rachis of the acacia leaf. 
He also described the small, orange- 
yellow, elliptical bodies attached to the 
tips of the young leaflets, which pos- 
sess no photosynthetic function, but 
are rich in potential ant food and are 
harvested and used by ants along with 
the nectar available. These food bodies 
have been named "beltian bodies" in 
honor of their describer. 

Belt conducted experiments that in- 
dicated a symbiotic relationship of a 
highly beneficial nature existed be- 
tween the plant and the insect. The 
ants receive food from the host plant 
in addition to protective housing in the 
large, tough, hoflow thorns, which 
sometimes have a spread of as much 



in Mexico. Close-up of same plant, 
left, shows ant-cut holes in thorns. 

as five inches and a cavit\ diameter of 
a half-inch. Belt's experiments showed 
that leaf-cutter ants and goats defoli- 
ate acacias that have no Pseudomyrma 
species living in the thorns, but leave 
untouched those that possess the nor- 
mal population of symbionts. These 
ants may protect the host plant from 
the ravages of cattle and goats, but 
thorns alone seem to have played an 
efficient role as survival mechanisms 
against grazing animals in desert re- 
gions, and the ant acacias have an 
astonishing abundance of thorns. As a 
result, it is difficult to arrive at a real 
evaluation of the ants' portion of the 
whole defensive setup. 

OBSERVERS have commonly men- 
tioned the severity of the toxin 
injected by the ant's sting, reporting 
that it left painful swellings that per- 
sisted for as much as twenty-four 
hours. From my own experience I can 
testify that the stings are truly hot at 
the moment of contact, but the pain 
has never lasted longer than a few min- 
utes and there was no swelling. Other 
people, however, may have different 
degrees of sensitivity. The ants were 
able to climb onto my hands and arms 
before I could avoid them, but they 
ran about rapidly for a moment or so 

23 




before humping up their backs in 
preparation for real offense— a period 
of grace that enabled me to brush off 
many potential punctures. It is not 
possible to avoid all stings if one ap- 
proaches a plant for close observation, 
photography, or for purposes of collec- 
tion, but possibly painful results are 
ordinarily not serious enough to be a 
very strong deterrent. 

ONE of my first lines of speculation 
about the ant— plant relationship 
was whether or not the ants might ren- 
der the plant a service as pollinating 
agents. I had never seen the plants in 
bloom, so I bore this possibility in 
mind on two recent trips into Mexico. 
The first of these— of only a few days 
duration— was made during the middle 
of May, 1963. The acacia plants were 
found growing abundantly along the 



Pan-American Highway between Ciu- 
dad Victoria and Ciudad Mante, a few 
miles south of the Tropic of Cancer, 
where I had first seen the plants in 
1946. But no live flowers were present 
in any stage, apparently the result of 
a wave of cold weather the previous 
winter. The species here was Acacia 
sphaerocephala. Although there were 
numerous ants hustling about over a 
new growth of twigs, with leaves and 
thorns, that had just recently sprouted 
after the first early rains, ants were not 
observed to be feeding at nectaries, 
and they ignored the beltian bodies 
on the leaflets (photograph, page 25, 
top). Normally these are found and 
nipped off as fast as the young leaflets 
unfold, but in this case they remained 
in place until the leaflets were of full 
size, and the normally bright orange- 
yellow bodies had become grayish. 



The second item of interest was that 
aU the ants we watched were wingless 
and became engaged sooner or later 
in gnawing holes in the hollow thorns, 
which were fairly tender at this early 
stage in comparison to their tough, 
hard texture at maturity. A single hole 
was made in one or the other of each 
pair of thorns, and this served as an 
entrance to the common cavity of both 
thorns. After the hole was finished, 
the ant that made it went away, ap- 
parently in search of new thorns to 
open up. This work of hole gnawing 
seemed to be the sole activity of all 
the ants in evidence, although some 
individuals were seen to be giving 
what appeared to be a critical inspec- 
tion of completed or partially com- 
pleted holes. This may be an extreme 
case of anthropomorphic thinking, but 
one cannot help wondering how the 



24 




tole cutters are "appointed" and if 
hese seeming inspectors are actually 
supervisors" of some sort. 

When split open, the young thorns 
vere found to be empty, and in none 
'f ihem was there any pulp, sweet or 
itherwise, as has been reported. On 
he other hand, when thorns of pre- 
ious years' growths were opened, 
hey were found to be crowded with 
mts, pupae, and larvae. In addition, 
nany of the adults were winged, which 
ndicated a preparation for swarming 
o new quarters. This seems to indicate 
hat the "gnawers" prepared entrance 
loles in new thorns that would, when 
he colony swarmed, become homes 
for the new colonies. Certain aspects 
pf this behavior present an interesting 
oarallel with the behavior of honey- 
bees just previous to swarming. Bee- 
keepers have always observed that 



INkw moms, /<■/(, liiivi; been bored by 
HcDiit :iiilh l)clor<; llii; colony bwurnid. 



swarming jireparations interrupt the 
normal colony activities of gathering 
nectar and pollen. A few days before 
the dejjarlure of a swarm, individual 
bees fly about in a special way, ignor- 
ing flowers but acting for all the world 
as if they were looking for a suitable 
home for the swarm that was due to 
issue from the old hive. Whether right 
or wrong in their interpretation, the 
beekeepers call these inquisitive prowl- 
ers "scout bees," and in some way, 
they are supposed to transmit infor- 
mation concerning a suitable home lo- 
cation for the new swarm. Unfortu- 
nately it was impossible for me to stay 
and observe the swarming habits of 
the acacia ants, and so far, I have 
found no accounts of this life phase 
in available scientific literature. 

WHEN I returned to Mexico in 
June of 1964 I found that the 
swarming season was apparently over, 
and all of the new thorns were oc- 
cupied. Ants were busy harvesting the 
bellian bodies as rapidly as the new 
leaflets unfolded, but there were no 
flower heads on the plants of A. sphae- 
rocephala, again apparently the re- 
sult of winter damage. We drove out 
from Ciudad Mante to Tampico and 
once more I was disappointed, since 
the abundant plants along the way 
showed no new growth and there was 
every evidence of a delay in the begin- 
ning of the season of rains. But when 
I came back to the Pan-American 
Highway from Tampico to Valles I 
traveled through a region where rains 
had started and the farmers were busy 
preparing to plant their crops. Along 
the road were found an abundance of 
growth and blossoms on the acacias, 
apparently A. hernandezii. All thorns 
were inhabited except for those on new 
plants recently grown up from roots 
of certain old plants that had been cut 
down by surveyors working along the 
highway. The new plants apparently 
had not been visited by any ants, since 
no old nest thorns were present from 
a previous year's growth. This lack of 
ants in new plants that had grown from 
the roots of old, cut plants was ob- 
served in other places along the Pan- 
American Highway. It would appear 
that the entrance-hole cutters and the 
new swarms had not been able to ef- 
fect colonization of the new plants. 




Beltian bodies can be seen on edges 
of leaflets of current year's growth. 




New thorns have the entrance holes, 
but are not yet occupied by ants. 




Old thorns, above, were occupied 
by an organized ant colony, below. 




How readily the ants will walk on the 
ground to reach new acacia plants was 
not ascertained. But new, ant-free, 
second-growth plants were discovered 
only a few feet removed from old, 
first-growth, ant-inhabited plants. This 
would indicate the failure of wingless 
ants to travel this short distance over- 
land to gnaw the entrance holes neces- 
sary for colonization. 

Another ant acacia, which I consid- 
ered to be Acacia cornigera, was found 
growing abundantly in locations along 
the highway between Valles and Tama- 
zunchale. Here again, as in the case 
of the plants near Tampico, the acacias 
were in abundant bloom, and in both 
cases there were plenty of insect pollin- 
ators at work. The cylindrical flower 
spikes on both A. hernandezii and A. 
cornigera are as large as IV2 inches in 
length and % inch in diameter. When 
the minute flowers are open, the whole 
spike takes on a bright golden-yellow 
color from the closely packed, pollen- 
laden anthers. Ants in abundance 
could be seen walking about over the 
pollen-covered surfaces of the flower 




heads, but exactly what was being ac- 
complished was obscure. It was appar- 
ent, however, that even such random 
travel must have distributed pollen 
from floret to floret. In addition to the 
ants, there were numerous other insect 
visitors to the flowers. Solitary bees, 
honeybees, and flies were most abun- 
dant, and there were occasional small 
beetles and hymenopterons as well. 
There was little evidence to indicate 
that any of these insects gathered nec- 
tar, but certainly the solitary bees were 
engaged in collecting pollen, as the 
solid coatings adhering to the hairs on 
the undersurface of their abdomens 
testified. There was no evidence what- 
ever that the ants "resented" the other 
insect visitors or even paid any atten- 
tion to them. 

But when one searched for fruit for- 
mation as evidence of successful pol- 
lination, the picture became confused. 
A succession of flowering heads was 
maturing, and apparently the bloom- 
ing season is a long drawn-out one. It 
was well under way by the middle of 
June when the first observations were 
made on A. hernandezii and A. corni- 
gera, and when the plants were visited 
a month later there was still abundant 
bloom and a great number of new 
flower heads were forming. But during 
this period only a very few heads were 
found on which individual florets were 
developing fruits. Among the related 
genera of the Leguminosae that de- 
velop such heads or spikes of small 
florets, the number of seed pods pro- 
duced by one flower head is relatively 
very small, but ordinarily there will be 
from one to five fruits from each spike. 

IN these acacias the number of heads 
that produced any fruits at all was 
extremely small. There was a scarcity 
of plants showing remains of the per- 
sistent fruits of previous years, which 
gave evidence that this present barren- 
ness was not simply the result of a bad 
season. Furthermore, most of the in- 
tact fruits were seen to contain exit 
holes of some insect larvae that had 
hatched from eggs deposited in the 
very young plant ovaries. Examina- 
tion showed that all seeds had been 
destroyed. Certainly this first study 
would indicate that pollination of 
flowers is not too important a factor 
in the survival of the acacia species if 



Flower head of A. cornigera is at top 
of twig; older cluster is just below. 



seed production is an important meas- 
ure of survival success. The abundance 
of other insect visitors to the acacia 
flowers would indicate that the ants 
do not play any special or important 
pollination role. 

MY hope is to spend a whole grow- 
ing season, at least, to work out 
the details of this rather confusing 
cycle of plant and insect relationship. 
There are a number of points that are 
far from being clear and logical. Of 
course, one must realize that the eco- 
logical factors that govern plant activ- 
ity below the Tropic of Cancer are dif- 
ferent in many respects from those 
that function to the north of it, and 
to the northerner there will seem to be 
many contradictions of what he con- 
siders normal behavior. The orderly 
succession of the seasons — spring, sum- 
mer, autumn, and winter— is not as im- 
portant in the tropics as in the temper- 
ate zone; the most important factor is 
the available rainfall. In Mexico, rain 
normally occurs in the afternoons dur- 
ing the months of June through Octo- 
ber. It results from thermal updrafts 
that carry warm, moisture-laden air 
off the Gulf of Mexico up to the cold, 
high altitudes where cumulus clouds 
are formed. The moisture precipitates 
in the form of rain, the amount of 
which varies according to the strength 
and direction of the air currents from 
the sea. The rain may even cease for 
certain periods. These interruptions in 
the normal annual cycle of plant 
growth may cause what would seem 
to be gross irregularities. More studies 
of the ecology of the region, together 
with more taxonomic studies, could 
probably uncover a more logical set of 
responses to the natural environmen- 
tal factors. Possibly the ant-acacia in- 
terrelationship is more mutually bene- 
ficial, let us say, than it would appear 
at first study. 

The four species of ant acacias dis- 
cussed were never found above an 
elevation of about .500 feet. I have 
observed them in the states of Tamauli- 
pas, San Luis Potosi, Guerrero, and 
Yucatan, but never north of the Tropic 
of Cancer. This coming summer I plan 
to become acquainted with as many as 
possible of the species to be found in 
the region that lies between Oaxaca 
and the border of Guatemala. 



White beltian bodies persist on o 
leaves; yellow ones are on new growt 



Australia's 




spotted Diamondbirds 




Beautiful markings from which this Spotted Diamondbird derives 
its common name are seen as bird — a male — flies to its burrow. 



Male, its yellow throat barely visible, lights on tea tree, left, on 
vay to burrow, which is in a bare bank to permit quick egress. 



Outside her burrow the female, below, who is less colorful than 
the male, collects billful of grasses to add to her growing nest. 




by Allen Keast 

photographs by 
Michael K. Morcombe 



ONE of the interesting novelties of the 
Australian avifauna arc the Diamond- 
birds, or Pardalotes (Pardalotus). The pop- 
ular name comes from the clear white spots 
that adorn the feathers. Diamondbirds are 
about the size of the American Kinglet or 
European Goldcrest-body length 314 to 
3'/2 inches-and are hence among the 
smallest of birds. They live high in the 
pendent foliage of the eucalypts, or gum 
trees, each leaf of which is about the size of 
the bird itself, where they search for scale 
insects, tiny spiders, beetles, and other life. 

Few people would be aware of the exist- 
ence of the Diamondbirds were it not for 
their melodious, piping call notes, uttered 
singly, as a pair, or in a sequence of four 
that come echoing down from the treetops 
like rich little bells. Since the density of the 
birds is at the rate of one to every several 
large trees, and the calls carry a great dis- 
tance, their song is one of the real joys of 
spring mornings in the Australian bush. 

Diamondbirds are common where there 
are eucalypts, including the suburbs of the 
large cities. It takes the trained eye of an 
ornithologist, aided by field glasses, to see 
them while they are pursuing their daily 
activities high in their leafy world. But in 
the springtime the Diamondbirds come to 
ground. The nesting site of the commonest 
species, the Spotted Diamondbird featured 
in this article, is a tunnel in a bank. Any 
slight irregularity in the ground might be 
used-the cutting beside a garden path, a 
mound of soil raked up by a gardener, the 
soil among the roots of an overturned tree 
in the forest, a slope, or a depression in the 
ground a foot or so deep-anywhere, in 
fact, where the soil permits the driving of 
a horizontal tunnel. 

The Diamondbirds are quite fearless. As 
one walks through the forest or along a 
path, the bird will burst out of its burrow 
almost at one's feet, alight in a shrub a few 
feet away, and sway from side to side with 
a curious bobbing motion. If the observer 
remains still for a minute or so the bird will 
drop back down to the tunnel, hover before 



29 




Tiny bird constructs nest in bank tunnels 



it momentarily like a butterfly, then alight 
and recommence its excavations, sending 
showers of sand into the air behind it. 

At the end of the tunnel, which is 1 8 to 
24 inches deep when completed, the bird 
excavates a chamber and there builds a 
domed nest of fine strips and shreds of 
bark intermingled with dried grasses, with 
an entrance at the side. Four or five 
rounded, pearly-white eggs are laid. 

PARDALOTES are confined to Australia. 
There are seven species, each inhabit- 
ing a slightly dififerent vegetation formation 
or area of the continent. There are two in 
the forests of eastern Australia and in the 
Southwest where these photographs were 
taken. Five of the seven species use hol- 
lows in trees as their nesting sites. Doubt- 
less the tunnel of the Spotted Diamondbird 
involves more risks than a hollow limb 
(small lizards, for example, have been ob- 
served eating the eggs), but here the birds 
do not have to compete with Tree Swallows 
and with the introduced Starling for suit- 
able nest sites! 

The group belongs to the Dicaeidae, a 
family with a wide range in the oriental 
region, generally known as "flowerpeckers" 
from the nectar-feeding habit of many spe- 
cies. However, mistletoe berries are also 
prominent in the diet of a number of them, 
and in places the birds are an important 
agent in spreading this pest. Not so the 
Pardalotes of Australia; these beautiful 
small birds are completely insectivorous. 



30 




Y()iiiif> hirds at riulil cue old 
eitough to come to mouth of 
the burrow to be fed by the 
male, who clings to opeinng. 



'holograph of this incuhalins 

emale, left, was made by a 

areful opening of nest only 

very few inches at a time. 



Again, great care was taken 
to protect these young on the 
bark and grass nest some 18 
inches inside the soil bank. 




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SKY 
REPORTER 

Globular Cluster in Hercules 
occupies vast volume of space 

By Thomas D. Nicholson 



IN 1714, the great English astronomer Edmund Hallcy 
discovered a small region of brightness in the constel- 
lation Hercules. He described the object as "a little patch 
. . . but a few minutes in diameter." Observing, however, 
that it was clearly located among the fixed stars, he went 
on to say that the patch "cannot fail to occupy spaces im- 
mensely great, and perhaps not less than our whole solar 
system." The object that Halley observed is known today as 
the Globular Cluster in Hercules, and it indeed occupies 
spaces immensely great, although Halley's standards of 
greatness are no longer adequate to describe it. This cluster 
of stars is the object selected by astronomers at The Ameri- 
can Museum-Hay den Planetarium as the fifth of the Seven 
Wonders of the Universe. 

The Globular Cluster is a spherically shaped cloud of 
perhaps half a million stars, packed so densely together 
that they appear, toward the center, as just a ball of light. 
Individual stellar members of the cluster can be recognized 
only in the outer regions, where they are somewhat more 
separated than in the center. The solar system we know 
today is much more vast than the one Halley knew, for to 
him it extended out only to Saturn, a distance of about 
1,800 million miles across. Based on the orbit of Pluto, 
the farthest planet known, we can now judge the distance 
across the solar system to be about 7,400 million miles, or 
about four times greater than Halley believed. Even so, the 
Globular Cluster in Hercules, which is estimated now to be 
about 170 light-years across, occupies a volume of space 
equal to about 2,500 billion times the space occupied by 
our solar system. 

The Cluster is one of about a hundred similar objects 
known in the stars of our sky. It is among the largest and 
brightest members of this unusual class of celestial objects, 
and the only one that can be seen with the unaided eye by 
observers in the Northern Hemisphere. It appears as a faint 
cloud of light between the bright stars Eta Herculis (mag- 
nitude 3.5) and Zeta Herculis (magnitude 2.8), about one- 
third the distance from Eta to Zeta. The integrated magni- 
tude of the cluster is 4.0, which places it above the threshold 
of naked-eye observations. But since it is an extended ob- 
ject rather than a single point-source (as a star) , it is more 
difficult to see than a star of similar magnitude. Neverthe- 
less, it can be picked up visually on a clear dark night, if 
its location is known. From about 2:00 A.M. on during the 



Circles indicate more than one-third of all known globular 
clusters in this small-scale photograph of the constellation 
Sagittarius, located in southern region of the Milky Way. 




Close-li- view of Hercules clusler through 200-iiRh lene. 

nights of January, the constellation Hercules is high enough 
in the northeastern sky for the cluster to be found. 

In a small telescope, or even binoculars, the cluster can 
be seen easily as a round, luminous area about one-third 
the diameter of the full moon. Larger telescopes are re- 
quired to sec the individual stars of the cluster. The French 
astronomer-artist Leopold Trouvelot used a 15-inch tele- 
scope to make his 1874 drawing of the cluster, which ap- 
pears on page 34. Telescopes of this and larger size show 
thousands of stars in the cluster and reveal what appear to 
be strings of stars and dark lanes in the cloud. They also 
show that the cluster is not perfectly spherical in form, but 
slightly flattened. The full richness of the cluster is seen 
best, however, on long-exposure photographs made with 
large telescopes. In such photographs, as many as 43,000 
individual stars have been counted in the outer regions of 
the cluster, which has been seen to have an angular diame- 
ter of about 23 minutes in arc, or more than two-thirds the 
diameter of the full moon. 

ASTRONOMERS recognize two distinct types of clusters 
among the stars. One type is known as an open, or 
galactic, cluster — a loose organization of several dozen to 
several hundred stars that have a common motion in space 
and share other properties as well. More than 500 such 
clusters have been identified, and several thousand more 
probably exist in our sky. The stars of the second tj-pe— 
the globular cluster— are much more compactly arranged 
and far more numerous, ranging from tens of thousands to 
perhaps a million in the very largest. The average star popu- 
lation in globular clusters is about 100,000. The catalogue 
of Helen S. Hogg, published in 1959, lists 118 objects iden- 
tified as globular clusters, and there may be several hundred 
more as yet undiscovered. 

Another important difference between the galactic clus- 
ters and the globular clusters is their distribution. The 
galactic clusters are found concentrated along a rather nar- 
row belt of the sky corresponding to the circular band of 
brightness called the Milky Way. The vast maj ority of these 
star groups are found within a few degrees of the center 
line of the Milky Way, but they extend rather uniformly 
around the sky along this belt. The globular clusters, on the 
other hand, are often found at some distances from the 
plane of the Milky Way, but are highly concentrated around 
the region of the Milky Way in the constellation Sagitta- 
rius, which is prominent in the southern sky on summer 
nights. Indeed, in small-scale photographs of the region of 
Sagittarius, one can see more than one-third of all the 
known globular clusters {photograph at left). Only four 

33 




Globular Cluster in Hercules, above, was drawn in 1874 
by Trouvelot who used 15-inch telescope. His accuracy is 
confirmed by photograph, below, taken through 60-inch lens. 




of the known globular clusters are not found in the half 
of the sky around this constellation. This peculiar dis- 
tribution led astronomers, during the early 1900's, to in- 
vestigate the possibility that they could be used to learn the 
extent of the stellar system represented by the Milky Way 
and the position of sun and earth within the system. 

THE first problem was to find some means of determining 
the distances to the globular clusters. It was recognized 
that they must be some distance from earth, for with their 
richness of stars they were the beacons of the sky. The com- 
bined illumination of the tens of thousands of stars in a 
globular cluster should certainly be visible at far greater 
distances than any single star in the cluster. A massive at- 
tack on the problem was undertaken by Harlow Shapley, 
of the Harvard College Observatory. He proceeded by in- 
vestigating the nature of the individual stars that comprise 
the clusters. He found that they contain a great many short- 
period variable stars of the type that are now called R. R. 
Lyrae stars (after a prototype star in the constellation 
Lyra) . In addition, he found that the brightest stars in the 
globular clusters are red and yellow giant stars, rather than 
blue stars, as is the case in the solar neighborhood and in 



other star clusters. Indeed, the globular clusters are com- 
pletely devoid of the brilliant blue stars observed in other 
parts of the sky. 

An investigation of stars in the sun's vicinity similar to 
the short-period variable stars in the globular clusters 
showed that these cluster-type variable stars have an aver- 
age absolute magnitude of about zero. By observing the av- 
erage apparent magnitude of the variable stars in a cluster, 
therefore, Shapley learned the extent to which these stars 
are dimmed by the cluster's distance from the earth. Simi- 
larly, other studies had shown that the brightest red 
giant stars in the sun's vicinity are about two magnitudes 
brighter, on the average, than the cluster-type variable 
stars. Shapley selected the twenty-five brightest stars in 
each cluster as representing the average of the cluster's 
brightest red giant stars and again observed their apparent 
magnitudes. The extent to which these stars were dimmed 
also was an indication of the distance to the cluster. 

The globular clusters are found to be arranged in a 
roughly spherical system with a center in the direction of 
the Milky Way in Sagittarius. The center of the system, ac- 
cording to Shapley, is at a distance of about 50,000 light- 
years from the earth. The results of Shapley's investigation 
of the distance and distribution of the globular clusters 
were published in 1918. Subsequent revisions of Shapley's 
work, allowing for the effect of absorption by interstellar 
gas and for corrections to the absolute magnitudes of the 
stars he used, place the distance to the center of globular 
clusters at about 30,000 light-years. Shapley's work thus 
provided the first clear evidence of the size of our system 
of stars and of the distance of the earth from its center. 

TO return to the object we selected as the Fifth Wonder 
of the Universe, the actual number of stars it contains 
cannot be counted, because of the crowding toward its cen- 
ter. But the brightness, size, and distance of the cluster 
would indicate that it should contain about 500,000 stars. 
Assuming this to be true, it is possible to estimate the den- 
sity of stars in the cluster. In the sun's vicinity, the star 
density is about one per 300 cubic light-years. The average 
star density in the Globular Cluster in Hercules is about five 
times as great, or about five stars per 300 cubic light-years. 
But the stars of the cluster are packed much more densely 
near the center than in the outer regions. If we assume that 
the density in the center is about one hundred times as great 
as the average density throughout the cluster, there would 
be about five hundred stars in a volume of 300 cubic light- 
years, or nearly two stars per cubic light-year. 

Suppose we imagine a planet revolving around one of 
the stars in the center of this immense cluster; what would 
its sky be like? At night, when its sun had set, the sky would 
be filled with brilliant stars, predominantly yellow and red 
in color. The nearest of these stars— about one light-year 
distant— would have an apparent magnitude of about —8, or 
more than one hundred times the brightness of Sirius, the 
brightest star we see from earth. But there would be more 
than 35,000 stars in its night sky, all brighter than Sirius, 
seen from that imaginary planet in the center of the globu- 
lar cluster. The sky of the night, on such a world, would 
be as bright as the skies of early twilight are on the earth. 



Dr. Nicholson, the regular author of this column, is also 
Chairman of The American Museum-Hayden Planetarium. 



34 



THE SKY 
IN JANUARY 



MAGNITUOe SCALE 

^..-0.1 and brighter 
if to +0.9 
■it +1.0 to +1.9 

♦ +2.0 to +2.9 
•f +3.0 to +3.9 

• +4.0 and fainter 












X.;r 



bVo "'■'X,. \ 



• 4 - - ♦ — 






'"*» . <?'''.'. 



%. J ='-,.>*♦ ■ ..-V 



'%,.'*' +*'"'^'V/i 



r^°'w* 



New Moon January 2, 4:07 P.M., EST 

First Quarter January 10, 3;59P.M., EST SOU 

Full Moon January 17, 8:37 A.M., EST j 

Last Quarter January 24, 6:07 A.M., EST 

January 2: Earth is at perihelion, closest approach to the 
sun in its orbit. The earth is about 91,450,000 miles from 
the sun on this day. 

January 4: Look for the Quadrantid meteor shower, radiat- 
ing from an area off the end of the Big Dipper's handle, during 
the early hours on this date. From midnight on, the radiant 
is well up in the northeast. This brief shower is one of the 
most intense of the year, with an hourly rate of 25 to 40. 
The moon will not interfere. 

January 7-8: The morning skies on these two days offer 
a good opportunity to see the elusive planet Mercury. On the 
7th, Mercury is in conjunction (1.2 degrees north) with Venus, 
and on the 8th, Mercury is at greatest westerly elongation. 
Shortly after 5:30 a.m., the bright red star Antares (magnitude 
0.9) is about 15 degrees above the horizon in the southeast. 
Venus is then rising some distance to the left of Antares, and 
is easily recognized by its brightness (magnitude —3.4). 
Mercury appears about one degree to the left and a little above 
Venus. It should be visible until about half an hour before 
sunrise, when it will be about 10 degrees above the horizon. 



TIMETABLE 

January 1 10:30 p.m. 

January 15 9:30 p.m. 

January 31 8:30 p.m. 

(Local Mean Time) 

January 10: Jupiter is stationary in right ascension and 
resumes direct (eastward) motion. In Aries, south and west 
of the Pleiades, Jupiter is well up in the southeast at sunset 
and sets about midnight. 

January 11: An interesting view of Jupiter's satellites can 
be obtained tonight by observers with small telescopes or 
even binoculars. All four of the bright satellites are very nearly 
at their greatest angular distance from Jupiter. Callisto and 
Europa are to the west of Jupiter, then the bright disk of 
Jupiter, and lo and Ganymede to the east of the planet. 

January 12: Jupiter and the moon are in conjunction about 
noon EST. On the evening of the 11th, Jupiter is left (east) 
of the moon; on the 12th it is to the right. 

January 24: Mercury and Venus are in conjunction for the 
second time this month, but this time they are much too 
close to the sun to be observed. 

January 29: Mars is stationary in right ascension, and be- 
gins retrograde (westerly) motion. 

Saturn is located in Aquarius this month. It is visible in 
southwest at sunset and sets approximately three hours later. 



The Building 




Blocks of the Clouds 




Without "dirt," man could not survive 



By John A. Day 



M' 



[ AN depends on "dirty air"' for his 
very existence. Althoujih this 
may sound odd in these days of coni- 
munity war against air pollution, it is 
a factual meteorological statement that 
may be appreciated by foUovving the 
story of "building blocks of clouds." 

In the literal sense, what we call 
"air" is a gas made up of a variety of 
gases that are continuously mixed by 
atmospheric motions. Some of the con- 
stituent gases are plentiful and others 
are very rare: 78.11 per cent by vol- 
ume is contributed by molecules of 
nitrogen; 20.95 per cent by inolecules 
of oxygen ; 0.93 per cent by argon ; 
and trace percentages by other noble 
gases (krypton and xenon I . hydrogen, 
methane, and nitrous oxide. Regard- 
less of where one samples the lower 
layers of the atmosphere— called the 
troposphere— these gases are found in 
the same relative proportions. 

Air contains a few other gases that 
are "mavericks" in the sense that thev 
are present in variable amounts. Car- 
bon dioxide (COo) comprises 0.01 to 
0.1 per cent depending on the amount 
of combustion, plant photosynthesis. 
and absorption and release by the 
ocean that takes place in a given 
region. Ozone, sulphur dioxide, and 
nitrogen dioxide are found in very 
small quantities. But by far the most 
important maverick gas consists of 
molecules of H2O, which we call w-ater 
vapor. In equatorial maritime cli- 
mates, water vapor may be present in 
amounts ranging up to 7 per cent of 
the atmosphere by volume. In other 
terms, a cubic yard of atmosphere, if 
squeezed dry, might yield a few table- 
spoons of water molecules. In arid 
desert regions, in the frigid Arctic, or 
at high elevations at the top of the 
troposphere (which ranges in summer 



Fant-^stic "flying saucer" cloud was 
photographed in state of Washington. 



from about twelve miles above the 
tropics to six miles above the poles I, 
water vapor is still present, but only 
in negligible amounts. These gases 
make up our ocean of clean, pure air 
—a mixture that has evolved over a 
lime span of millions of years. 

The air found at the bottom of this 
atmospheric ocean in which we live is 
not clean. It is polluted by a variety of 
foreign matter that comes both from 
natural and man-induced causes. The 
primary natural mechanism for intro- 
ducing ])ollutants into the air is the 
friction of the wind against the earth's 
surface. When this occurs over the 
land, surfaces of rocks are slowly 
abraded, and further breakdown in 
particle size comes about by the polish- 
ing effect of small particles rolling over 
adjacent small particles, somewhat in 
the same fashion as agates are polished 
in a rock tumbler. The dust from this 
polishing is fine enough to be carried 
aloft bv the wind, and it becomes more 
or less evenlv distributed through the 
low er atmosphere. Dust storms such as 
those that plagued the central United 
States in the 1930's are dramatic ex- 
amples of this mechanism at w ork. An 
aspect of considerable meteorological 
significance is that some of these par- 
ticles are soluble in water (hygro- 
scopic) : others are wettable but not 
soluble (hvdrophilic) : and still others 
are water resistant (hydrophobic) . 

WIND friction over a water surface 
has the effect of generating 
waves. As the ^vind grows stronger the 
amplitude, or height, of the wave in- 
creases. When the wind speed rises 
above about 25 miles per hour, spray 
is pulled off the tops of the waves. 
Most of the spray droplets are so 
heavy that they fall back into the water 
before they evaporate. In the case of 
sea water, the mechanism may leave a 
tiny speck of salt from the smallest 
spray droplets, which do evaporate, 
and this speck of salt is subsequently 
carried upward in the turbulent air. 
A more effective mechanism for in- 

37 




Wave near shore breaks up in torrent is shown below. Filaments of water 
of tiny droplets, above. Spray action develop necks and break into drops. 




troducing salt particles into the air is 
the bursting of air bubbles found in 
the wake of unstable waves. Masses 
of water from the wavetops fall back 
into the ocean and carry air with them. 
As this trapped air seeks release from 
the water it rises to the surface in the 
form of bubbles of many sizes. 

THE sequence of events that follows 
as an air bubble reaches the sur- 
face and bursts is very interesting to 
observe; it also needs much study 
because of its meteorological signifi- 
cance. I spent a year (1962-63) in the 
laboratories of Professor B. J. Mason, 
at Imperial College, London, studying 
this phenomenon, attempting to work 
out the relationship between the num- 
ber of salt particles resulting from a 
bubble-burst and the size of the air 
bubble. In the illustrations at right, 
we see the several stages in the burst- 
ing of the air bubble. All bubbles 
larger than one millimeter in diameter 
(roughly, the size of a pinhead) depart 
from a spherical shape. However, at 
the water surface a spherical film cap 
protrudes. Water drains down the 
sides of this cap until the film reaches 
a critical thinness, at which point it 
ruptures. The burst occurs with such 
speed that no researcher has yet re- 
corded it satisfactorily even with high- 
speed cinephotography. The ligaments 
of the ruptured film snap together and 
become very small spherical droplets 
that are carried several millimeters 
into the air. Since they are so small 
they evaporate rapidly and leave salt 
particles, each of which weighs about 
a million millionth of a gram. These 
are carried to higher elevations by tur- 
bulence. A bubble film burst is shown 
in the photograph on page 39. 

A secondary natural mechanism that 
operates rather infrequently, but some- 
times with a massive effect, is that of 
volcanic eruption. When Krakatoa, in 
Sunda Strait, erupted in 1883, it pro- 
duced a mantle of dust and ash that 
was noticed in the upper atmosphere 
of the entire Northern Hemisphere for 
several years afterward. 

Still another natural mechanism 
that produces small foreign particles 
is the reaction of the various trace i 
gases and water vapor under the influ- 
ence of solar radiation. 

Combustion by-products pollute the 
atmosphere. Sometimes fires can be 
started by purely natural causes, as 
when lightning strikes in dry forest 
areas. More often, man creates the fires 



FILM DRAINS 
AND THINS 




Film cap prolriules from surface of 
wuler in firsl step of l>iil>lili; hurst. 



•f FILM 



FRAGMENTS 




Flow down sides of cavity thins fihn, 
which ruptures at tremendous speed. 




Filaments break into small spherical 
drops that are carried into the air. 






Tiny salt particles remain as drops 
evaporate, and new bubble is formed. 



Time EXPOsinE, taken in a diffusion 
cloud <'lKinil)er in a laboratory, shows 
path of rising i>ul>ble Hlni droplets. 



to keep himself warm, to run his fac- 
tories, to propel his automobiles, and 
so on. The by-products of combustion 
are ash. soot, tar, ions, hydrocarbons, 
sulphates, and sulphuric acid ( when 
the fuel contains sulpliur I . 

Today ue have accumulated a rea- 
sonable understanding; of the various 
kinds of air pollutant particles, particu- 
larly in the larger size range. In addi- 
tion to knowing what they are and how 
they are produced, we know the range 
of concentration in which they are 
found. Perhaps most important of all, 
we are coming to understand the role 
they play with respect to the condensed 
water found in the atmosphere. 

WE probably would not know 
nearly as much as we do today 
were it not for a device called the 
cloud chamber. The first simple ex- 
pansion cloud chamber was made in 
1875 by M. Coulier. in France, in order 
to demonstrate that small foreign par- 
ticles serve as centers on which con- 
densation takes place. Air and water 
were enclosed in a flask. The aiv was 
made supersaturated with water vapor 
by compressing a hollow rubber ball 
connected to the flask. After the heat 
generated by compression was con- 
ducted away, Coulier suddenly re- 
leased the ball to allow the compressed 
air to expand. He noted that a cloud 
of fine droplets was produced in the 
flask. Shortly thereafter (1880-81), 
John Aitken, an Englishman, used 



above left; high-speed film catches 
the inverted bowl effect of 300 to 400 
such droplets, seen at riphl. ahote. 



similar but improved apparatus to 
show that the cloud of fine droplets 
could be made more dense by intro- 
ducing products of combustion, and 
that the cloud could be thinned by one 
of several procedures: by filtering 
through cotton wool the air intro- 
duced into the cloud chamber, by 
allowing the air to stand for several 
days before use. or by allowing it to 
go through repeated cvcles of cloud 
formation in the chamber. 

In the years following. Aitken de- 
veloped various forms of an appara- 
tus that became known as the Aitken 
dust-counter. With it he undertook a 
complete survey of the small foreign 
particles, or nuclei, in the atmosphere. 
He also showed that the thickness 
( more accuratelv. the number of par- 
ticles in a unit volume ) of the cloud 
depended on how much the air in the 
chamber was expanded. After taking 
the most careful precautions to remove 
all the foreign particles from the air, 
Aitken found it possible to produce a 
cloud of water droplets with a large 
expansion capacity. He was not sure, 
however, that he had removed all the 
very small foreign particles. 

This uncertainty was clarified bv 
another Englishman. C.T.R. Wilson, 
who, in 1895, began his famous cloud 
chamber experiments in the Cavendish 
Laboratory of Cambridge Universitv. 
In Wilson's small glass cloud chamber, 
a given volume of air was subjected to 
a sudden, predetermined degree of ex- 



39 



AIR EXPANSION MECHANISMS 




Orographic lifting is mechanism in 
■which moving air encounters physical 



barrier— sometimes air itself— and 
flows up and over it, as seen above. 




Cold Arciic air is dense and heavy, 
and hugs the lowest levels. Leading 



edge of formation acts as sno\\'plow, 
forcing warmer air to rise above it. 




Squeezing, or convergence, of air 
in low levels of air stream causes it 

40 



to rise. If warmed by earth, it will 
rise vertically because of buoyancy. 




pansion. Excluding all nuclei known 
to Aitken, Wilson found that no visible 
effect was produced until the expan- 
sion ratio (the volume after expansion 
compared to the volume before) 
reached a value of about 1.25/1, cor- 
responding to a saturation ratio (the 
ratio of the actual vapor pressure to 
that required to saturate the air at the 
same temperature) of 4 to 1. Greater 
expansions always produced about a 
hundred drops per cubic centimeter 
(roughly, the volume of a small sugar 
cube ) , regardless of attempts to filter 
out nuclei. 

In February, 1896, Wilson used the 
newly discovered X-rays to irradiate 
the filtered air put into the chamber. 
This time, at the same expansion ratio 
of 1.25/1, a much denser cloud was 
produced. This suggested that the 
nuclei on which the droplets formed 
were small ions, or charged particles. 
Some fifteen years elapsed before 
Wilson succeeded in photographing 
these ions in the positions they occu- 
pied at the instant they were created. 
Such photographs are known as ion 




"tracks." This was a real breakthrough 
for nuclear physics, for it is this same 
Wilson cloud chamber that has been 
of such immense utility in identifying 
the tracks of the several kinds of nu- 
clear particles, that is, alpha particles 
and beta particles (the positron and 
the electron). 

INCREASING the expansion ratio be- 
yond 1.38/1, which corresponds to 
a saturation ratio of about 8 (or 
a supersaturation of 700 per cent), 
Wilson produced a cloud of very small 
droplets, as opposed to the smaller 
number of larger droplets formed on 
the atmospheric ions. Later theoreti- 
cal work formulated by R. Becker and 
W. Doring (1935) bolstered the idea 
that droplets were produced on small 
groupings of water molecules, brought 
together momentarily by chance col- 
lisions in the highly supersaturated at- 
mosphere of the cloud chamber. 

As a result of the pioneer work of 
Coulier, Aitken, and Wilson, and of 
subsequent investigations by leaders 
in this field of research, there is gen- 



eral agreement on the following points. 

1. The suspended solid and liquid 
particles (aerosols) vary over an enor- 
mous range of sizes. 

2. Nuclei fall rather naturally into 
three size categories. The first group 
have radii between 0.5 and 200 mil- 
lionths of a centimeter. These are 
called Aitken nuclei because they are 
detected in the Aitken dust-counter. 
The middle category ranges between 
0.2 and one millionths of a meter ( or 
ten thousandths of a centimeter ) . 
These are called large nuclei. All witli 
radii larger than one millionth of a 
meter are referred to as giant nuclei. 

3. The range of concentration of 
foreign particles is immense, from less 
than a few tens per cubic centimeter in 
mid-ocean air to more than a million 
per cubic centimeter in the air of an 
industrial city on a smoggy day. 

Up to this point we have confined 
our remarks primarily to laboratory 
clouds formed inside an expansion 
chamber. Let us now turn our atten- 
tion to the larger laboratory of the 
atmosphere and see how the clouds 



TnAfPEO AlB in uiihUhli; waves rieeb to 
the burface aa Ijulihlek of many isizes. 



are formed under natural situations. 
Most clouds (possibly excluding 
fog) can be thought of as compriiiing 
a dynamic system in which dirty air is 
made to rise. As it rises, it moves into 
levels of lower pressure, and then cools 
as a result of the expansion that takes 
place. The rale at which expansion 
occurs is dependent on the type of air 
motion, but is small compared to the 
rate of formation in a cloud chamber. 

THERE are several mechanisms that 
make the air expand. The simplest 
and most obvious is orographic lift- 
ing, in which moving air encounters a 
physical barrier and flows up and over 
it. Sometimes air itself forms the bar- 
rier. Air that originated in the cold 
Arctic regions becomes very dense and 
heavy, and hugs the lowest levels. 
Sometimes there are outbreaks of this 
cold, dense air into lower latitudes, 
and the leading edge of the cold air 
formation acts like a snowplow, forc- 
ing any warmer, lighter air that might 
lie in its path to rise over it. The lead- 
ing edge of such a mass of air is called 
a cold front. Sometimes squeezing, or 
convergence, of the air in the lower 
levels of an air stream causes a gentle 
ascent throughout a large volume of 
air. And occasionally air is locally 
warmed in the bottom layers through 
contact with the heated earth and 
ascends vertically because of the buoy- 
ant forces acting on it. For our pur- 
poses we will limit our discussion to 
this last mechanism. 

As the rising air cools, a tempera- 
ture is reached at which it can hold no 
more moisture. The air is said to be 
saturated— the relative humidity is 100 
per cent. What will happen when the 
cooling continues? If we were to ex- 
trapolate the cloud chamber results to 
the atmosphere for the case of perfectly 
clean air, the cooling would have to 
build up supersaturation in the air to 
several hundred per cent before any 
droplets would form. In the atmos- 
phere it is found that the natural 
processes seldom need to exceed super- 
saturations of more than 0.1 to 0.2 per 
cent. There always seem to be sufficient 
numbers of nuclei present to give the 
excess water vapor enough centers on 
which it can collect to form tiny water 
droplets. However, only a fraction of 
the total population of atmospheric 

41 



dirt acts as condensation centers. Thus 
we use the term "cloud nuclei" for the 
nuclei that become active at the satura- 
tions found in the atmosphere. 

The droplet growth rate depends on 
several factors. Molecules of HoO must 
diffuse from the air onto the droplet 
surface, and the rate at which this 
occurs is limited by the rate at which 
the heat released by condensation can 
be removed from the growing drop- 
let. Calculations made by A. C. Best 
(1951) of the rate at which droplets 
grow on salt nuclei of various masses 
at supersaturations of 0.05 per cent 
showed that it took some 40,000 sec- 
onds for a drop with an initial radius 
of 0.75 microns to grow to 40 microns 
in radius— an average maximum drop- 
size found within a large cumulus 
cloud. This is a very long time. 

IN the atmosphere there will be nuclei 
of different sizes. One assumes that 
condensation sets in first on the larger 
hygroscopic nuclei. If they are present 
only in concentrations of a few tens 
per cubic centimeter and are unable to 
assimilate the water vapor as fast as it 
is released by the rising and cooling 
air, the supersaturation will increase 
and activate the smaller nuclei. If the 
HoO molecules diffuse to the many 
condensation centers more rapidly 
than they are made available by the 
cooling of the air, the supersaturation 
will drop and the smallest droplets will 
start to evaporate. This leads us to the 
cloud physicist's lament: "To precipi- 
tate or not to precipitate? That is the 



question." Surely there must be other 
factors at work beyond growth by dif- 
fusion—a method which takes too long 
to be effective in building up a rain- 
drop from a cloud droplet. 

A major advance in cloud study was 
presented by the Swedish meteorolo- 
gist Tor Bergeron. In a paper entitled 
"On the Physics of Clouds and Precipi- 
tation," to be found in the Proceedings 
of the 5th Assembly (1935) of the 
International Union of Geodesy and 
Geophysics, he proposed an explana- 
tion for precipitation from cold clouds 
—that is, clouds whose tops reach 
above the freezing level. The tops of 
such clouds consist of a mixture of ice 
crystals and supercooled water drop- 
lets. It happens that nature is so ar- 
ranged that the saturation vapor pres- 
sure over a flat ice surface is slightly, 
but significantly, less than the satura- 
tion vapor pressure over a flat water 
surface, at the same temperature. (Sat- 
uration vapor pressure is the pressure 
at which the number of molecules leav- 
ing the solid surface is equal to the 
number entering it from the air.) This 
basic physical fact means that water 
molecules migrate from the droplets 
(which then shrink) to the ice crystals 
(which grow) as is seen below. In due 
course the ice crystal, now a snowflake, 
becomes heavy enough to start to fall 
through the cloud. On the way down it 
picks up other small, supercooled water 
drops, which freeze on contact. When 
it falls below the freezing level it melts 
and hits the ground as a raindrop. 

Some clouds do not reach the freez- 



SATURATION 

VAPOR PRESSURE 

3.013 mm.Hg. 




DROPLE"r °^ 
SHRINKS 



ing level, yet are observed to precipi- 
tate. To explain this, cloud physicists 
have suggested a second mechanism — 
the coalescence theory. In a cloud in 
which there are both large and small 
droplets, the larger ones will fall faster 
than the smaller, and in the course of 
their relative motion there will be some 
collisions and many near collisions. 
Some small droplets will bounce off a 
large droplet. Others, however, will 
become a part of the large one— that 
is, two will coalesce. Thus the large 
droplet becomes still larger, and in 
time it may become large enough to 
fall as a raindrop. This is shown sche- 
matically at the right. 



Water molecules move to ice crystals 
from supercooled droplets. As droplet 

42 



shrinks, crystal becomes a snowflake, 
heavy enough to fall through the cloud. 




Eii()U};li (evidence has been gathered 
to validate Ixilh these theories. The 
rub comes when a forecaster is asked 
to predict whether a particular cUjud 
■will or will not drop out any moisture. 
If (and here are some very big //.si 
there were an accurate nuclei measure- 
ment giving number and kind; if the 
water vapor content of the air were 
accurately known; if the factors con- 
trolling general ascent or descent of 
the air were properly analyzed; and 
if the input of solar energy at the 
ground were known for that particu- 
lar occasion there might be some ho]je 
of making an accurate statement of the 
likelihood of precipitation from any 



one (doud. At the jjresent time, un- 
fortunately, our measuring tools are 
too crude and too few to yield the (]ual- 
ity and quantity of information needed 
for individualized cloud forecasts. 

This brings us back to a considera- 
tion of the statement with which this 
article began: man depends on "dirty 
air" for his very existence. Perhaps 
the logic behind this statement is now 
clpart-r. A fraction of the dirt makes 
ii|) tlic building blocks of clouds. With- 
out dirt there would be no clouds. 
Without clouds, there would be no pre- 
cipitation, and without rain and snow 
to water the land there would be i\<> 
men to make such dogmatic statements. 




(.oM.KsiKMK nlakl•^ ilrupliM. ahote, 
(irow iiilo rain(lrii|i that is of large 
enough hiite to fall lhrou):h a warm 
riiinuhis ('loud like the one below. 




Patterns in Wood 



VENEERS PRODUCE WIDE SPECTRUM OF DESIGIV 

By Paul Villiard 



VENEERS are thin sheets of rare, highly figured woods 
that are glued to the surfaces of baser woods to pro- 
duce panels used in the manufacture of fine furniture. For 
some reason, many people believe that veneered furniture 
is cheaper than furniture made of "honest" lumber. Ac- 
tually, the reverse is true. Veneered furniture is about the 
only type that will withstand the steam heat, moisture addi- 
tion, and air-conditioning of modern homes. 

A tree with a grain suitable for face veneer is not com- 
mon, and many logs must be cut to discover one. The usual 
method is to saw the tree open down the middle to examine 
the inside wood. When a veneer grain is found, the tree is 
squared into flitches— a word that is used for the com- 
pleted bundle of veneer as well as for the rough billets from 
which veneers are cut. 

Soft woods, burls, and crotches are sliced to a thickness 
of one twenty-eighth of an inch, which is standard for 
such cabinet veneers. First the logs are softened by being 
boiled or steamed for many hours, and then clamped to a 
massive carriage in a slicing machine. The carriage moves 
the log in a vertical plane against the slicing knife, which 
is stationary and held in a rigid indexing device that can 
be adjusted for different thicknesses. After each pass of 
the carriage, the index moves the knife forward to the exact 
thickness desired. 

As each sheet of veneer is separated from the log, it is 
numbered in the order in which it was cut and stacked on 
top of the previous slice. When the entire flitch has been 
sliced, the individual sheets of veneer are passed through 
heated rollers to dry and are carefully stacked in the precise 
order of slicing. The entire flitch is then bound with steel 
banding or crated for storage or shipment to the dealer. 

Extremely hard woods such as ebony, bubinga, and 
others cannot be softened successfully, and are generally 
sawed to one-twentieth of an inch. This is wasteful, because 
of the wood loss that is necessarily an adjunct to the saw 
cut. Also, this method makes it difficult to match adjacent 
pieces of veneer, because the grains are not exactly consecu- 
tive, having been separated by the thickness of the saw. 

Figured woods are sorted and priced according to vari- 
ous classifications. There are about twenty names assigned 
to the different patterns that wood grains take in veneers. 
For instance, there are plain stripe and ribbon stripe. 
Mottle stripe is a modification of ribbon stripe, in which 
the ribbon figure is broken by flakes of crossfire— interrup- 
tions of pattern caused by the grain reversing, waving, or 
changing direction. Mottle is a pattern in which the entire 
surface of the sheet is covered with broken waves and 
stripes, sometimes producing a blazing crossfire when 
viewed from different angles. Mahogany, maple and 
several other woods sometimes produce the figure called 
fiddleback. This is a strong, rippled, very regular, and sym- 
metrical figure, often used for backs of string instruments. 
Curly-figured veneer is self-descriptive— the grain is a series 

44 



of large curls and circles. There are a number of other 
classifications, most of which are modifications and vari- 
ations of one or another of the figures already described. 
More complicated and ornamental patterns may also be 
produced by matching consecutive sheets of veneer in a 
number of different ways. 

In the fancier cuts of veneer there are crotches, burls, 
and feathers. This last is a variation of the plain crotch— 
the grain produced from a cut through the log just below 
the junction of two main branching trunks. The figure ob- 
tained in crotch veneer is most beautiful and is in great 
demand for door panels, tabletops, or any place where the 
full beauty of the figure can be seen. In a feathered crotch, 
each tip of swirling grain is bent sharply downward, mak- 
ing an area of brilliant crossfire parallel to the main figure 
on both sides of center. 

Burls are the familiar, ball-shaped excrescences so often 
seen on trees. They are the result of some sort of stimulus 
that has caused usually dormant buds to grow, causino- 
a deformity. The grain inside a burl does not follow the 
natural pattern for that wood, but runs wild in a disor- 
dered, unpredictable manner. The half-spherical burl is 
mounted on a clamp and rotated against the blade at a 
slight angle. Since the annual rings are either greatly de- 
formed or entirely lacking in a burl, the closely contorted 
grain is filled with pin or eye knots and swirls, and the re- 
sulting figure is often unusual and beautiful. 

IN the past, methods of gluing thin sheets of veneer to 
their base panels were extremely complex. Work was 
performed in a heated room, and it was necessary that all 
the clamps, glue, and the work itself be kept hot while being 
worked. The glues— which were generally made of animal 
hide— set very rapidly, so the matching, setting, and clamp- 
ing had to be carried out with great speed. 

This procedure was simplified, however, by the advent of 
modern adhesives and the development of improved clamp- 
ing techniques and presses. The setting time of present-day 
adhesives may be adjusted by regulating the room tempera- 
ture. The curing time of a panel may vary from two to 
three minutes in a heated press to as much as twelve hours 
in a cold press with a lower room temperature, even if the 
same glue is used. This gives the craftsman time enough to 
take meticulous care in preparing a panel of a particularly 
fine, rare veneer. 

The great majority of veneers are little-known. Many 
have such exotic names as Tamo-tamo, Imbuya, Bethabara, 
Goncalo-alves, Padouk, and literally hundreds of others. 
They are found in every corner of the world, from the 
Arctic regions to the tropical jungles, and many have been 
used for centuries. Records and artifacts show that the 
Egyptians, Babylonians, Greeks, Assyrians, Romans, and 
other civilizations practiced the principle of lamination and 
overlay to embellish articles of furniture and other items. 



i»"*Sf*' 



^^^i^--^-^ 



^ 

■^ 



V_/*%. 




ALPINE BURL— flame figur 



LACEWOOD— flake figur 






EUROPEAN YEW— Pfn and eye knots 



ZEBRAWOOD— stripe figur 



Ornamental Eiiss 
of the Insects 

Minute detail decorates intricate forms 



By Alvah Peterson 

THERE are, at a conservative esti- 
mate, some 660,000 described spe- 
cies of insects. As a result, one may 
encounter a fascinating variety of in- 
sect eggs. Some resemble jewels, some 
look like miniature flowers, and a few 
have other unusual characteristics. All 
insects produce eggs, and most species 
deposit them on or within terrestrial 
or aquatic plants, invertebrate or ver- 
tebrate animals, or inert objects. To 
see their intricate details, one must ex- 
amine them under a lOx hand lens or 
a stereoscopic microscope. Eggs of the 
Orthoptera and the Hemiptera are par- 
ticularly striking and are included in 
the following descriptions and photo- 
graphs. Of the former, those of a few 
roaches (Blattidae), katydids (Tet- 
tigoniidae), mantids (Mantidae), 
walking sticks (Phasmatidae) , and 
crickets (Gryllidae) are outstanding. 

A female cockroach may, depending 
upon the species, produce twelve to 
fifty or more eggs, which are sealed in 
a brown, purselike packet, called an 
ootheca. Each such packet contains 
two parallel rows of elongated eggs, 
which are oriented vertically. They are 
readily visible in an ootheca that has 
been bleached by a preservative con- 
taining acetic acid. The female may 
carry the ootheca protruding from the 
posterior end of her abdomen for 
several days to several weeks, and then 
drop it in a crack in wood or a crevice 
along a baseboard or a shelf before 
the eggs are ready to hatch (Natural 
History, October, 1961). 

The size of the roach's ootheca var- 
ies with the species. In the United 



Green when laid, geometrid moth eggs 
turn silvery black before they hatch. 



States, both the smallest and largest 
oothecae are found in Florida. The 
smallest are produced by minute 
roaches, species of Aiilaoplnryx or 
Plecloplera. Their packets, which may 
hold twelve or more eggs, do not as a 
rule exceed a length of 6 mm. They are 
found on pine needles, on the lower 
surface of magnolia foliage, and else- 
where. The largest oothecae occur in 
Key West, v\here they are produced by 
the large females of Blaherus cranii- 
jera (Burmeister ) , which inhabit old 
buildings, outhouses, and piles of old 
wood. Their packets are 25 to 35 mm. 
long, each containing about fifty ova. 

True and false katydids, well-known 
songsters in the insect world, may de- 
posit distinctive, flattened, disklike 
eggs in single, overlapping rows along 
the margin of a smooth leaf or in a 
double row along two sides of a nar- 
row plant stem. If brought inside dur- 
ing the winter, these eggs may hatch. 

An interesting giant katydid. 5/;7- 
ponochlora couloniana Saussure, lives 
in the dense hummocks of Dade 
County, Florida. The female of this 
species may deposit thin, wafer-like, 
cocoa-colored ova on the trunks of 
large live oaks. Each mass, placed on 
edge in three to five adjacent and 
parallel rows, may comprise more than 
one hundred eggs, and may be more 
than 60 mm. long. 

THERE are a number of species of 
beneficial mantids in the United 
States, some of which have been in- 
troduced. In the south, especially in 
Florida, a small native species, Thes- 
protia graminis Scudder, produces a 
tiny egg cluster about 6 mm. in length 
that is found on small branches of 
pine trees. Another common mantid, 
Brunneria borealis Scudder, which oc- 
curs in several southeastern states, 
produces a slightly elongated, grayish- 




Caddisfly EGGS, deposited in water, 
are sealed in a gelatinous mas6 loop. 



brown, urn-shaped egg mass with a 
spoutlike extension at the upper end. 
W hen the nymphs hatch they emerge 
through this spout. 

Two large, introduced mantids that 
were first found in the United States 
in Penns\lyania and I\ew Jersey pro- 
duce conspicuous egg masses. Those 
of the common Chinese mantid Teno- 
dera aridijoUa sinensis Saussure are 
round and may occur on weed stems, 
shrubbery, twigs, and evergreens— 
especially arborvitae. The egg mass of 
the narrow-winged mantid, Tenodera 
angustipennis Saussure, is somewhat 
flattened and elongated, with a ridge 
that runs lengthwise. It is usually 
about 12 mm. wide and 30 to 50 mm. 
long and occurs on the surface of 
maples and other smooth-barked trees, 
or on fence posts and telephone poles. 

The widely distributed native Ca- 
rolina mantid, Stagmomantis Carolina 
(Johannson). produces an egg mass 
resembling that of the narrow-winged 
mantid. How ever, it is shorter— 25 mm. 
long, more or less— narrower, and may 
have a light-colored streak along the 
center mid-ridge. Egg masses of man- 
tids, especially those deposited on 
shrubbery or trees, may be fed upon 
extensively by various birds during 
the dormant season (Natural His- 
tory, April, 1963). 

The walking stick, Diapheromera 
femorata (Say), common in Ohio and 
neighboring states, produces eggs 



47 



once a year, late in summer or early in 
fall. In fact, in a deciduous woodland 
on a clear day in early autumn, one 
may hear what sounds like rain strik- 
ing the dry leaves on the ground. Care- 
ful examination of the foliage above 
or on nearby shrubs may reveal the 
presence of female walking sticks 
feeding ravenously and at the same 
time dropping non-adhesive, oval, 
hard, shiny eggs. Each egg is bluish 
gray when deposited, but the color 
soon changes to near black with a 
prominent light area on one side. Eggs 
of the common walking stick are sup- 
posed to have a two-year incubation 
period, but if they are kept continu- 
ously at room temperature of 70° ± F. 
during the winter, some will hatch 
within six months. 

Another large, wingless walking 
stick, known as the two-striped walk- 
ing stick because of the two yellow 
lines running lengthwise along its 
back, may be seen in Florida and other 
southern states. In the late summer or 
fall, this species, Anisomorpha hu- 
prestoides (Stoll), deposits rough egg 
clusters, ranging in color from dark 
brown to nearly black, in sandy soil. 
If one confines a fertilized female and 
a male of this species in a large paper 
bag with a supply of the foliage they 
consume, a few eggs will be dropped 



within a day or two. These may be 
picked up and kept for incubation or 
preserved in alcohol. The eggs hatch 
early in the spring. 

Tree crickets, especially species of 
Oecanthus, deposit their eggs singly 
or in rows deep in succulent foliage 
or within tender stems of young trees 
or bushes. Some species deposit single 
eggs in tobacco leaves or similar plant 
tissue, while another species— prob- 
ably Oecanthus nigricornis ni'^ricornis 
Walker— lays its eggs in a single row 
within a tender plant twig or stem. 

[any sucking bugs of the Hem- 
iptera produce highly colored, 
very ornate eggs. This is especially 
true of numerous stink bugs, family 
Pentatomidae, and assassin bugs, 
family Reduviidae. Most species of 
stink bugs lay eggs with round, de- 
tachable caps or lids that are pushed 
off or lifted when the pronymphs 
hatch. (When the nymph first emerges 
from the egg, it is covered with a thin, 
flexible skin or coat. Before it sheds 
this covering it is called a pronymph. ) 
To open the cap the pronymph uses a 
T-shaped, dark-colored egg burster 
that is located on the top of its head. 
Upon emergence or during the hatch- 
ing process, the pronymph sheds its 
outside coat, including the burster. 



which may be seen on the tops of 
hatched stink bug eggs. They are most 
clearly visible when seen in contrast 
with a light-colored ovum. 

Among the more vivid stink bug 
eggs are some that are bright red, such 
as those of Mormidea piclivenlris Stal, 
which are deposited in small clusters 
on plant parts. The color is attributable 
to the red embryonic tissue inside the 
unhatched, greenish-white, transluc- 
ent eggshells. 

The common southern green stink 
bug, Nezara viridula (Linnaeus) , usu- 
ally deposits its yellow eggs in hexa- 
gonal clusters on green foliage, and 
each cluster contains approximately 
ninety eggs. Several days after deposi- 
tion a fertile egg exhibits two red eye- 
spots, a large red V-shaped blotch, 
and an inconspicuous, near-black egg 
burster. These are probably located on 
the embryonic tissue (although the egg 
burster may be on the nymphal skin) 
and are visible through the eggshell. 

The common harlequin bug, Mur- 
gantia histrionica { Hahn ) , lays its 
eggs on cabbage in small clusters that 
usually contain two parallel rows of 
six eggs. Each egg is keg shaped, has 
black bands about its sides, and is 
topped with a ringlike cap. Another 
stink bug, a species of Brachymena, 
often places its beautifully colored, 



Dark, spots, actually red, in eggs of the common wheel bug, 
are eyes of embryo. Light streaks are limbs and mouthparts. 



Egcs of another reduviid, genus Apiomerus, are flower-like 
when seen from above. Tops are white with reddish centers. 




IF 



'jfiM 




Katydids, of the family Tettiponiidae, 
often lay light grayish-brown eggs in 
single rows on edges of smooth leaves. 



Eccs stick to the leaf with substance 
secreted at time of deposition. Other 
katydids insert eggs in stems or bark. 



These nymphs, less than a fourth of an 
inch long, perished as they attempted 
to emerge from egg cases in the spring. 




49 



smooth, pearl-like eggs in two rows on 
a pine needle. Other species of penta- 
tomids produce eggs with a circular 
row of twelve to fifteen needle-like 
projections rising from the rounded 
top. These protrusions may have open- 
ings, or ducts, through which male 
spermatozoa enter to fertilize the eggs. 
Some assassin bug eggs are ex- 
tremely ornate, with caps that resemble 
miniature flowers, such as Apiomerus 
crassipes (Fabricius) and Sinea dia- 
dema (Fabricius). The wheel bug, 
Arilus cristatus (Linnaeus), a very 
large assassin bug, deposits elongated, 



bottle-like, sticky eggs in a vertical 
cluster on foliage. Each dark-brown 
egg has a white top similar to the cap 
on a milk bottle, and when the pro- 
nymph emerges, it pushes the cap aside 
or completely off the egg. 

This provides an introduction to 
just a few of the many, varied types 
of eggs found in the insect world. 
Orders of insects other than the Or- 
thoptera and Hemiptera, especially 
many moths and butterflies, also pro- 
duce interesting eggs. Butterfly eggs 
are often notable for their ornate 
sculpturing and for beautiful colors 



that may change during incubatiol 
Since detailed recommendations f( 
collecting insect eggs would easily fi 
a book, one example must suffice. 1 
collect moth eggs, one can captui 
females that have been attracted 1 
lights at night, especially "bla( 
lights," which emit mainly ultraviol' 
radiation. The moths can then be coi 
fined in inflated polyethylene or pla 
tic bags for two or three days, whe 
many of them will deposit eggs, eithi 
singly or in clusters, on the bag itsi 
or on bits of foliage, rough pap- 
wood, or cork enclosed in the ba 



Barrel-like stink bug eggs, genus Mormidea, are deposited 
here in compact rows. Their translucent, near-white shells 



remain after nymphs have hatched. Projections on tops ai 
ducts through which spermatozoa entered to fertilize egg 







Eccs of a family sonieliines look alike, but those of stink bug 
Brachymena are smooth and roumleil, unlike lliose below. 



lo Moiii ECCS, laid in clusters, are while with black i^poti^ 
Their color is of the shell itself, not of the endjryo inside 




"IfeS"* 



fhomh ot Dstronomm 




52 



^|n 1546, on December 14, a son 
M\ was born to Otto Brahe, some- 
I time privy councilor and 
Xr county lieutenant under King 
Frederick II of Denmark. The boy 
was christened Tyge, although he is 
now better known as Tycho, a latin- 
ized form that he adopted. His birth- 
place was the family estate at Knud- 
strup, which lies in the southernmost 
part of the Scandinavian peninsula, 
then a Danish possession. But Tycho 
was not left there for long. As soon 
as a brother was born in the follow- 
ing year, Tycho was stolen away by 
j his uncle Jorgen Brahe. Otto had 
j promised that if he should have an- 
I other son, his childless brother Jor- 
I gen could bring up Tycho. 

Tycho's education was designed to 
i train him for a post as councilor or 
j governor, and to this end his uncle 
j sent him to Copenhagen University 
! at the age of twelve, with the avowed 
j intent that he should read law and 
: philosophy. But Tycho was not in- 
i terested; his real loves were mathe- 
matics and astronomy, and this be- 
came apparent in 1560 when he was 
I not yet fourteen. In August of that 
i year he observed an eclipse of the 
sun in Copenhagen. His imagination 
seems to have been fired because 
the eclipse actually occurred at the 
predicted time, and he was deter- 
mined to find out how such events 
could be so accurately calculated. He 
acquired some astronomical tables, 
and three months later invested part 
of his allowance in a copy of 
Ptolemy's Almagest. However, this 
compendium of mathematical as- 
tronomy had been written 1,400 
years earlier, and it may seem a sad 
comment on the astronomy of his 
day that a book compiled in a.d. 150 
should still be current in 1560. 

The truth is that the aims of as- 
tronomy had progressed little since 
the days when Ptolemy worked in 
Alexandria. Only one problem still 
faced astronomers, and that was to 
explain precisely how the sun, moon, 
and planets moved among the stars. 
It was an accepted part of knowledge 
that they moved in circles at a regular 
pace, and the astronomer's task was 
to combine these in such a way that 
they accounted not only for the for- 
ward movement of the planets but 
also for their apparent retrograde 
motions and stationary points. In this 
Ptolemy had been particularly suc- 
cessful, although the facts had forced 



by Colin R.Roiiaii 

him to offset the center of motion a 
little from the center of the earth, and 
his ideas had been handed down to 
later generations, first from Alexan- 
dria to the Arabic schools of Bagh- 
dad and Toledo, and then, in the 
twelfth century, to Western Christen- 
dom. Ptolemy's ideas had not passed 
unchanged, however, for written 
comments were always inserted in 
the text, so that successive copies of 
his work rcllected the ideas and out- 
look of the astronomer editing it. For 
instance, Ptolemy's teachings, as re- 
ceived in the West, were linked with 
the belief that each planet was fixed 
to a physical sphere, which, neverthe- 
less, was forever unobservable be- 
cause it was made of a perfectly 
clear, crystal substance. And yet 
Ptolemy's mathematics of planetary 
motion remained gospel. 

Admittedly a new theory of the 
universe had been published in 1543 
by Nicholas Copernicus, a Polish 
cleric, who had become dissatisfied 
with the accepted teaching. After 
studying ideas that had been sug- 
gested in Greek times, Copernicus 
had evolved his own planetary sys- 
tem in which the sun and not the 
earth was the center about which the 
planets moved. But he had made few 
observations, and his theory was not 
taught in the universities. Equally to 
the point, his mathematics was sim- 
ilar to Ptolemy's, and so did not affect 
the standing of the Almagest. 

Tycho stayed three years in 
Copenhagen and then, like 
many other Danish stu- 
dents, went to study in Leip- 
zig. His uncle died in 1565, when 
Tycho was nineteen, and the follow- 
ing year the young man arrived at the 
University of Wittenberg, then one of 
the most famous in Europe. There he 
stayed for a brief five months, when 
he was forced to flee from the plague 
to Rostock. The University possessed 
no chair of astronomy, but it did 
boast of several professors who 
taught astrology and alchemy, in ad- 
dition to mathematics and medicine. 
In the sixteenth century there was no 
hard and fast line among the subjects. 
Man was considered the central fig- 
ure of the universe, and the old belief 
that each planet exerted its influence 
on human affairs was widely held. 



This same belief acted as a stimulant 
to observation. Accurate horoscopes 
were needed if the predictions were 
to be correct, and this in turn meant 
that the positions and motions of the 
planets had to be determined as pre- 
cisely as possible. In consequence, 
astronomy and astrology went hand 
in hand, even among scientifically 
minded men. 

^T^ link, too, existed between 
JLJ astrology and chemistry— 
pj ■ or alchemy as it was then 
^ W called (Natural History, 
August-September. 1963). It arose 
from the mystery that surrounded the 
strange processes of chemical 
change, when so often one substance 
seemed to be transformed into an- 
other. The alchemist found a parallel 
between generation of life in nature 
and generation of new substances in 
the laboratory. Because the planets 
were thought to affect the organs of 
the body and. especially, to have a 
powerful influence on the body 
fluids, the idea that planetary in- 
fluences were in operation when 
chemical changes occurred seemed to 
follow. The connection between as- 
trology and alchemy was therefore 
well established, and it is not to be 
wondered at that Tycho himself be- 
came fascinated by both, doubtless a 
consequence of his Rostock days. 

Tycho was impetuous, and at Ros- 
tock it resulted in his losing his nose, 
or at least a part of it. The trouble 
began over an argument as to who 
was the better mathematician, Tycho 
or a fellow countryman, Manderup 
Parsbjerg. The argument became so 
bitter that it ended in a duel, and al- 
though Tycho's biographers assure 
us that the two men later became 
great friends, the young astronomer 
ever after wore a false nose— some 
say it was made of gold and silver, 
others that it was of ivory or brass- 
to cover his disfigurement, as can be 
seen from the portrait of him by 
Michael Mierevelt {facing page). 

In 1568 Tycho left Rostock for 
Basel University. The next year he 
went to Augsburg, and it was here 
that his flair for designing astronom- 
ical instruments began to show itself. 
Tycho became friendly with an alder- 
man, Paul Hainzel, to whom he used 
to bemoan the inaccuracy of astro- 
nomical instruments, such as the 
cross-staff, that could measure to an 
accuracy of no more than Vs of a 



53 



degree— "puerile tools," he called 
them. Tycho wanted to be able to 
measure star positions to fractions of 
a minute of arc, and Hainzel, who 
was much interested in astronomy, 
agreed to pay for a large quadrant, 
built to his young friend's design. 
This had two straight arms separated 
by 90 degrees or a quarter of a circle 
(hence its name), with a curved arm 
joining them, and the whole device 



Large quadrant built in Augsburg, 
with arms 19 feet long, measured 
star altitudes to a minute of arc. 




was pivoted on a stout pillar. It was 
exceptional in the care with which it 
was made. Constructed of well-sea- 
soned oak, with each of its straight 
arms 1 9 feet long, it took the united 
efforts of twenty men to erect it. Yet 
its graduated arm carried a brass 
scale that was so meticulously 
marked with divisions for each min- 
ute of arc that it was possible for 
fractions of a minute to be estimated 
with confidence. At least, this was its 
theoretical accuracy, but in practice 
the pivots of the instrument and its 
general construction did not permit 
measurements of such precision. 

That Tycho Brahe had a flair for 
designing accurate observing instru- 
ments, however, shows up best in the 
work he did in establishing his own 
observatory on the island of Hveen. 
Although nothing but a few stone 
ruins now remain of what, in the six- 
teenth century, was the world's larg- 
est observatory, we do know from 
Tycho's own book, Astronomiae In- 
stauratae Mechanica ("Mechanics of 
the Renewed Astronomy"), pub- 
lished in 1598, and from the work of 
his assistant Willem Blaeu, full de- 
tails of his instruments and their 
mode of operation. Hveen, which lies 
between Elsinore and Copenhagen, 
is no more than three miles from end 
to end. It was given to Tycho by King 
Frederick II of Denmark in May, 
1576, complete, as the royal decree 
put it "with all . . . the crown's tenants 
and servants who thereon live, with 



Tycho used transversals (dotted 
lines at left) to divide arc into 
minutes for angular measurements. 



all rent and duty which comes from 
that. . . ." Considering that the island 
is good agricultural land with an 
abundance of game and fish, and that 
the King also added a sum of money 
toward building a house, it was in- 
deed an extraordinary gift. 

The house, complete with al- 
chemical laboratory and several ob- 
servatories, was built in the center of 
the island where the ground rises to 
some 160 feet. Tycho named it Uran- 
iborg, in honor of Urania, Muse of 
astronomy. It was a large Gothic 
Renaissance building, designed by a 
German architect, and with its slen- 
der spires and decorated gables, its 
delicate appearance was a novel de- 
parture from the heavy medieval 
style of contemporary Danish archi- 
tecture. Here Tycho designed and 
built instruments more accurate than 
any the world had known before. 

d af il ostof the instruments were 
J J| J| large, like the Augsburg 
p jj J quadrant, since this per- 
jm Wrmr mitted the use of scales of 
considerable length, so that errors in 
scribing the divisions on them were 
of less consequence than they would 
have been on scales of smaller size. 
Moreover, Tycho used a novel way 
of dividing his scales so that he could 
read accurately to fractions of a di- 
vision. His method was based on the 
use of transversals (diagonal lines 
drawn between the divisions on a 
scale), which had been devised at 
least fifteen years earlier. Tycho's in- 
novation was that he adapted the idea 
to the curved scales on astronomical 
instruments, and substituted equally 
spaced dots for the lines. As a result, 
he was able to read directly to a tenth 
part of a division— that is, to one min- 




ute of arc. By estimate he could make 
measurements consistently to frac- 
tions of a minute. 

This was not only because of the 
engraving of the scales, but also be- 
cause of the construction of the in- 
struments themselves. Tycho insured 
that they were rigid, since the most 
accurate scales were useless if the 
instrument to which they were fitted 
gave flexure in any direction. He 
therefore braced the wooden instru- 
ments with brass or steel plates and 
even had some of his observing in- 
struments made entirely of metal— 
another innovation. What is more, 
when experience showed him that 
wind blowing on his larger instru- 
ments affected the accuracy of some 
of his observations, he built a sub- 
terranean observatory outside the 
walls and to the south of Uraniborg. 
He called it Stellaeburgum (Stjerne- 
borg in Danish), and here all the 
large instruments were mounted well 
below ground level; only the domes 
of the buildings appeared above- 
ground (Natural History, June- 
July, 1964). In this way, errors 
caused by the wind were avoided. 

With all their refinements, which 



54 



included a new design permitting fine 
adjustment to the alignment of the 
lensless sighting lubes, Tyeho and 
his assistants made the most aceuratc 
observations the world had ever seen. 
Part of their success was due to 
Tycho's appreciation of the apparent 
displacement of stellar images caused 
by refraction through the atmosphere 
and his ell'orts to allow for this error. 
But above all, his success was due to 
his insistence that the errors inherent 
in any instrument, however well 
made, should be taken into account. 
This understanding of instrumental 
error was, again, an innovation, and 
went far in helping him to achieve 
regularly what in the sixteenth cen- 
tury was an outstanding degree of 
precision. The late Professor Dreyer, 
by comparing modern star positions 
with those obtained at Hveen, has 
shown that Tycho achieved a con- 
sistent accuracy of at least one min- 
ute of arc, an improvement of five to 
six times over the best of his con- 
temporaries. But his work did more 
than this, for it laid the foundations 
of modern observing methods in as- 
tronomy. Instrumental errors and the 
errors due to atmospheric refraction 
are now always taken into account. 
Moreover, Tycho's habit of observ- 
ing a celestial body whenever it was 
visible instead of only on astrologi- 
cally auspicious occasions, as was 
then the custom, is a practice that has 
been continued. Indeed, there is no 
basic aspect of astronomical observ- 
ing that Tycho did not enrich. 



Me only remained at Hveen 
for twenty-one years, for in 
1597 he and his family 
were driven from the 
island. Their exile is a tragic and 
muddled story. Tycho had trouble 
with his tenants, and he failed to ful- 
fill some of his overseeing responsi- 
bilities under the crown. When King 
Frederick died in 1588, the situation 
went from bad to worse, (he new 
government appeared to support him 
at first, but some of his enemies at 
court, doubtless jealous of his posi- 
tion, thought him too self-willed and 
too highly paid. They began to agi- 
tate for his removal from the island, 
and by 1597 things had become so 
difiicult that he took his family and 
many of his instruments across to 
Copenhagen. Here he was forbidden 
to set up an observatory and could 
only continue his alchemy. After 
three months, therefore, he moved 
with his instruments to Germany, 
where he stayed for two years and 
looked for a new patron. 

How much Tycho himself was re- 



sponsible for his expulsion from 
Hveen wc shall probably never 
know. He certainly held himself in 
high esteem, as one of the inscrip- 
tions over the entrance to Stellaebur- 
gum, which he quoted in his Asiron- 
omiae, makes clear. Part of it runs 
". . . Tycho Brahc, son of Otto, who 
realized that Astronomy . . . still had 
not . . . been purified of errors, in 
order to reform it and raise it to per- 
fection, invented and with incredible 
labor, industry and expenditure con- 
structed various exact instruments 
suitable for all kinds of observations 
of the celestial bodies . . . and con- 
secrating this very rare and costly 
treasure to you. you glorious Poster- 
ity .. . adjures you that in honor of 
the eternal God . . . you will con- 
stantly preserve it . . . out of rever- 
ence to the Creator's eye, which 
watches over the universe." Again 
Professor Dreyer recorded that on 
the ceiling of the underground study 
were eight portraits of astronomers, 
ranging from the Greek Hipparchus 
to Tycho and a mythical successor 
named Tychonidcs who was exhorted 
to be worthy of his great ancestor. 
Some modern historians see in these 
evidence of Tycho's arrogance, but 
others see only a self-esteem— with 
perhaps a little bombast— and would 
credit his behavior at Hveen to his 
preoccupation with astronomy rather 
than to his tyranny. Whatever the 
truth, he never went back to Uraniborg. 
He prepared his Astronomiae In- 
staiiratae Mechanica about his in- 



Uraniborg, on Denmark's island 
of Hveen, was the site of Tycho's 
observations for twenty-one years. 




struments and observations and dedi- 
cated it to the astronomically minded 
Emperor of Austria, Rudolph II. He 
also had a few manuscript copies 
drawn up of his catalogue of 777 
stars and added some additional, but 
not so accurate, observations to bring 
the number up to 1,000. He present- 
ed a copy of each to Rudolph II in 
January, 1598. The Emperor re- 
sponded by taking him into his serv- 
ice and giving him the castle of 
Benatky, situated on the banks of the 
river Iser about 22 miles northeast 
of Prague. Here Tycho established 
an observatory and here, as to 
Hveen, came pupils and assistants, 
attracted by his fame. The astron- 
omer Longomontanus, who for a 
time had been with him at Hveen, 
worked at Benatky, and thence came 
Johannes Kepler, already a man with 
a substantial reputation. 

Tycho's fame rested not only 
on his instruments and ob- 
servatory at Hveen, but also 
on the actual observations 
and discoveries he had made, and on 
his theory of planetary motion. He 
had come to public notice in 1573 
with De Nova Stella, a small book 
about a new star that had first ap- 
peared in November of the preceding 
year. Modern research has made it 
clear that this was a supernova, since 
records show that its brilliance can 
only be accounted for by supposing 
that it was an exploding star that 
shot most of its substance out into 
space as an immense glowing en- 
velope of gas. The supernova of 1572 
was so bright that, for a time, it could 
be seen in daylight. In company with 
other careful observers of the day, 
Tycho discovered a strange fact: the 
supernova was farther away than the 
moon. Today this is what we should 
expect, but in the sixteenth century it 
was revolutionary, since it meant that 
an actual change had occurred in that 
part of the heavens that lay farther 
away than the moon. This was in 
direct opposition to the accepted 
view that the heavens beyond the 
moon were immutable, and that any 
change in the sky must have a mete- 
orological explanation. Tycho had 
thus made observations of real im- 
portance, and although they made 
little impression on his fellow coun- 
trymen, they caused a considerable 
stir among continental astronomers. 
His next important set of observa- 

S6 



tions concerned a bright comet that 
appeared in November, 1577, caus- 
ing much interest among the learned 
and concern among the public, who 
still believed that a comet was an 
omen of disaster. Tycho made many 
observations of it and also collected 
information from other European as- 
tronomers. In 1588 he published his 
results and made it clear that the 
comet, like the supernova of 1572, 
lay far out in space. Because its path 
cut across the heavens, it had appar- 
ently cut through the "crystalline 
spheres" of the planets, which made 
the spheres' existence questionable. 
Tycho had therefore produced evi- 
dence that at least indicated a new 
outlook was required, and it is char- 
acteristic of him that he should set 
about supplying this himself. He dis- 
liked the moving earth hypothesis of 
Copernicus, because he considered it 
against scriptural teaching. Equally 
important, he could find no evidence 
of a parallactic shift of the stars that 
should be observable if the earth 
moved. We now know that excellent 
though his observations were, they 
did not reach the accuracy required 
to show this phenomenon, which, for 
even the nearest stars, amounts to no 
more than 0.76 of a second of arc. 
It took another two and a half cen- 
turies before an accuracy more than 
sixty times better than Tycho's could 
be achieved, and stellar parallax 
measured. Tycho, obtaining no per- 
ceptible result, devised his own plan- 
etary system. In this the earth was 
stationary in the center of the uni- 
verse, with the sun and moon orbiting 
around it, as in Ptolemy's system, but 
with the important difference that 
the remaining planets orbited around 
the sun. It was in essence a com- 
promise between the thoroughgoing 
heliocentric theory of Copernicus 
and the entirely geocentric system of 
Ptolemy, with the advantage that it 
did no violence to scripture. 

g n many quarters Tycho's theory 
M met with considerable success, 
P especially among the Jesuits, 
Ar and in France it was still to be 
found supported well into the middle 
of the next century. Tycho himself 
had great faith in it, and when he 
passed his planetary observations on 
to Kepler at Benatky he said that he 
hoped they would make Kepler agree 
with him. But Kepler found that the 
observations showed both Tycho and 



Copernicus to be wrong, and that all 
the planets moved, not in circles, but 
in ellipses around the sun. 

Tycho did not live to learn of Kep- 
ler's results. On October 24, 1601, he 
died, and Kepler was to have eight 
more years of hard work before he 
began to solve the riddle of planetary 
motion. Yet without Tycho, Kepler 
would not have been able to reach 
his epoch-making conclusions, as he 
himself was always ready to acknowl- 
edge. Without Tycho the art and sci- 
ence of observing the heavens with 




great precision might have taken far 
longer to develop. In fact, as Kepler 
said, "Tycho possesses the best ob- 
servations and consequently, as it 
were, the material for the erection of 
a new structure | in astronomy | ." 
Whatever we may think of Tycho's 
theoretical work, of his predilection 
for astrology and alchemy, it is clear 
that he was most important as an ob- 
server. In Kepler's words, Tycho was 
the "Phoenix of astronomers"; in- 
deed, through the accuracy he at- 
tained, astronomy was truly reborn. 




Equatorial annillary, with rings 
representing system of celestial 
co-ordinates, aided in preparation 
of catalogues of the star positions. 




Ptolemaic universe, as rendered 
in 1504, showed earth in center 
surrounded l^y orbiting sun, moon, 
and planets, and sphere of stars. 




Copernicus placed sun in center 
of universe with earth and other 
planets revolving around it. This 
conception was published in 1632. 



Tychonic theory was compromise 
between systems above, with sun 
and moon orbiting earth (A), and 
other planets orbiting the sun (C). 



57 



Naturalists' Notebook 



The Art of 
The Biological 
Photographer 



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AFRICAN TAPEWORM 

A glass-topped table, a reflector, and 
a lamp with diffuser all helped to 
achieve the detail present in this 
photo by Luvenia C. Miller of the 
A rmed Forces Institute of Pathology. 



58 




The photographs on these and the following two pages 
are from the various natural science subjects 
that were recently displayed at the annual convention of the 
Biological Photographic Association, held this year in 
New York City. Founded at Yale University in 1931, the aims 
of the Association are to advance the study and the 
application of photography in relation to the biological 
sciences and to improve its technique. In meetings 
and publications, the Association's nine hundred members 
exchange ideas and keep abreast of new equipment or 
approaches being used. While the majority of the 
membership is involved in the medical field and includes men 
and women who are medical photographers and illustrators, 
physicians, or X-ray technicians, "biological" is 
interpreted to encompass the photography of all things 
that live or have lived. As these four pages bear out, the 
natural sciences are well represented, both by 
a wide range of subject matter and a wide variety of 
techniques employed to produce these outstanding pictures. 




GENUS LOGEAPYXEDIFERA 

Ethel McM. Brown, who is a medical 
illustrator at the Medical College 
of South Carolina, used a six-inch 
Goerz-Dagor lens to photograph the 
two caterpillars feeding on a leaf. 



MACACA SPECIOSA 

Bronica S camera, hand-held, was 
employed for portrait of stump-tailed 
macaque. The photographer, Lois L. 
Wright, is on staff of the Oregon 
Regional Primate Research Center. 



59 





INSECT BEHAVIOR 

In this sequence, part of a longer 
one taken at one-minute intervals 
by Colin Burdall, the larva of a 
monarch butterfly hatches and then 
proceeds to devour empty eggshell. 



MULE DEER FETUS 

Donald H. Fritts, medical illustrator 
at Montana State College Veterinary 
Research Center, used glass table 
with illumination above and below 
to capture fetus's delicate texture. 



60 



SAW- WHET OWL 

With camera and flash clamped in i 
tree, Hans Dommasch waited. Tht 
owl returned, carrying a mouse, am 
from 25 feet away Mr. DommascI 
tripped the shutter by air release 



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About the Authors 

"The Sea Gypsies of China" is the 
work of Dr. Wilmon Menard, who has 
written for many American and foreign 
publications and has just completed an 
anthropological study of the women of 
Tahiti and French Oceania. He studied 
at the University of California at Berke- 
ley and did graduate work at the Sor- 
bonne, achieving doctorates in sociology 
and philosophy. He has written for 
Natural History in the past. 

Dr. Virgil N. Argo, a frequent con- 
tributor to Natural History, wrote 
"The Bull-horn Acacia." Before retire- 
ment, he was Associate Professor of Biol- 
ogy at The City College of New York. 

Dr. Allen Keast, who wrote "Austra- 
lia's Spotted Diamondbirds," is Presi- 
dent of the Royal Australasian Ornithol- 
ogists Union, a Research Fellow in the 
Department of Ornithology at the Amer- 
ican Museum, and an Associate Profes- 
sor of Biology at Queen's University, 
Kingston, Ontario, Canada. 

Dr. John A. Day, author of "The 
Building Blocks of the Clouds," was 
graduated in the first airline meteorology 
class at Boeing School of Aeronautics in 
1937 and subsequently worked as a 
meteorologist for Pan American Air- 
ways. He received his Ph.D. in 1957 from 
Oregon State University, writing his 
thesis in cloud physics on the nucleation 
of small water droplets. He collaborated 
with Dr. F. W. Decker on the book Rudi- 
ments of Weather, and in 1961 co- 
authored Water, the Mirror of Science. 
During 1962-63, Dr. Day was an N.S.F. 
Science Faculty Fellow in the Depart- 
ment of Cloud Physics, Imperial College, 
London. He teaches at Linfield College 
in McMinnville, Oregon. 

"Patterns in Wood" was written by 
Paul Villiard, who has taught veneer- 
ing, cabinetmaking, and woodworking 
for many years, and is now writing a 
book on veneering. He collects rare 
veneers and designs furniture according 
to the figure, grain, and color of each 
species. He is also a biophotographer 
and writer on natural history subjects. 

Dr. Alvah Peterson, Professor 
Emeritus at The Ohio State University, 
wrote "Ornamental Eggs of the Insects." 
Dr. Peterson has published many papers 
and books on the biology of insects and is 
currently preparing a book on insect 
eggs based on research conducted under 
a National Science Foundation grant. He 
was an undergraduate at Knox College, 
received his Ph.D. from the University 
of Illinois, and was Professor of Ento- 
mology at Ohio State from 1928 to 1958. 

Colin A. Ronan, author of "Phoenix 
of Astronomers," is Director of the His- 
torical Section of the British Astronomi- 
cal Association, a Fellow of the Royal 
Astronomical Society, and also a Mem- 
ber of the Junior Astronomical Society. 



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62 



SCIENCE! IN ACTION 



INew age for hydrology 



'By Raymond L. Nace 

Editor's note: In lliis magazine just one 
year ago (.luniiary, 1964), Dr. Nace, in 
an article entitled "Water of tlie World," 
emi)liasized the global aspects of water 
problems. He also mentioned the prob- 

' iiliilily of an International Hydrological 
llnade, to begin in 1965. That proba- 

1 liiliiy has now become an accomplished 
l:iri. Here Dr. Nace discusses the philu- 
sn|iliic and economic implications of the 
next ten years of study and co-operation 

I aiiKing many of the world's nations. 

Ir lias been said that the mark of the 
Uiie scientist is that he addresses 
himself to the central problem of his 
lime. This sounds a bit opportunistic. 
Perhaps the true-blue scientist should 
attack the central problem of the near 
! future, because he can have an impact 
I only pn the future. The scientific dis- 
I covery of today is the working knowl- 
I edge of tomorrow, and discoveries have 
I no effect until they are put to work. 
I One drawback to dealing with the 
I future, however, is that most people pre- 
fer to ignore it until it acquires present 
tense, imperative mood. In the case of 
water difficulties, both the opportunist 
and the prophet are on sure ground. 
Water is a central problem now in many 
parts of the world, and in the clearly 
visible future it will be a central prob- 
lem just about everywhere. For that rea- 
son, interest should be widespread in 
the IHD — International Hydrological 
Decade — which may turn out to be the 
most important long-range international 
' program yet organized to help make 
human knowledge serve human welfare. 
The IHD will begin in January, 1965, 
with about sixty countries already pledg- 
ed to participate and more certain to 
join in. As the New Year rolls in, no 
rocket will whiz to commemorate the oc- 
casion and no satellite will go into orbit 
for television. It is not that kind of pro- 
gram; the beginning will be modest. 

Special training schools will be or- 
ganized to improve the competence of hy- 
drologists in undeveloped countries; 
sciiolarships will be awarded so that 
some of the best may do advanced studies 
in well-established research centers. 
Scientific missions will be dispatched to 
help countries organize their scientific 
services and plan their water-develop- 
mf;nt activities. Universities and govern- 
ment agencies in various countries will 
exchange professors and scientists on 
tours of duty for mutual stimulation and 
joint study of common problems. Scien- 



tists in diflerent parts of the world will be 
writing handbooks, textbooks, and manu- 
als of hydrology adapted to the special 
needs of the less-advanced countries. 
These and many other related activities 
will be sponsored by international 
agencies, such as the United Nations 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organization, the World Meteorological 
Organization, the Food and Agricul- 
tural Organization, the World Health 
Organization, and the International 
Atomic Energy Agency, and by scientific 
associations— modest programs because 
these agencies have modest budgets. 

The operational program will consist 
chiefly of the activities of member states 
of UNESCO, who will be largely respon- 
sible for the staffing and financing of 
their own activities. These activities will 
range from the reading of a simple staff 
gauge on a river to installing an auto- 
matic recording gauge; from measuring 
the discharge of a river past a given 
point to computing the water balance of 
an entire continent; from measuring the 
movement of a glacier to computing the 
mass balance of glaciers and icecaps of 
the world; from measuring the water 
level in a well to estimating the sub- 
marine discharge of ground water into 
the sea; from reading a rain gauge to 
estimating the water balance of the 
atmosphere; from simple applied tasks 
having immediate utility to less prag- 
matic tasks whose benefits lie largely in 
the future. In short, the program will 
consist of many studies, large and small, 
any one of which may be insignificant in 
itself, but in the aggregate the studies 
will form the indispensable basis for the 
task of enabling men to use a finite sup- 
ply of water to meet a limitless demand. 

WATER, one of the simplest of chemi- 
cal compounds (if any compound 
is simple), is the greatest common de- 
nominator of the earthly environment so 
far as organisms are concerned. Water 
is present in the atmosphere to a height 
of more than 90 kilometers, and in the 
rocky mantle of the earth to at least an 
equal depth. Water is the tear of com- 
passion, the mist rising from the swamp, 
the rippled lake, the restless sea. It is the 
creeping Antarctic icecap; as exploding 
steam, it is the prime mover of some of 
earth's greatest volcanic upheavals. In 
rivers, it is the endless file that sculp- 
tures the face of the earth. All these 
phenomena imply movement — perhaps 
the most important property of water. 




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THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 
NEW YORK, NEW YORK 10024 



The cycle of water movement— by evap- | 
oration from ocean to atmosphere, by 
precipitation on land, and by runoff back 
to the sea— has been called "Nature's 
Perpetual Motion Machine."' This char- 
acterization is not wholly apt, because 
by definition a perpetual motion ma- 
chine, once set moving, would continue 
forever without application of new 
energy. Nature's water machine, how- 
ever, moves only because new energy is 
applied and transferred continually. The 
chief source of energy is the sun, and 
the amount is tremendous. It is esti- 
mated that vapor transformations in the 
water cycle— evaporation and conden- 
sation—involve an annual energy trans- 
action of 3X10-- calories. 

When the weather reporter describes 
the antics of hurricane Desdemona— or 
Delilah or Jezebel, as the case may be— 
we think of her principally as a potential 
source of foul weather, which she is. But 
she is also one of nature's water wheels. 
The air mass in a hurricane 500 miles 
across may contain on the order of 5 
to 10 cubic miles of water weighing in 
the neighborhood of 5 to 10 billion tons. 
The air mass may transport this water 
thousands of miles from the places where li 
it evaporated from the sea to the places • » 
where it falls as rain. Other less spec- 
tacular but generally more effective air 
movements accomplish the main global. 
continental, and local atmospheric trans- 
port of water. i- 

The point is that the occurrence and - 
distribution of water in any part of the li^ 
globe is a consequence of its occurrence i 
and movement in all other parts of the 
globe. In addition, global aspects ofj 
water are closely related to certain at- 
mospheric phenomena that have had 
widespread attention in international 
geophysical studies. 'What then could 
be more appropriate than co-operative 
international scientific study of water? 

We hear much brave talk about rain 
making and "weather modification." But 
if scientists ever devise an effective cloud 
wringer or find a way to get a bigger 
dipper in the rain barrel, it will be on 
the basis of a much better understandin 
of water and of the atmosphere than is 
available now. The IHD is an effort to 
gain better understanding— not, however, 
for the distant prospect of tampering 
with climate and weather, but for the 
immediate need to predict the natural 
water yield of weather a year and more 
ahead. These predictions should include 
the time and place of the water yield as 
well as its quantity. 

MAN takes quite literally the ancienl 
Judaic assertion that he shall in- 
herit the earth. He has spread into every 
corner of it and now threatens to infesi 
other planets as well. However, if one 
scans recent population figures in the 
light of a cold winter dawn, he may sus 
pect that man is multiplying his way intdj 



64 




WING SAFARI 



ON LINDBLAD TRAVEL'S 22 day 'WING SAFARI" you will enjoy 
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We visit the newly opened NORTHERN FRONTIER DISTRICT, 
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Watch the migration of tens of thousands of zebra, wildebeeste, 
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Sports and fun at MOUNT KENYA SAFARI CLUB and MNARANI 
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66 



THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, N.Y. 24, N.Y 



oblivion rather than ejecting himself into 
the distant lap of Venus. Be that as it 
may, life must go on, since none of us is 
willing to give up, and somehow we must 
face the problems that our sons will jj 
inherit along with the legacy of a rather 
moth-eaten (or man-eaten) world. These j^: 
future problems will be vastly more jji 
complex and numerous than any we face 
now, although their nature can be rather 
clearly foreseen. I do not speak merely 
of individual misery or well-being or yet 
of internal national problems. In some 
parts of the world today, armed forces 
confront each other, poised for conflict 
over the most common commodity in 
earth— a commodity whose lack would 
bring national disaster. These situations 
will multiply and increase in gravity un- 
less men make faster progress in their 
ability to cope scientiiically with water 

THE IHD is planned as a decade of 
progress. A recent study in 75 "less- 
developed" countries discloses that 130 
million people depend on water supplies 
that are inadequate, unhealthy, or both 
Another 80 million have water situations 
that few Americans would tolerate. With 
in 15 years, 340 million people in those 
countries will have unsatisfactory and 
dangerous water supplies unless drastic 
improvements are made continually, 
starting immediately. Thus the "decade' 
probably will extend in some form to a 
longer or indefinite period. 

Problems are not confined, of course, 
to the poor countries. Those of the de- 
veloped countries will be staggering. The 
profligate waste and reckless abuse of 
water in the United States has created a 
situation in which it will cost billions 
of dollars merely to clean up existing 
water supplies, to say nothing of the cost 
of protecting them from the tremen- 
dous production of wastes by expanding 
industry and growing population. 

The industrialized nations, however, 
have several important advantages aside 
from their economic viability. One advan- 
tage is that their governments recognize 
the economic and social importance of 
science and provide financial support for 
it. This is not true in perhaps a majority 
of poor countries. 

During discussions of the IHD pro- 
gram at UNESCO House in Paris, many 
of the 150 delegates spoke spiritedly of 
the need to provide education and train- 
ing for hydrologists and technicians— an 
essential segment of the program. One 
realist remarked that this fine talk was 
encouraging but added that the program 
will require education of another kind, 
coupled with loosening of governmental 
purse strings. What provision will 
UNESCO make for the education of 
presidents and kings, of members of 
parliaments and ministers of finance? 

In reality, that sort of education is one 
of the prime objectives of the IHD. Water 



tiiul walor pioljli'iiis, il lias liceii agii:c-<i, 
nijsl lie iilaccd Ki|iiaii'ly licfoic iIil- pub- 
ic and i^ovcriiiiicnlal I'yi' lliroiigliout llie 
Wdild in oriler lo eslalili-sli the sobi^ring 
fact that man's future success on this 
(ilanet may wtdl hinge largely on his 
'"iiliilily to manage wali'r cfTectively. This 
iiliilily will be closely tied to scientific 
iinilcistanding of water. In lurii, llie 
Iiliilily of science lo advance human well- 
In ing in any nation depends on wlietlior 
I III- government of that nation recognizes 
ilir importance of science in its national 
icoiiiimy, provides adequate resources 
liir llie advancement of science and tech- 
nology, and actually uses the available 
(scientific and technical knowledge. 
Some of my colleagues at home and 
abroad have raised the question whether 
llie poor and undeveloped countries 
irally can contribute to an inlernational 
^( iciilific program. This question sounds 
^iiixrcilious. We must remember several 
ihiiigs about science: (1) Contrary to 
widespread misconceptions even among 
sricniists, who ought to pay more atten- 
lion to history, science is thousands of 
years old. Only "Big Science" is new. Na- 
lioiis that are only now emerging literally 
from the Stone Age can contribute to 
science, just as they contribute to the 
sum of human culture. (2) Science is not 
magic; it is hard work. In an age when 
any minor discovery may be heralded 
as a "break-through," it is important to 
realize that human progress is based not 
only on the ostensibly single-handed, 
spectacular achievements of a few publi- 
cized individuals but also on the dedi- 
cated service of many obscure individ- 
uals, unhonored and unrecognized, who 
do the countless little tasks that make the 
spectaculars possible. (3) The results 
of science are accumulative, and its 
breadth and usefulness grow continually. 
One can contribute to science by using it, 
as well as by studying it and seeking new 
principles. (4) Any intelligent and dili- 
gent person can contribute to science, 
and all populations include intelligent 
land diligent people. Both attributes are 
'essential, because intelligence without 
I diligence generally is fruitless, and dili- 
Igence without intelligence is blind. 
I 

HUMAN knowledge and ingenuity are 
adequate to make considerable 
alterations in the physical world. Many 
alterations that have been made have 
been ill-advised, perhaps reckless, but 
that is because at most places modern 
men have combated the forces of nature, 
rather than learned to work with those 
forces to reach desirable and attainable 
ends. This is true of all countries, and 
merely bespeaks the fact that available 
knowledge of the physical world is 
greater than is being generally used. 

People who ought to know say that it 
is not only conceivable but actually pos- 
sible to abolish famine and to control 




IVe prim the sprocket holes here to show exactly what the Questar Field Model 
below impressed on the Tri-X negative. Time, 1/500 second. Normal development 
with D-76. Some of the background buildings are partially obscured by smoke. 




This photograph was taken with a Questar 
telescope. We think no other instrument 
could show such sharp detail. 

The problem here is one that always 
limits telescopes and telephoto lenses — 
how to get sharp images through moving 
heated air. This air path measures some 
4000 feet, and the line of sight is so 
murderously low that it contains most of 
the heat waves rising from these inter- 
vening sun-drenched fields. 

Astronomers tell us that the average 
atmospheric heat wave is about 4 inches 
long. Any telescope whose aperture ex- 
ceeds this size will quickly suffer from 
the deadly confusion of overlapping mul- 




tiple images these air waves cause. Per- 
fect focus becomes impossible. 

The 3-pound Questar Field Model at 
right, has only 3.5 inches aperture. We 
make each one so fine the hand of man 
cannot improve it. To meet our extrava- 
gant demands, each Questar must per- 
form twice as well as theory predicts, no 
matter how many sets of conventionally 
perfect optics we must reject to achieve 
this extraordinary result. 

Thus Questar's superfine small aperttu-e 
can pierce single heat waves like a slender 
rapier, and deliver the same wealth of 
detail that could not reach us from larger 
instruments of just commercial quality. 



Questar is the finest and most versatile small 
telescope in the world. At left is a Standard 
Questar, which requires no tripod for most pur- 
poses. Prices begin at $795. Send for your copy 
of the new 40-page booklet with 8 pages of 
color and much general information, with essays 
on optics, seeing and telescopic photography. 
One dollar postpaid in U.S., Mexico and 
Canada. By air to West Indies and Central 
America, $2.30. By air to Europe, N. Africa and 
S. America, $2.50. By air to Australia and else- 
where, $3.50. 

QUESTAR 

BOX 60 NEW HOPE, PENNSYLVANIA 

67 



If you are 
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Dr. Nace, research hydrologist with 
the Geological Survey of the U.S. 
Department of the Interior, has been 
recently appointed by the National 
Academy of Sciences as chairman of 
its U.S. National Committee for the 
International Hydrological Decade. 

disease, both of which are closely tied 
to water problems. But science cannot do 
it alone. These are problems of human 
societies that cannot be pushed in super- 
imposed, intellectually chosen directions. 
Strong social forces often are decisive, 
and the physical scientist often is so- 
cially powerless. In the final analysis, 
water problems are human problems, 
and physical science cannot solve human 
problems; it can solve only scientific 
ones. At the same time, science can— at 
the very least— provide a sound basis 
from which receptive humans can ap- 
proach their problems. 

Co-operation implies reciprocal un- 
derstanding and agreement. In most 
human activities, especially on the ideo- 
logical and other social planes, under- 
standing and agreement are difficult to 
achieve because there is always room 
for difference of opinion and argument. 
The principles of science are based on 
experiments that can be repeated and 
verified, so there is less room for argu- 
ment than in other activities and even, 
mirabile dictu, less danger of emotional 
involvement. A scientific program, there- 
fore, can contribute much to interna- 
tional understanding. A principal short- 
coming of the peoples of the world is 
their limited ability to co-operate and 
plan. This ability, however, is much 
greater on the scientific plane than on 
the social one. as has been demonstrated 
by every international scientific program 
ever undertaken. 

Science is intrinsically international 
because a scientific principle is a uni- 
versal truth. The idea for an Interna- 
tional Hydrological Decade arose among 
men who recognize that science has 
plenty of room for advancement. At the 
same time, scientists need more social 
consciousness and must contribute more 
directly to human welfare. Investment 
in science is an investment in man, be- 
cause science is man-made. It is an 
investment in a better world. 

This list details the photographer, artist, 
or other source of illustrations, by page. 
38-43-Diagrams, AMNH 
after John A. Day 
38— top, Homer Groening 



COVER-Burt Glinn- 
Magnum 

12-Wilmon Menard 
13-15-George togue 
16-21-Wilrion Menard 
except 17-top right, 
George togue 
22-27-Virgil N. Argo 
28-31-Michael K. 
Morcombe 
32-Harvard College 
Observatory 

33-34-Mount Wilson and 
Palomar Observatories 
except 34-top, Harvard 
College Observatory 
35-AMNH 

36-37-Jeanne Cortright 
Neff 



39-top right, John A. Day 
40-41-Woods Hole 
Oceanographic Institute 
42-43-Lloyd Schaad 
45-Paui Villiard 
46-51-Aivah Peterson 
52-57-Ronan Picture 
Library 

58-Luvenia C. Miller 
58-59-Ethel McM. Brov^n 
59-Lois L. Wright 
60-top, Colin B. Burdall 
60-Donald H. Fritts 
61— Hans S. Dommasch 



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African mammals, 
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% 



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Additional Reading 

THE SEA GYPSIES OF CHINA 

China; Its People, Its Society, Its 
Culture. Chang-tu Hu in collabora- 
tion with Samuel C. Chu, Leslie L. 
Clark, Jung-pang Lo, and Yuan-li Wu. 
HRAF Press, New Haven, 1960. 

The Religion of the Chinese. J. J. M. 
de Groot The Macmillan Co., N. Y., 
1910. 
THE BULL-HORN ACACIA 

Ant Acacias and Acacia Ants of Mex- 
ico AND Central America. W. E. Saf- 
ford. Smithsonian Institution Annual 
Report, pages 381-394, 1921. 

The Naturalist in Nicaragua. Thomas 
Belt. J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd., London, 
1888. 

AUSTRALIA'S 
SPOTTED DIAMONDBIRDS 

A Handbook of the Birds of Western 
Australia. D. L. Serventy and H. M. 
Whittell. Paterson Brokensha, Pty. 
Ltd., Perth, 1951. 

Some Bush Birds of Australia. Allen 
Keast. Jacaranda Press, Brisbane, 
1960. 

THE BUILDING BLOCKS 
OF THE CLOUDS 

Cloud Physics and Cloud Seeding. 
Louis J. Battan. Anchor Books, Gar- 
den City. 1962. 

The Sea Around Us. Rachel Carson. 
Oxford University Press, N. Y., 19.51. 

Water, The Mirror of Science. John 
A. Day and Kenneth S. Davis. Anchor 
Books. Garden City. 1961. 

PATTERNS IN WOOD 

Veneering Made Easy. Herman Hjorth. 
Albert Constantine & Sons, Inc., N. Y., 
1954. 

ORNAMENTAL EGGS 
OF THE INSECTS 

The Amazing World of Insects. A. T. 
Bandsma and R. T. Brandt. The Mac- 
millan Co., N. Y., 1963. 

The Insects. Url Lanham. Columbia 
University Press, N. Y., 1964. 

Entomological Techniques, How to 
Work with Insects. Alvah Peterson. 
Edwards Bros., Ann Arbor, 1964. 
PHOENIX OF ASTRONOMERS 

Man Probes the Universe. Colin A. 
Ronan. Natural History Press, N. Y., 
1964. 

The Sleepwalkers. Arthur Koestler. 
Grosset & Dunlap, Inc., N. Y., 1963. 

Changing Views of the Universe. 
Colin A. Ronan. The Macmillan Co., 
N. Y., 1961. 
NEW AGE FOR HYDROLOGY 

The International Hydrological 
Decade. M. A. Kohler. IForld Meteor- 
ological Organization Bulletin, pages 
193-197, 1963. 

The International Hydrological 
Decade. R. L. Nace. Transactions, 
American Geophysical Union, Vol. 45, 
No. 3, September, 1964. 



Overseas 
Nature Tours— 1965 



27. Also ICELAND, 2 whs., June 13. 

LATIN AMERICA: YUCATAN, 2 wka., Feb. 
14; MEXICO. 2 wks., Apr. 19; SOUTH AMER- 
ICA, 4 wks., July 4. 



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e.\tension in South Sea Islands. 

DOMESTIC TOURS: TEXAS, 2 wks. from 
Corpus Christi, Mar. 28; ARIZONA, 2 wks. 
from Tucson, May 15 



in birds, but strong secondary at- 
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m0U 



February 1965 • 50^ 



Natural History 

Incorporating Nature Magazine ^/ 





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wondered why 
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PRESIDENT 

Alexander M. White 

DIRECTOR 

James A. Oliver 

ASSISTANT DIRECTORS 

Walter F. Meister, Joseph M. Chamberlain 



MANAGING EDITOR 

Robert E. Williamson 

EXECUTIVE EDITOR 

Helene Jordan 

SENIOR EDITOR 
John S. Erwin 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

Harry Atkins, Beth Stokes 

COPY EDITORS 

Florence Brauner, Florence Klodin 

REVIEWS 

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PHOTOGRAPHY 

Lee Boltin 

PRODUCTION 

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Mairgreg Ross, Asst. 

CONTRIBUTIONS 
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CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul M. Tilden, Thomas D. Nicholson 
David Linton, Julian D. Corrington 



EDITORIAL ADVISERS 

Gerard Piel Gordon F. Ekholm 

Gordon Reekie Donn E. Rosen 

T. C. Schneirla Richard K. Winslow 

Richard G. Van Gelder 



ADVERTISING 

Frank L. De Franco, Director 
Ogden Lowell, Sales, Nancy Reice, Asst. 



PROMOTION MANAGER 

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Natural History 

Iiicoi-porating Nature Magazine 

THE JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



Vol. LXXIV 



FEBRUARY 1965 



No. 2 



ARTICLES 
COMPONENTS OF RECOGNITION IN DUCKLINGS Gilbert Gottlieb 

MAJESTIC WORKBOATS OF A PORTUGUESE LAGOON 

Nancy Flowers 



EARS OF DIPODOMYS 

FLOWERS, INSECTS, AND EVOLUTION 



Douglas B. IFebster 
Herman F. Becker 



ABORIGINAL ART AND MYTHOLOGY 

Stuart Scougall and Philip C. Gifford 



DESERT ARACHNIDS EMERGE 

DEPARTMENTS 

BOOKS IN REVIEW 

SKY REPORTER 

ABOUT THE AUTHORS 

NATURE AND PHOTOGRAPHY 

TRAVEL FAR AND NEAR: 
THE AFRICAN POISON TEST 

ADDITIONAL READING 



Robert H. Wright 54 



Jane Oppenheimer 


6 


Thomas D. Nicholson 


34 




60 


Sam Dunton 


61 


Merlin Ennis 


67 




70 



COVER: Bark paintings from Australia, strips of flattened eucalyptus painted 
with ground ochers, are among the many interesting features of aboriginal art. 
Often prepared for use in clan ceremonies, the panels relate local narratives 
and portray mythological scenes. The detail on the cover was taken from a work 
by the artist Madaman who is from Yirrkala, a section of Arnhem Land on the 
north-central coast of Australia. It depicts a group rite or dance involving both 
men and animals. Other paintings, also from Yirrkala, illustrate the article 
on pages 46-53 written by the late Dr. Stuart Scougall and Philip C. Gifford. 

The American Museum is open to the public without charge every day 
during the year. Your support, through membership and contributions, 
helps make this possible. The Museum is equally in need of support 
for all of its work in the fields of research, education, and exhibition. 

Publicaliou Office: The American Museum oC Natural History, Central Park West at 7!>lh Street, New York 
N. Y. 10024. Published monthly, October through May: bimonthly June to September. Subscription: $5.00 « 
year. In Canada, and all other countries: 85.50 a year. Single copies: 8.50. Second class postage paid al 
New York, N. Y., and at additional offices. Copyright, 1965 by The American Museum of Natural History. 
No part of this periodical may be reproduced without the written consent of Natueaj, History. The title 
Nature Magazine, registered U.S. Patent Office. Unsolicited manuscripts and illustrations submitted to the 
editorial office will be handled with all possible care, but we cannot assume responsibility for their safety. 
The opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect The American Museum's policy. 
You will find Naturai. History magazine indexed in Reader^ GuUie to Periodical Literature in your library. 





11. ANIMAL 
WORLDS. Marston 
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stunningly illustrated 
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/Perspectives in biology 



I By Jane Oppenheimer 



The Evolution of Biology, by M. J. 
Sirks and Conway Zirkle. The Ronald 
Press Co., $6.00; 376 pp., illus. Over- 
tures TO Biology, by Philip C. Ritter- 
bush. Yale University Press, $7.50; 287 
pp., illus. Revolution in Biology, by 
John Maddox. The Macmillan Co., 
$5.00; 179 pp., illus. The Mystery of 
Physical Life, by E. L. Grant Watson. 
Abelard-Schuman, $3.95; 156 pp., illus. 

WHEN I was a graduate student in the 
early 1930's, my research adviser 
suggested I study the history of my spe- 
cialty—experimental embryology— and, 
accordingly, a third of my doctor's dis- 
sertation was published in a technical 
journal devoted to the history of science. 
This was then an oddity for a zoological 
dissertation, and the chairman of my de- 
partment did not wholly approve, saying 
that the study of the history of science 
should wait for a scientist's retirement 
from the laboratory, and his was the pre- 
vailing opinion at the time. 

Today, thirty years later, the same 
differences of opinion obtain. Some over- 
confident young men believe that nothing 
is important that was written more than 
ten years ago ; so they tell their students, 
and so their students believe. Perhaps 
they have some justice on their side, 
especially if they are working in fields 
where work in other laboratories may 
outdate their own publications before 
they even appear in print. On the other 
hand, interest in history has become 
respectable for those in their preretire- 
ment years who choose to think of their 
work in a broad perspective, and, in 
fact, historical studies by young men 
trained in the technical methods of his- 
tory are, in general, far superior to the 
diffuse writings produced a generation 
ago by amateurs. The history of science 
is now a scientific discipline in its own 
right, even to the extent that the National 
Science Foundation and the National 
Institutes of Health give financial sup- 
port for historical studies, considering 
them as advancing scientific welfare. 

The books reviewed here exemplify 
four entirely different approaches to the 
history of biology. There are more than 
four ways to view history— there are as 
many as there are individuals who fol- 
low them— but a description of these 
books may illustrate some of the char- 
acteristics of scientific history as prac- 
ticed today, and some of the relationships 
of history to modern biology. 



The Evolution of Biology, by Sirks 
and Zirkle. is the most comprehensive of 
the four in its intent and content. It 
discusses the history of biology from the 
time of its prehistoric inceptions to the 
period of molecular genetics. A book 
that covers biology up to the Renaissance 
in 115 pages and biology after the 
Renaissance in 235 pages can hardly be 
all-inclusive, and the authors have not 
attempted to make it so. It does present, 
however, a coherent account of selected 
discoveries in biology and of the formu- 
lation of concepts important for biology 
today, and it shows how biology has 
changed. The Evolution of Biology would 
be useful reading for advanced high 
school students or for college students, 
as well as for general readers interested 
in biology. It is documented by long 
bibliographies and parenthetical refer- 
ences in the text. 

Ritterbush's Overtures to Biology is 
subtitled "The Speculations of Eight- 
eenth-Century Naturalists," and he has 
confined himself to a more circumscribed 
period of time and to a more limited 
theme than have Sirks and Zirkle. His 
book describes and analyzes the specu- 
lative thought from which biology as an 
experimental science was later to 
emerge; Ritterbush would not classify 
much of the work covered by Sirks and 
Zirkle as biology. He holds that biology 
became an experimental science as we 
know it only at the turn of the eighteenth 
into the nineteenth century. From among 
the many speculative themes current in 
the eighteenth century he discusses only 
two: first, the role of electricity and 
subtle fluids as explanatory of physical 
and vital phenomena; second, analogy 
between animals and plants as explana- 
tory of vital phenomena in plants. His 
book is replete with quotations; there 
are numerous footnotes on nearly every 
page, and there is a long bibliography. 
The book thus is written in a scholarly 
fashion, but this does not diminish its 
value for readers with less technical 
training than the author. The material 
he has chosen to discuss is of consuming 
interest, and he has presented it de- 
lightfully and with humor. It is, there- 
fore, good reading for both professional 
biologists and historians, and is recom- 
mended as a supplement for those who 
are introducing themselves to biological 
history by reading books such as The 
Evolution of Biology. It will enable them 
to discover the kind of evidence that 




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serves as the basis for the generalizations 
found in textbooks. 

Maddox' book, Revolution in Biology, 
is also confined to a subject limited in 
time and scope. The revolution to which 
the title refers is the development of 
molecular biology, a discipline the 
author says began in 1953 with its first 
major success— the theory, developed by 
Watson and Crick, of the arrangement 
of DNA molecules in the living cell and 
their influence on outstanding features 
of heredity. (Not all biologists or his- 
torians agree with this interpretation. ) 
The principal subject of his discussion 
is the progress made by molecular 
biology during the past ten years or so. 
It is thus a chapter in very recent his- 
tory. Revolution in Biology might well 
serve- as an extended interpretation of 
sections found at the end of Evolution in 
Biology. It is written in a highly journal- 
istic style, and there is no documentation 
whatsoever to intrude between the book 
and the readers— or to lead them to ad- 
ditional reading should they desire to 
explore further. 

The history of science is never com- 
pletely separable from philosophy, since 
scientific ideas are born in contexts wider 
than those of science itself. In medieval 
days it would have been more difficult 
than it is today to explain life in mechan- 



istic terms, but during all periods of 
history some individual thinkers have ex- 
plained vital phenomena to themselves 
in vitalistic terms, others in more ma- 
terialistic ones. Maddox. like many con- 
temporary molecular biologists, presents 
a mechanistic interpretation of life. 

The Mystery of Physical Life, by E. 
L. Grant Watson reads like the work of a 
Jungian mystic who does not participate 
in the materialistic interpretation of bio- 
logical facts. Unfortunately, it does not 
express its vitalistic opinions very well: 
it is repetitive and garrulous in style 
and makes some egregious errors of 
scientific fact. It does demonstrate that 
mysticism in science is still alive in the 
1960's; this may be its chief value. 

One advantage of reading histories of 
science is the revelation that scientific 
facts are not always viewed in the same 
light and that interpretations of these 
facts have differed throughout the ages. 
It is through attempts to resolve dif- 
ferences that the sciences progress; 
thus, attention to history presents major 
insights into the workings of science as 
it is practiced today. 

Dr. Oppenheimer is Professor of Biology 
at Bryn Mawr College. Among her major 
interests are experimental embryology 
and the history of biology and medicine. 




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The Eternal Present: Volume ii. The 
Beginnings of Architecture, by S. 
Giedion. Bollingen Series 35, Pantheon 
Books, $12.50; 583 pp., illus. 

Strange it is. but in some ways ancient 
man was more reasonable than his 
space-age counterpart. Five thousand 
years ago man was already impatient 
with accumulating descriptive facts, for 
he must have known from past experi- 
ence (he was, already, about one-half 
million years old) that data gathering 
and collating would not provide the 
answers to the most profound questions 
posed by human existence. Why, the 
Sumerian and Egyptian asked, should 
the sun travel an appointed course 
through the heavens, bringing alluvial 
plain and river delta to flower and fruit? 
Compared to this searching for first 
causes, the question of the mechanics 
of the journey or the geology of the 
traveler was hardly worth determining. 
To simplify matters, the Egyptian put 
the sun in a boat to make its daily round. 
We know the boat is a fiction, that the 
earth spins around the sun, but does this 
simple fact tell us more about the mean- 
ing of the journey than a solar barge? 

For the thinkers of antiquity the world 
was organized on reasonable principles 
even though their effect upon man was 
frequently perplexing, frustrating, and 
deeply tragic. The ancients attempted to 
grasp these cosmic governing forces by 
the use of a technique which we, in an 
uneasy world that uses scientific tech- 
nique, call the mythopoeic. They gave 
form and life to the abstract and symbo- 
lized it in the disciplines of their cul- 
tures; their sacred architecture was one 
of their most significant modes of sym- 
bolic expression. The Swiss cultural his- 
torian Giedion attempts to demonstrate 
in this volume how ancient cultures 
sought to bring themselves into align- 
ment with the cosmos through their 
monuments and buildings. 

In this second volume of a two-part 
inquiry into the mind and art of ancient 
man, Giedion concentrates on the first 
great organized societies that flourished 
along the banks of the Tigris, Euphrates, 
and Nile. The first volume (see Natural 
History, February. 1964) began the 
story with an analysis of prehistoric 
man's reaction to the world in which he 
found himself and a detailed description 
of his earliest attempts to come to terms 
with an environment of which he was a 
cognitive part. Hence, while a common 
theme relates the two volumes, they also 
may be read independently. 

The book is a model of quality produc- 
tion (a Bollingen hallmark), with more 
than three hundred excellent photo- 
graphs and drawings carefully co-ordi- 
nated with the text, which reduces page 
flipping to a minimum. In addition, there 
are eighteen well-printed color illustra- 



lions, clour maps, u sizulili; ri'udiiin list 
for tlic r(!U(i(!r who wuiils to f-o on to 
more leclinical sliidii's. arul two indexes. 
This high slandurd of booi<mal<inn com- 
pensates for tile price and malvcs liie 
volume a handsome addition to a per- 
sonal library. 

Several years af;o, in his Sjiiicr, Timi\ 
and /Irrhitrcturc, Giedion investif;alcd 
tlie architeclLire of the modern world in 
order to demonstrate how the forms we 
give our buildings reflect the shapes of 
our culture. Now, he concentrates on the 
architecture of the Sumerians and the 
Egyptians, for it is with the emergence 
of these riverine cultures that he finds 
the first beginnings of diversified and 
monumental architecture, hence, the 
subtitle of the volume. A fair part of the 
book contains discussion of sculpture, 
because this art form was of first im- 
portance in ancient architectural pro- 
graming (and, also, the author views 
architecture as sculpture with interior 
space). But the greater portion of the 
book deals with architecture not only 
as an art form but more importantly as 
an expressive and enlightening symbo- 
lization of the inner life of its creators. 
Behind this particular story, however, 
Giedion's basic thesis is ever-present: 
that one can find in the history of man 
significant elements of constancy run- 
ning through the millenniums of change. 

Giedion's writing style is clear and 
didactic. First, he provides a brief synop- 
sis of the facts and historical position of 
the particular monument, building, or 
site under discussion. He borrows freely 
from the technical archeological reports, 
summarizing the findings and conclu- 
sions of the excavators. Then, he pro- 
ceeds to his theoretical interpretations 
and synthesis. He is clearly most at home 
in the field of architectural analysis. 
Certainly his signal contributions are 
his perception and keen intuition that 
permit him to reconstruct the quality 
and character of a building, which, as 
his photographs so often show, present 
to the eye little more than a scattering of 
badly shattered fragments partly buried 
in the encroaching desert sands and scrub. 

A sample of the broad concepts 
treated by Giedion will provide a better 
picture of the texture and substance than 
a dry listing of the volume's contents. 
The author emphasizes ancient man's 
attitude that the purposefulness of nat- 
ural phenomena springs from its being 
the physical manifestation of the meta- 
physical cosmos. Like modern man, 
ancient man constructed models to help 
him visualize and make concrete the 
purely conceptual world. As the modern 
mathematician uses a band of paper with 
a single twist to illustrate the concept of 
a surface, so also the ancient theologian 
used the dung beetle as a physical ex- 
pression of the solar force. The dynamic 
aspects of the sun, its changing role in 



the daily journey, were symbolized by 
the Egyptians in terms of diflerent 
models: the awakening sun was the 
scarab, the burning midday sun became 
the soaring falcon, and the sun in its 
nightly circuit of the underworld took 
on the form of the ram. But the sky was 
visualized as the overarching body of a 
goddess; hence, the solar barge had to 
travel through her. entering as a genera- 
tive force, leaving as an eternal symbol 
of I lie reborn day. 

The use of animals to symbolize cos- 
mic forces is viewed by the author as a 
continuation of I'aleolithic man's deifi- 
cation of the animal, the thesis he argued 
in his first volume. In the Old Stone Age 
man assumed a role subordinate to the 
magnificent beasts he drew on cave walls 
because they were endowed with a 
beauty of strength and skill that he 
lacked. Thus animals first held a divine 
place in man's cosmogony. Later, man 
separated animal from divine: the ani- 
mal could be a symbol for the divine, but 
not the godhead. During the age of the 
great cities in Mesopotamia and Egypt, 
says Giedion. man for the first time saw 
the beauty of human form and accepted 
it as superior to that of other animals; 
with this discovery came the complete 
anthropomorphism of the gods. The uni- 
verse had moved from the zoocentric to 
the anthropocentric until, finally, with 
the triumph of Christianity, the animal 
was reduced to a despised creature. Such 
basic considerations as these, the author 
holds, are fundamental to our under- 
standing of the formative periods of 
architectural theory. 

For Giedion. the pillared temples, 
mountain-shaped ziggurats. geometrical 
pyramids, and chambered shrines are 
more than houses of cult mysteries and 
of the dead. More important, they are 
the concrete embodiment of these meta- 
physics and philosophies of life. Thus, 
his depth analyses of architecture. Why 
bother to look at the monuments of the 
past and keep them in mind? Giedion 
does so "not so much to record the facts 
as to strengthen belief in the power of 
human imagination." Giedion. a thor- 
oughgoing humanist, is, after all, en- 
thralled with man. 

Bernard Goldman 
Wayne State University 

Birds of the New York Area, by John 
Bull. Harper & Roiv, $8.95; 540 pp., 
illus. 

THE two basic accouterments of bird 
watchers nearly everywhere are their 
binoculars and Peterson Field Guides. 
The odds are strong that most birding 
enthusiasts in and about New York City 
will soon avail themselves of still a third 
item— if they have not already done so— 
a copy of Bull's Birds of the Neiv York 
Area. A knowledge of where and when 




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to find birds can be a valuable aid in 
field identification. But John Bull's book 
is far more than a guide to finding birds 
around New York. It is a scholarly and 
authoritative compilation and condensa- 
tion of what is currently known about 
the spatial and temporal distribution of 
the birds of the area, with emphasis on 
the vast amount of data that has accumu- 
lated since the publication of the last 
regional treatise (Birds Around New 
York City, by Allan D. Cruickshank, 
1942). Bull's book includes records 
through the breeding season of 1962, 
plus some noteworthy additions through 
December, 1963. 

The main section of this book is de- 
voted to accounts of the 404 species of 
birds whose presence in the region is 
supported by specimens, colored photo- 
graphs, or creditable sight reports. The 
usual treatment for these "regulars" in- 
cludes the range of the species, relative 
abundance and status in the New York 
area, frequency of observation, migra- 
tion dates, egg dates, and general re- 
marks on breeding ecology. Extra care 
has been taken to determine the authen- 
ticity of claims of the breeding status of 
certain species, and to document the 
significant changes in distribution that 
have occurred during the past two dec- 
ades. Most accounts are one page or less 
in length, although several pages are 
devoted to species presenting special 
field problems (Traill's Flycatcher) or 
having exceptional local histories 
(House Finch). There are no photo- 
graphs or plates, as in previous New 
York guides, but a number of line draw- 
ings by Cornelius J. Ward are used ef- 
fectively as chapter headings. Twenty 
regional maps depict the isolated breed- 
ing localities for a few southern species 
(Prothonotary Warbler), northern spe- 
cies (Brown Creeper), and colonial 
water birds (Black Skimmer). A list of 
"escapes" includes eight species of ques- 
tionable origin; some have undoubtedly 
escaped from, or been released by, avi- 
culturists. An additional nineteen species 
appear on a "hypothetical" list for want 
of satisfactory evidence. 

Beginning students may regret the 
omission of certain features that proved 
effective and popular in Cruickshank's 
book, such as the tables of species to be 
expected in various types of habitat and 
the month-by-month account of "the or- 
nithological year." The author's discus- 
sion of good birding localities and the 
gazetteer would have been more effec- 
tive had they been keyed to the excellent 
map of the New York area. Serious stu- 
dents, on the other hand, will welcome 
the addition of a fine bibliography of 
the principal publications relating to the 
birds of the region. 

Attrition and alteration of habitats, 
creation of refuges and parks, an amel- 
iorating climate, urbanization, misuse of 



toxic chemicals, introductions of ex- 
tralimital species— these are only some 
of the many factors that have contributed 
to the instability of bird populations in 
and about the great metropolis and have 
created the need for this work. Equally 
dramatic and demonstrable changes can 
be expected during the next two decades. 
John Bull's book sets a high standard for 
amateurs and professionals in their fu- 
ture efforts to document and interpret 
this dynamic aspect of our avifauna for 
the next generation of bird watchers. 

Wesley E. Lanyon 
The American Museum 



A Field Guide to the Stars and 
Planets, by Donald H. Menzel. Hough- 
ton Mifflin Co., $4.95; 397 pp., illus. 

DONALD H. Menzel, Director of the 
Harvard College Observatory, 
makes a significant contribution to the 
famous, ubiquitous Peterson Field Guide 
Series with his A Field Guide to the 
Stars and Planets. A tremendous amount 
of information and directions are packed 
within these small-format pages. Forty- 
eight white-on-black star maps delineate 
the sky throughout the year. Each map 
is made of two sections— one shows the 
stars to magnitude 4.55 with connecting 
lines to emphasize the constellations, the 
second shows the same sky without lines, 
more as it actually appears. 

A distinctive feature of this useful 
volume is the photographic atlas charts 
from the Harvard Observatory. Below 
magnitude 4.55 the number of stars in- 
creases so rapidly you cannot draw 
charts of them. Dr. Menzel shows a dia- 
gram of a section of the sky on the left- 
hand page and a photograph of that 
section on the right. Fifty-four such 
charts provide a fine view of the entire 
sky and clues to help the amateur armed 
with binoculars or telescope in finding 
the stars himself. 

A dozen moon maps show surface fea- 
tures well; opposite each is a chart nam- 
ing the features. In addition, the reader 
learns of ways to observe the sun; to 
locate the planets at any time; to observe 
meteors and comets: to photograph 
celestial objects and phenomena; to lo- 
cate, observe, and recognize double stars, 
variable stars, nebulae and galaxies, and 
to understand time relationships. 

A wealth of information, including a 
glossary of terms, references, and ex- 
tensive data, is contained in more than 
fifty pages of appendixes. 

Altogether, Dr. Menzel's field guide 
is required for the amateur who has gone 
beyond unaided viewing and the mere 
identification and location of constella- 
tions. It should be used by anyone ready 
for the more challenging aspects of sky 
watching. 

Franklyn M. Branley 
American Museum-Hayden Planetarium 



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A FASCINATING STUDY OF THE LAPPS, 
THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF LAPLAND 

This is an inlimale, exceptional tour of the 
fascinating country north of the Arctic 
Circle with emphasis on the Lapps— their 
life and their customs. 

We will stay with the Lapps during the fan- 
tastic Reindeer Roundup at Ritsemjokk— 
and visit practically all the great Lapp 
centers of Sweden, Finland, and Norway. 

Our escort and lecturer will be DR. HANS 
BESKOW, curator emeritus of the Lapp 
Museum in Lulea and considered the mo.st 
outstanding expert on Lapps and Lapland 
in the world. 

His long and clo.se friend.ship with the 
Lapps enables our host to bring us into close contact with these friendly though shy people, who wander 
with their reindeer herds through the mountains and valleys of the Scandinavian Arctic, which during the 
summer months is carpeted with i-are and colorful flowers amidst mighty forests and rushing rivers. 

Dr. Beskow will also be able to give us a fascinating insight into the bird life of this beautiful region. 

Depart from New York on July 9— return on August 10. 

Send for complete folder . . . 




In a Lapp tent 



SCANDINAVIA-EXCLUSIVELY 

The Scandinavians have always known 
gracious living ! Although industrious and 
hard-working, they find time to enjoy 
beauty in their homes and tastj^ food on 
their table. This tour will acquaint you with 
their waj' of living. 

YOU WILL MEET THE PEOPLE 

In their homes in Norway, Sweden, and 
Denmark — in old enchanting castles or 
interesting modern dwellings. Gourmet 
dinnei's, tasty smoi-gasbords and also a 
Swedish crawfish party will intrigue your 
palates ; be it in homes, restaurants, or old 
country inns. 

The well-known Scandinavian American 
journalist Mac Lindahl will be your escort. 
TroUehoim Castle Few persons are better suited to lead you on 

this tour. His pleasant personality and his penetrating broad knowledge of everything concerning art, 
modern design, and culinary matters, paired with his many close personal connections in the Scandinavian 
countries will guarantee a really "exclusive" enjoyment on this tour. 

Departure from New York on August 7-returning on September 8, 1965. 




LINDBLAD TRAVEL, Inc. 
One East 53rd Street 
New York 22, New York 

Kindly send me your complete folder on : 

LAPLAND-THE TOP OF EUROPE 
SCANDINAVIA-EXCLUSIVELY 



departing from New York on July 9, 1965 n 
departing from New York on Aug. 7, 1965 Q 



MR., MRS., MISS. 
ADDRESS 



CITY STATE. 




Components of 
Recognition 

in Ducklings 

Auditory cues help develop familial bond 



By Gilbert Gottlieb 



DURING the past fourteen years, well 
over a hundred research articles 
have reported laboratory studies of the 
"following-response" and "imprint- 
ing" in young precocial (nidifugous) 
birds. Such animals (ducks, geese, 
swans, chickens, turkeys, quail ) can 
locomote shortly after they are born, 
and it has been found that, independ- 
ent of feeding or other conventional 
"rewards," they quickly attach them- 
selves to the first moving (or other- 
wise conspicuous) object that they 
encounter visually after hatching. The 



Hole-nesting Wood Duck, iiears 
nest box inside large nesting pen. 




laboratory-reared bird responds to the 
object much as it would respond to 
its parent in nature— it follows or 
otherwise stays close to the object and 
prefers contact with the first such ob- 
ject over other dissimilar objects to 
which it is later exposed. 

Naive young birds deprived of con- 
tact with their own parent will behave 
in a filial manner toward objects that 
do not bear the slightest resemblance 
to their own species. This behavior 
prompted the hypothesis that species 
recognition in precocial birds must be 
a function of early learning. Specifi- 
cally, it has been suggested by Kon- 
rad Z. Lorenz that precocial birds 
come to recognize their own species as 
a generalization from experience with 
their parents shortly after hatching. 
Thus, the theoretical crux of the per- 
ceptual side of imprinting is that 
species recognition derives from early 
experience with the actual parent or 
some surrogate that the newly hatched 
animal accepts as its parent on the 
basis of early contact. It is known, 
for example, that birds deprived of 
contact with their own species and 
reared, say, by humans develop a 
fondness for humans that in some in- 
stances precludes later social inter- 
course with their own species. 

Most of the research on imprinting 
and the following-response has been 
concerned with the behavior of duck- 
lings and chicks hatched in incuba- 
tors in the laboratory. The present 
report, however, is a distilled account 



Young Wood Duck, just hatched, was 
photographed after parent was flushed. 




Incubating Mali.akh, a ground nester, will remain with 
her young after they hatch until she instigates the exodus 



from the nest. During the 24- to 48-hour period, auditory 
stimulation plays a notable role in the parent-young bond. 



of field observations made at our re- 
search station near Dorothea Dix 
Hospital in Raleigh, North Carolina, 
over the past four years. It deals with 
the rapid development of the social 
bond between ducklings and their 
parents in nature. The report concerns 
mainly the behavior of two species of 
ducklings preceding and during their 
exodus from the nesting cavity. 

Among the ducks, there are two nest- 
ing types— the hole nesters and the 



ground nesters. The two species we 
have studied most intensively are the 
hole-nesting Wood Duck (Aix sponsa) 
and the ground-nesting Mallard (Anas 
platyrhynchos) . Wood Ducks hatch 
out at the base of deep, vertical cavi- 
ties in dead and decaying trees, where 
low illumination prohibits the sig- 
nificant operation of vision during the 
period prior to the departure from the 
nest. In the Mallard, on the other 
hand, vision might be more important. 



as the Mallard ducklings can see their 
mother as soon as she walks ofi the 
ground nest. Due to these differences 
in nesting conditions in the two spe- 
cies, it was anticipated that the hole- 
nesting ducklings might possibly be 
more dependent upon auditory stimu- 
lation than upon visual stimulation 
from the parent, while the reverse 
situation might hold for the ground- 
nesting birds. As it turned out, how- 
ever, the research findings indicated 

13 





that auditory stimulation from the 
parent is of prime importance in both 
nesting types. 

For our field studies, we erected 
some nest boxes high in trees and on 
posts above both land and water, and 
placed others directly on the ground. 
The entrances to the Mallard nesting 
boxes were made two times the size of 
the entrances to the Wood Duck nest- 
ing boxes. (The oval entrance to the 
Wood Duck nesting boxes is 4 inches 
wide and 3% inches high.) In addi- 
tion, the hole of the Mallard nest box 
is situated close to the bottom of the 
box, while the hole of the Wood Duck 



nesting box is lorats/i . 
allowing a deep ne^^ 
As it turned out. 
ways used the aerial nes.; 
Mallard hens always n 



the top, 

ucks al- 
'■■•■ while 
; in the 






Wood Duck hen will not lead young 
from nest box if she senses danger, left. 



boxes on the ground. We never saw a 
Wood Duck enter a ground nest nor 
did we observe a Mallard hen inspect- 
ing an aerial nest. 

Under typical circumstances, our 
method of observing the development 
of the familial bond in these ducks has 
been to place our recording equipment 
and cameras in an observation blind 
as far from the nest as feasible. A 
highly sensitive microphone is con- 
cealed near the nest, and a transistor- 
ized recording machine is in the blind, 
so we can monitor the activities within 
the nest box without disturbing the 
hen and her brood. The magnetic 
recording tapes thus obtained form a 
permanent record and are available for 
subsequent laboratory analysis by os- 
cillographic, spectrographic, and other 
techniques of audio analysis. 

We begin our observations several 
days before the eggs are due to hatch. 
( The incubation period is 30 to 33 
days in the Wood Duck and 25 to 28 
days in the Mallard. ) Our vigil begins 
shortly before sunrise and ends 
shortly after sunset, as the hen never 
initiates the exodus during darkness. 
We are interested in the kind and 
amount of vocal activity between the 
ducklings and their parent as the eggs 
begin to pip and the young emerge. 



Camera is obscured from ducks by the 
blind. Microphone is hidden under nest. 



The exodus takes place between one 
and two days after the young hatch, 
during which time the young— some- 
times as many as twenty— stay be- 
neath the hen receiving food from yolk 
sacs. The mother does not leave the 
nest box during this period, unless she 
is flushed. ( If she does leave for some 
reason, she will not utter the exodus 
call.) It is important to emphasize that 
in making field observations such as 
these, it is essential that the observer 
take great care lest he alert the birds 
to his presence and thereby distort 
the "typical" procession of events by 
heightening the natural wariness of 
the birds or by frightening them. 

THE new (and unanticipated) in- 
formation that our field studies 
have provided is that in both hole- and 
ground-nesting species the hen begins 
uttering its exodus call long before it 
leads the brood from the nest. In this 
way the young have an opportunity to 
learn the individual characteristics 
of their parent's call before they leave 
the nest (that is, before they can see 
their parent, as it is dark inside the 
Wood Duck's nest and both species 
are covered by the body of the mother) . 
In the first graph on page 16, which 
presents information from a repre- 




Maij.ard hen can he seen inside ground nesl box, above, 
before beginning the exodus. Outside the nest box, ripht, 
she utters a low-intensity call and then leads brood toward 
the water, below. In their early recognition of parent, the 
ducklings respond primarily to auditory, not visual, cues. 





sentative duck of each species, it can 
be seen (1) that the maternal Wood 
Duck begins to vocalize somewhat 
earlier than does the Mallard; (2) 
that the Wood Duck utters her call 
more frequently than does the mater- 
nal Mallard; and (3) that in both 
species the rate of maternal calling 
increases throughout the entire pre- 
exodus period, reaching a peak during 
the exodus itself. 

No qualitative change is discernible 
in either maternal call at any stage. 
To the human observer the basic call 



of the maternal Wood Duck sounds 
like "kuk," while the call of the ma- 
ternal Mallard sounds more like "hut." 
A waveband analysis of the two calls 
indicates their audiometric similarity 
{see graph on page 16). Within each 
species, there are small differences in 
the rate, pitch, and/or rhythm of the 
individual maternal calls. Between the 
two species, however, these differences 
are much greater. The difference in 
the rate with which the calls are ut- 
tered by the respective ducks con- 
tributes a great deal to the perceptual 



dissimilarity of the two calls (at least 
for the human observer) . 

The gradual buildup in the rate of 
maternal calling during the various 
stages leading to the exodus points to 
the reciprocal stimulative interplay 
between the hen and her brood during 
the pre-exodus period. That is, as the 
ducklings become more active inside 
the nest box, the hen's vocal rate in- 
creases. This is succeeded in turn by 
an increase in the vocal and motor 
excitement of the young, and so on, 
reciprocally, until eventually (it is 



15 




Duckling drops out of the nest box in answer to maternal 
Wood Duck call. The young quickly climb the interior wall 



of nesting cavity to reach the high exit hole, and most of the 
ducklings are out within minutes. In the photograph above. 



my guess) the ducklings' over-all level 
of activity stimulates the hen to leave 
the nest box and instigate the exodus. 
Another feature of the gradual in- 
crease in the rate of the maternal call 
during the pre-exodus period is that 
such a change in rate of auditory 
stimulation obviates the possibilitv 
that the young might habituate to the 
call of the parent and not respond to 
it during the exodus. In the labora- 
tory, for example, we have exposed 
young domestic Mallards to a record- 
ing of the high-rate exodus call be- 
fore testing and have found it has the 
effect of depressing their responsive- 



ness to it during the test, as compared 
to the performance of a control group 
that was not exposed to the parental 
call at all before testing. That is, the 
control group followed the calling 
model more persistently than the ex- 
perimental group. "Testing" simply 
involves the placement of an incuba- 
tor-hatched duckling inside an appa- 
ratus where the bird has the opportu- 
nity to follow a model emitting the 
parental call or some other call. (See 
photographs on page 19 for one ex- 
ample of testing.) Whether or not the 
animal follows the model emitting the 
parental call and the persistence with 



which it follows the model are the 
usual objective measures of the bird's 
responsiveness to auditory stimulation 
under experimental conditions. 

THE exodus in the ground-nesting 
species, the Mallard, is made to 
the accompaniment of visual as well 
as vocal stimulation. The ducklings, 
on the same level as the hen after she 
has left the nest, can see their parent 
as she calls to them. The young Wood 
Ducks, on the other hand, inside a 
deep nest high above the ground or the 
water, cannot see their mother after 
she has left the nest and must respond 




Rate of parental calls increases as the time for the exodus 
nears. Graph compares rales for Wood Ducks and Mallards. 



Waveband analysis of the two exodus calls shows their 
respective pitch frequencies and their relative loudness. 




lien prepares to strike Mallard that has approached during 
the exodus. Attack takes place at right; note last duckling 



per<hed in the exii hole. When the intruder has left ami the 
exodus is complete, beloiv, hen leads her brood into swamp. 




17 




Visual stimulus objects, including duck models, surround 
a small Peking duckling. In laboratory, incubator-hatched 



ducklings respond with greater specificity to recordings 
of the parental call than to visual properties of parent. 



initially only to the parental call. (In 
the laboratory, we have found that 
both Mallards and Wood Ducks will 
respond to a recording of the parental 
exodus call. The Mallards, however, 
are more likely to climb out of a nest 
box when they can connect the call 
with some visual object, such as a 
moving striped box. I Both hens make 
a reconnaissance of the area before in- 
stigating the exodus, and will delay 
the exodus if they sense intruders. 
The photographs on page 17 show a 
Wood Duck hen attacking a Mallard 
that has approached its brood during 
the exodus from the nest. 

Most laboratory workers and theo- 
reticians have proceeded on the as- 
sumption that parental and species 
recognition are largely, if not solely, 
a function of visual cues. In nature, 
however, it would seem that such rec- 
ognitions are founded on auditory per- 
ception. Although our field studies do 
not definitely answer any questions 



about imprinting, they do suggest that 
the role of auditory stimulation has 
been underemphasized in laboratory 
practice and theory. Indeed, our sub- 
sequent laboratory research, using the 
parental exodus calls of various nidif- 
ugous species, suggests that certain 
key generalizations from imprinting 
research may apply only to the visual 
modality and may not be germane to 
parental and species recognition as 
such occur in nature. 

As imprinting is a uniquely etholog- 
ical idea, and ethologists are 
famed for their naturalistic emphasis, 
questioning the correctness of the im- 
printing formulation on the develop- 
ment of species recognition in birds 
living in nature may seem odd. In this 
regard, however, it must be recalled 
that the "original" formulation of im- 
printing (whether by D. Spalding, W. 
James, 0. Heinroth. or K. Z. Lorenz) 
was not based on field observation, but 



on the behavior of young birds isolated 
from contact with their own parents 
and reared by surrogates from other 
species. Thus, although the relevance 
of imprinting to the formation of ex- 
tra-specific filial and social ties in 
birds deprived of contact with adult 
members of their own species cannot 
be disputed, it does seem possible that 
the same mechanism may not be re- 
sponsible for the formation of filial 
and social ties in birds reared by adults 
of their own species. 

In summary, the results of our field 
work suggest that in nature auditory 
stimulation from the parent is a typi- 
cal component of the stimulative com' 
plex which, at the very least, initiates 
parental recognition in ground-nesting 
as well as hole-nesting species of duck- 
lings. Visual recognition factors would 
seem to come into prominence only 
after the initial establishment of the 
parent— young bond on the basis of 
auditory stimulation and interaction. 



liABORATORY-HATCHED Mallard duckling climbs out of nest 
jox, above, to approach the striped box that is emitting a 



recorded exodus call. In photograph below, all ducklings 
that were in nest box have gathered under their "parent." 



milJESTII UIDRKBOHTS 




www 




OF n PORTUGUESE LIIGOOn 



by nnncv fioiuers 



I he Ria de Aveiro is a great salt-water 
lagoon cut off from the Atlantic Ocean 
by a long and narrow sandbank that 
/stretches for thirty miles down the 
northwest coast of Portugal. The 
mouths of the Vouga and Agueda 
rivers have been dammed up by silt 
deposition, and their waters, mixed 
with those that sweep in through a 
channel dredged across the sandbank, 
have spread out to form a world of 
tidal swamps, reed islands, and float- 
ing and rooted water plants, bordered 
by low-lying croplands. 

The boats that sail the canals and 
labyrinthine waterways of this vast 
lagoon are among the most beautiful 
in the world. They are called inoli- 
ceiros (literally, slime boats) , and they 
glide along the "thousand ways" of the 
ria to collect the molico, or waterweeds, 
that grow in the brackish waters. The 
weed is then spread as fertilizer on the 
low, sandy land around the lagoon, 
and has, in the course of centuries, 
created a topsoil that makes the area 
agriculturally one of Portugal's best. 
The ria shapes the life of the people 
who live along its margin. A peasant 
may farm his piece of land one day, 
go out to collect weed on the second, 
and fish on the third. This pattern has 
probably changed little since the land 
was first settled in prehistoric times, 
although its prosperity has depended 
on the state of the ria. We know that 
during the Middle Ages the ria was 
more open to the sea than it is today, 
and Aveiro, its principal town, was a 
large and important port. Gradually 
the outlets to the sea silted in, and at 
one time the region was almost de- 
populated. In the nineteenth century 
a channel was dredged, again making 
Aveiro a usable coastal port. It is now 
the home port of many cod-fishing 
schooners that sail for the Grand 
Banks in the spring and return in the 
fall with their cargoes of fish. 

No one knows for how many cen- 
turies the people of the lagoon have 



igh forward curve of ornate prow helps 
batman to maneuver through reeds. 




been fertilizing their fields with the 
weeds of the swamps, nor is it known 
how long they have been building 
their graceful boats. Inevitably, their 
archaic shape and high, inward-curv- 
ing prows remind one of early Egyp- 
tian and Phoenician ships. The people 
of the ria firmly believe that both they 
and their boats are descended from 
the Phoenicians who traded along 
these shores and are known to have 
founded colonies as far north as Lis- 
bon, and possibly to Figueira da Foz. 
One of the principal industries of 
the Phoenician colonies was the pro- 
duction of garuna, a kind of sauce 
made of salt fish, which was used for 
food seasoning throughout the Medi- 
terranean area. In Cadiz and other 
sites in southern Spain and Portugal, 
archeologists have excavated the re- 
mains of salt pits used in the prepara- 
tion of salted fish and garuna. Salt 



The wavy border painted on every prow 
may symbolize ripples on the lagoon. 



is still produced in the Aveiro region 
by evaporation from the tidal flats of 
the lagoon, but no Phoenician remains 
have been found there. A local his- 
torian has seen a reference to the ria 
in one poem by the fourth-century 
Roman poet Avienus, who speaks of 
an island on the western coast of 
Iberia formed of marine growths so 
unstable that the mere passage of a 
boat would shake it to its foundations. 
This is an excellent description of 
some of the reed islands in the ria, 
which sway like ripe wheat with every 
stirring of wind or water. 

However, most Portuguese histori- 
ans see the moliceiro and other boats 
of the north of Portugal as derived 
from the high-prowed, double-ended 
long ships of the Vikings, who raided 
and traded down the coasts of the Iberi- 




Pine root, above, ivill form the boat ribs. 
Its curve is matched to template. 



an Peninsula during the ninth and tenth 
centuries. According to the Portu- 
guese historian Jaime Cortesao, there 
are two influences on early Portuguese 
shipbuilding; first, that of the Vikings, 
which was strongly felt in the north 
of Portugal; second, that of the Moors 
from the Mediterranean who brought 
the lateen sail and a type of boat that 
evolved into the three-masted caravel 
that carried the Portuguese on their 
great voyages of maritime discovery 
in the fifteenth century. 

Ml hatever its derivation, the moli- 
ceiro of Aveiro has become a boat per- 
fectly adapted to its special task. It is 
usually about fifty feet long, of shallow 
draft and very low freeboard. The low 
sides allow floating weed to be raked 
directly into the boat. When a full load 
has been taken in, additional boards 
may be fitted into the gunwales to 
raise the freeboard so that the boat 
will not be flooded. The crew usually 
consists of two men, one of whom 
steers and attends to the trimming of 
the sails, while the other handles the 
rakes. Two wooden rakes, each about 
twenty feet long and with sixty-four 
teeth, are fixed to the boat's sides, and 
as she sails slowly along, the teeth 
catch the floating weeds. For the most 
part, the water is only about three to 
six feet deep, although it may reach 




some twenty or thirty feet in the chan- 
nels. The men also use hand rakes to 
free weeds from the muddy bottom. 

The weed collectors also often work 
chest-deep in water, tearing reeds 
from the muddy shores of the islands. 
The high forward curve of the moli- 
ceiro's prow makes it easier to beach 
the boat in shallow water and to pole 
it through reeds and floating vegeta- 
tion. Probably the same reasons de- 
termined the similar bow shape of the 



ancient Egyptian ships that sailed the 
Nile over 3,000 years ago. 

The moliceiros carry a tall, single 
mast with a large lugsail. When beat- 
ing into the wind a leeboard is lowered. 
When the wind fails and the lagoon 
lies in mirror-like calm, the boats 
are poled or men pull them from along 
the shore by towropes. In this way, 
too, they make their way into Aveiro 
by the canal that passes through the 
center of the town. The high, curved 



Men at right jollow a trade that has 
long been a tradition in their jamilies. 



Hinges, li'jt, allow fudpos/s la hi: 
lowered jor passage under can at bridge. 



Moliceiro, below, is ready for launching. 
It will sell for approximately $270. 





endposts of the prows are hinged so 
they can be lowered when they pass 
under the bridges that cross the canal. 
The building of moliceiros is today 
virtually a hereditary craft, as there 
are families of the ria that have pro- 
duced boatbuilders from as far back 
as their family tradition runs, and 
often three generations may be seen 
w-orking on the same boat. At present 
the principal boatbuilding village is 
Pardilho near the northern end of the 



ria. A man and a boy can build a moli- 
ceiro in six weeks, and it will cost the 
buyer the equivalent of about $270. 

The ribs of the boat are not steamed 
and curved to required shapes as are 
those of most boats; they are sawed 
directly from a pine root that has the 
proper curve, and that is matched to a 
template. This is also the way the great 
Viking long ships found in ship graves 
in Scandinavia were built. As A. W. 
Br0gger notes inTheVikingShips,"For 



each rib a piece of timber was needed 
corresponding by natural gro^rth to 
the transverse section of the ship." 

The builder of the boat is also the 
decorator who paints the elaborate 
panels on prow and stern. Joaquim 
Roato, who has been building moli- 
ceiros for sixty years, is one of the 
most famous boat painters of Par- 
dilho, and he has several times won 
the yearly prize offered by the mayor 
of Aveiro for the handsomest boat. 



23 





A inolicciio catches the wind 
in its large lugsail. When 
breeze dies doion, boat is 
poled or is towed from shore. 



Boatmen carry off the day's 
load of moligo, or weeds, 
collected from the banks 
and brackish water of the ria. 



From ornate oxcart, below, 
molico is spread as fertilizer 
to create rich topsoil for the 
farmland around the lagoon. 




The general pattern of decoration 
is traditional, and it always includes a 
wavy border that may represent rip- 
ples on the lagoon. As if to symbolize 
the fertilizing power of the weeds 
when they are spread on the land, 
stylized flower and leaf patterns are 
usually part of the design. Each deco- 
rator uses these motifs as it strikes his 
fancy, and no two boats are ever 
painted exactly alike. As Joaquim 
Roato expresses it, "I paint as the 
wind turns me." The vivid, decorative 
border surrounds a central vignette, 
beneath which is written a "caption," 
or motto, often a piece of witty com- 
ment or earthy humor. 

The variety of both the scenes and 
the mottoes is endless, but it is curi- 
ous how often a man riding on a 
horse is shown. Is it possible that this 
also derives from a Phoenician tradi- 
tion? We are told that the Phoenicians 
called their smaller boats "horses." 
However, the association of the idea 
of "boat" with that of "horse" is an 
ancient and obvious one, since a boat 
carries a man on water as a horse car- 
ries him on land. A ship shown in a 
rock carving that dates to around 1000 
B.C., found at Vitlycke in Sweden, has 
a high, curved prow that terminates in 
what may be a horse's head (Natural 
History, November, 1964). 



I he village where the boats are built 
lies at some distance from the shore. 
Thus, when a new boat is finished it is 
placed on a two-wheeled sledge drawn 
by several pairs of oxen. The boat is 
adorned with little flags and bunches 
of wildflowers. Then it is slowly pulled 
through streets of the village while 
people stand at their doors to admire 
or to criticize. At the water's edge the 
boat is launched with due ceremony 
and turned over to its new owner. 

In the boats that sail the waters 
of the Aveiro lagoon we can see the 
late flowering of a long and high tra- 
dition that began when man first cut 
down a tree to build himself a boat. 
In the hammer blows of a Portuguese 
boatbuilder on a crooked pine root we 
seem to hear the echoes of those that 
built the great vessels of Phoenicia 
from the cedars of Lebanon and the 
graceful Viking long ships from 
the oaks of the Scandinavian forests. 



The inscription beneath the emblem 
reads aptly, "I also knoiv how to ride.' 



Kan(;aii()0 rat measures 
from y lo 10 '/i inclies in 
Icnjiitli, iiol incliKliii); the 
hairy ti]) of tail, which 
it cleans, at the left, in 
its characteristic manner. 




A.MMAI. is nocturnal and 
BO If, hard to photograph 
in the wild. One seen at 
left is a caged fpecimen 
lliat was live-trapped by 
author in Sonoran deeert. 



Ears of Dipodomys 

Adaptations allow kangaroo rat to meet stresses of desert life 



SEVERAL years ago I found a small 
animal skull that had two bulbous 
swellings grossly distorting its pos- 
terior part. It was a typical skull of 
a kangaroo rat, and the swellings were 
this animal's fantastically enlarged 
auditory bullae— the skeletal coverings 
of the chambers of the middle ear. 
My subsequent investigations of the 
kangaroo rat's ear apparatus has al- 
ready called upon several areas of 
biology— gross anatomy, microscopic 
anatomy, ecology, neurophysiology, 
pharmacology, and histochemistry— 
and it has not yet ended. 

Before I could investigate intelli- 
gently the nature of these improbably 
large auditory bullae, it was necessary 
for me to learn a great deal about the 
animal as a total biological unit. For 
instance, the kangaroo rat is neither 
a marsupial, as are kangaroos, nor is 
it a real rat. It is a rodent belonging 
to the family Heteromyidae, which 
means "differing mice," and which 
also includes pocket mice, spiny mice, 
and kangaroo mice. It is called a "rat" 
only because it is larger than the other 
Heteromyidae. Its genus, Dipodomys, 
literally means "two-footed mice" and 
refers to its kangaroo-like stance and 
strongly bipedal locomotion, both of 
which are due to the great length and 
strength of the animal's hind legs. 

Kangaroo rats live in semiarid to 
arid regions of the western United 
States and northern Mexico. They are 
nocturnal, spending the daylight hours 



By Douglas B. Webster 

in their cool underground burrows, 
and venturing out at night to forage 
for dry seeds. Since these are not al- 
ways plentiful, the kangaroo rat 
probably benefits from its hoarding 
behavior and its large cheek pouches. 
The latter are not part of the mouth, 
as they are in most rodents, but are 
external pouches peculiar to kangaroo 
rats and closely related forms. They 
are large indentations, or inpocketings 
of skin, covered ( that is. lined ) with 
fur. They open on either side of the 
mouth and extend back into the neck 
region; therefore, they can hold a 
great many seeds. When an individual 
kangaroo rat has taken the edge off its 
hunger, it crams the cheek pouches 
full of seeds, using the front paws like 
a squirrel, and then hops back on its 
hind legs to its burrow. There, de- 
pending on the species, it stores the 
seeds either inside the burrow or in 
small, nearby surface holes dug with 
the forepaws. In the latter case, one 
can watch the cheek pouches being 
emptied by rapid forward swipes of 
the paws against the sides of the face, 
an action that produces an equally 
rapid firing of seeds into the holes. 
If the outstanding feature of the 
kangaroo rat skull is the size of its 
auditory bullae, the most noticeable 
aspect of the living animal is the tail. 
About half again as long as the ani- 
mal's body, it ends in a beautiful brush, 



or tuft, of hair: white for the appro- 
priately named bannertail kangaroo 
rat ( Dipodomys spectabilis I and black 
for the Merriam's kangaroo rat {D. 
merriami)— the two species I used— 
and black or gray in most of the other 
twenty-one species. 

During leaps, this long and agile 
tail acts as a stabilizer to keep the 
animal upright in mid-air. Animals 
whose tails have been lost or damaged 
through unknown causes (or as an 
accidental result of my live trapping) 
are often wildly off balance while leap- 
ing, and sometimes even turn com- 
plete somersaults in mid-air. The tail 
also may be used to assist in steering 
the animal during long jumps. 

ONE unusual aspect of the kangaroo 
rat's biology has been studied in 
great detail by Knut and Bodil 
Schmidt-Nielsen. Thev first confirmed 
what earlier observers had reported— 
that kangaroo rats can maintain them- 
selves in a healthy state for extended 
periods of time on a completely dry 
diet, which is not as impossible as it 
may sound. All animals manufacture 
a certain amount of water as a neces- 
sary chemical by-product of carbohy- 
drate and lipid (fat) metabolism. The 
kangaroo rat's diet, consisting as it 
does of seeds with a high percentage 
of carbohydrates, inevitably yields 
water as a metabolic by-product. 

Thus, it is not in manufacturing, but 
in conserving water that the kangaroo 

27 




Kangaroo-ljke, bipedal locomotion 
gives animal its common name. Notice 
stance, above, and long, strong hind 



legs, below. During leaps, the agile 
tail is used as a stabilizer, allowing 
animal to remain upright in mid-air. 




rat is indeed unusual. All animals lose 
water through such functions as urina- 
tion, defecation, and respiration, and 
most animals must replace this loss by 
drinking and or eating foods with a 
high water content. The kangaroo rat, 
however, loses so little water that what 
is lost can be replaced entirely by 
metabolic water. 

This stringent water economy, or 
water balance, is made possible by 
several anatomical and physiological 
modifications. Most mammals, for in- 
stance, have three major types of skin 
glands: mammary and sweat glands, 
which have water-base secretions, and 
sebaceous glands, which have a fat- 
base secretion. Mammary glands, of 
course, are only active following birth 
of the young. In kangaroo rats this 
occurs during the wet season of the 
year, and the extra water lost in the 
mammary secretions is compensated 
for by eating the seasonal green vege- 
tation—something a non-lactating kan- 
garoo rat need not do. Sweat glands 
are entirely absent in kangaroo rats. 
They do have sebaceous glands, whose 
secretion is used for grooming the fur, 
but this is a fat-base secretion. 

Respiratory water loss is probably 
minimized in the kangaroo rat by 
means of the long, labyrinthine nasal 
passages, which appear capable of re- 
sorbing most of the moisture before 
the air carrying it has left the passages. 
Again, little water is lost during defe- 
cation, for the walls of the intestine 
resorb most of the water from the 
feces. Of course, some water is lost in 
the urine; but even here the kangaroo 
rat conserves. Its urine is greatly con- 
centrated—about four times more so 
than human urine. In these diverse 
ways, the kangaroo rat balances the 
amount of water lost through various 
metabolic processes with the amount 
of water manufactured metabolically, 
and therefore can and normally does 
maintain itself on a diet containing no 
free water whatsoever. 

ALL this information I found in 
various scientific papers. How- 
ever, there were only vague general- 
ities and speculative theories about 
what had originally captured my in- 
terest—the remarkable size of the audi- 
tory bullae. The answers, it seemed, 
were to be found in the laboratory 
rather than the library. I went back 
to the skull. A few measurements 
showed that the total volume of the 
cavities within the kangaroo rat's two 



pa|)(tr-lliiii iiudiloiy bullae is con- 
si(l(,'ial)ly f^rcaler than the volume of 
its (.Tanial cavity; in (jther words, the 
two middle ears are larger than the 
entire hrain of the animal. 

AS seen at the top of page 30, 
the typical mammalian middle 
ear cavity is the air space between the 
eardrum (tympanic membrane I and 
the inner ear. Bridging this air space 
at its narrowest point is a chain of 
three small bones— the malleus, the in- 
cus, and the stapes— delicately sus- 
pended and elaborately articulated. 
The malleus is attached along its 
entire arm, or manubrium, to the tym- 
panic membrane. The anterior process 
of the malleus is attached by the an- 
terior ligament to the wall of the bulla, 
and two fine ligaments— the superior 
and the lateral— aid this suspension. 
The large head of the malleus articu- 
lates with the incus. The incus, in turn, 
is attached to the wall of the bulla by 
a posterior ligament; the long process 
of the incus has a 90° bend near its 
end, which causes it to articulate me- 
dially with the head of the stapes. 
Finally, the footplate of the stapes 
is held in the oval window of the 
cochlea by a fine annular ligament. 
Two very small muscles, the tensor 
tympani and the stapedius, run from 
the wall of the middle ear to the mal- 
leus and stapes respectively. Con- 
traction of these muscles tightens the 
ossicular chain and reduces its ability 
to vibrate, thus acting as a safety de- 
vice against damaging vibrations. 

Sound waves pushing in on the tym- 
panic membrane cause this apparatus 
to rock around an axis of rotation that 
runs through the anterior ligament of 
the malleus and the posterior ligament 
of the incus. Therefore, when the tym- 
panic membrane is pushed inward, 
the manubrium of the malleus, the 
long process of the incus, and the en- 
tire stapes are rotated inward, and 
those parts of the heads of the malleus 
and incus that are dorsal to the axis 
of rotation move outward. As the tym- 
panic membrane moves outward again, 
these motions are reversed. 

This tympano-ossicular system has 
a double function: to transmit to the 
inner ear the relatively weak air vi- 
brations that strike the tympanic 
membrane, and at the same time to 
amplify them into vibrations of suffi- 
cient strength to move the inner ear 
fluids. It is not surprising, therefore, 
that the three bones should be sus- 



■$> 




Notably large middle ear cavities 
are seen, from top down, in lateral, 
dorsal, and ventral view. Outlines 



pended in an air cavity; any other sus- 
pension medium would impede their 
vibrations to such an extent that they 
could function neither as a transmit- 
ting nor as an amplifying mechanism. 
Because sound energy must pass 
from vibrations in the air (before they 
strike the tympanic membrane! to vi- 
brations in a fluid (after they reach 
the inner ear) , a transformer mecha- 
nism is necessary. Recall that when 



show the extent of these bullae, total 
volume of which is considerably larger 
than that of the "rat's" entire brain. 



your head is under water, you cannot 
hear sounds emanating from above the 
water. That is because most of the 
sound energy is reflected from the 
water surface instead of being absorbed 
by it. The middle ear transformer 
mechanism must, therefore, collect and 
amplify weak aerial vibrations so they 
can act effectively on inner ear fluids. 
This tympano-ossicular transformer 
unit involves simultaneously a lever 



29 




GUINEA PIG 



fF MIDDLE EAR 

vIAMMAL 




s)'stem and a piston system. The dy- 
namics of the lever system depend 
upon the relative lengths of the manu- 
brium of the malleus and the long 
process of the incus. To understand 
this, consider how a common nut- 
cracker works. You apply a relatively 
weak force at the end of the handle 
(far from the axis of rotation), and 
the force on the nut (which is nearer 
the axis of rotation) has increased 
enough to break the shell. Similarly, 
the weak force on the manubrium of 
the malleus (handle) is increased at 
the end of the long process of the in- 
cus (nut) because they have different 
lengths and therefore are at different 
distances from the axis of rotation. 

The dynamics of the piston system 
depend on the relative surface areas 
of the tympanic membrane and stape- 
dial footplate. When the force (sound 
pressure) on the large area of the 
tympanic membrane is resolved onto 
the small area of the stapedial foot- 
plate, the force per unit area is in- 
creased as a function of the ratio of the 
two areas. The same principle is used 
in sailboats on which the larpie sail 



collects and concentrates the force of 
the wind, thus pushing the smaller 
hull through the water. 

The theoretical total increase in 
force in the middle ear, then, is the 
product of amplification by lever and 
by piston mechanisms, and is called 
the transformer ratio. In man, the 
transformer ratio is 18.3:1. which 
means that, if there were no resist- 
ance to the movements of man's tym- 
pano-ossicular system, the force at 
the tympanic membrane would be in- 
creased 18.3 times per unit area when 
it reached the footplate of the stapes. 

The actual increase in force is 
never as great as the transformer ra- 
tio would indicate, however, because 
this machine, like any machine, is 
not 100 per cent efficient. That is to 
say, some of the force that theoreti- 
cally could be transformed into fluid 
vibrations is actually dissipated in 
overcoming the inertia of the system 
and in the friction caused by move- 
ments within the system (ossicles, 
ligaments, etc.) . Therefore, to analyze 
the efficiency of the middle ear of any 
animal, one must consider both the 



RESPONSES TO SOUND IN KANGAROO RAT 



Normal 

Both mastoids filled 




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p ° 




° : 






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/(h n 




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I 


I 







SOO 1000 2000 4000 10,000 

FREQUENCY IN CPS 



transformer ratio and the resistance to 
movement of the tympanic membrane 
and the ossicles. 

A careful anatomical study of the 
kangaroo rat's middle ear re- 
vealed several interesting character- 
istics. The enlargement of the cavity 
occurs mostly in the dorsal, or mas- 
toid, portion {photograph at top 
right) . In most mammals this is a 
small area of porous bone, but in the 
kangaroo rat it is a greatly enlarged 
air space that comprises 82 per cent 
of the entire middle ear volume. A 
thin lamina of bone divides it into a 
larger, anterior mastoid sinus and a 
smaller, posterior mastoid sinus, each 
of which independently communicates 
with the entotympanic cavity, or mid- 
dle ear proper, where the tympanic 
membrane and ossicles are located. 
The cochlea forms a bulge in the ento- 
tympanic cavity's dorsomedial wall. 

In kangaroo rats, the superior and 
lateral ligaments of the malleus are 
lacking, thus allowing the ossicles to 
rotate more freely. Also, the manu- 
brium of the malleus is exceptionally 
long, and the tympanic membrane, to 
which it is attached, is unusually large. 
The stapes, especially in its footplate, 
is particularly small (photographs at 
right). All these variations from the 
"normal" mammalian situation add up 
to a middle ear of unusually large vol- 
ume, with a tympano-ossicular system 
suspended with extreme delicacy, and 
a transformer ratio of 97.2 :1— one and 
a half times larger than in any other 
mammal described in the literature. 

From this morphological analysis 
of the middle ear, it appeared that the 
modified tympano-ossicular system 
provides the kangaroo rat with excel- 



30 



Iciit sound transmission to the iiiii'-r 
(uir. However, there was still no in- 
dication of the function of the amaz- 
ingly large mastoid sinuses. Other 
scientists had suggested that these 
act as resonating chambers, in a man- 
ner roughly analogous to organ pipes. 
Since there was no evidence either for 
or against this hypothesis, I designed 
an experiment to test it. 

Recalling that damage to the long 
tail resulted in equilibrium deficits, 
I wondered if damage to the enlarged 
middle ear cavity would result in 
hearing deficits, f performed surgery 
to open the middle ear and, carefully 
avoiding the tympano-ossicular sys- 
tem, f inserted an inert material (in 
most cases, plasticine) into the large 
mastoid sinuses. If, with this artificial 
loss in middle ear volume, the kan- 
garoo rat's tympano-ossicular sys- 
tem was found also to have lost some 
ability to transmit vibrations, it would 
indicate that the large cavity improves 
this transmission ability. 

Transmission ability is most ac- 
curately measured by recording a bio- 
electric phenomenon, called the coch- 
lear microphonic, which takes place 
in the cochlear portion of the inner 
ear during sound stimulation. This 
cochlear microphonic is an alternating 
electric current produced by the hair 
cells of the cochlea. It has the same 
frequency as the sound frequency that 
reaches the inner ear, and a current 
strength directly proportional to the 
intensity of that sound. 

Now, for the sound to reach the in- 
ner ear and cause these bioelectric 
changes, the vibrations must normally 
be transmitted by the tympano-os- 
sicular system. Therefore, if a sound 
(or series of sounds) of identical fre- 
quency and intensity is played to the 
animal both before and after some 
alteration of the middle ear, then 
the before-and-after cochlear micro- 
phonics must reflect any changes that 
have occurred in the ability of the 
middle ear apparatus to transmit vi- 
brations to the inner ear. 

THIS procedure was carried out in 
the kangaroo rat; the alteration to 
the middle ear was the surgical reduc- 
tion of volume as already described. 
The graph on the facing page shows 
the cochlear microphonic responses of 
the inner ear during stimulation by 
sounds that ranged from 100 to 10,000 
cycles per second, both before and 
after the volume of the middle ear was 




Lateral vif.w of skull with a portion 
of outer shell removed shows laniinu 



surgically reduced. Note on the graph 
that the microphonic responses before 
middle ear reduction are greatest be- 
tween 1,000 and 3,000 cps and that, 
within this range, there are three 
peaks of particular sensitivity— at 
1,400 cps, 1,800 cps, and 2,600 cps. 
The great reduction of the micro- 
phonic responses following reduction 
of the middle ear cavity indicates that 
the transmission ability of the tym- 
pano-ossicular system has been se- 
verely curtailed. However, note again 
that the peaks of hearing sensitivity, 
although diminished in size, occur at 
the same frequencies in both the large 
and the small middle ears. Inasmuch 
as the peaks remain constant even 
when middle ear volume changes, they 
certainly cannot be reflections of the 
resonant properties of the middle ear, 
as had been postulated by some ob- 
servers, for if they were, they would 
occur at high frequencies when the 
middle ear was reduced in volume. 

The peaks of hearing sensitivity, 
as stated above, all lie within the fre- 
quency range of 1.000 to 3,000 cps, 
indicating that the kangaroo rat has 
its greatest auditory sensitivity in a 
much lower frequency range than do 
most small mammals, whose greatest 
sensitivity is to frequencies above 
3,000 cps. The physical nature of vi- 
brations is such that the lower the fre- 
quency, the greater the movement of 
the tympanic membrane. Obviously, 
inward movement of the membrane 
causes compression of the air within 
the middle ear cavity; the smaller the 
volume of this air, the greater is its 
resistance to compression. To clarify 
this, consider that if a cavity of two 
cubic inches is reduced by one cubic 



(arrow) lliat diviiles posterior from 
anterior part of the middle ear cavity. 




Ventral view of inner ear shows the 
auditory ossicles and the cochlea. 




Details of ossicles show the malleus 
and incus at left, and stapes at right. 



inch, the air contained therein is com- 
pressed into half its original space. 
However, if a ten-cubic-inch cavity is 
similarly reduced by exactly one 
cubic inch, then the contained air is 
compressed to only nine-tenths of its 
original space, which is much easier to 
accomplish. Similarly, an unusually 
large middle ear cavity that offers less 
resistance to movements by the tym- 
panic membrane would make the 
transmission of sound energy through 
the middle ear to the inner ear very 
much easier than it would be in a 

31 



smaller middle ear cavity. And this 
would be especially true for sounds of 
low frequency, where greater tympanic 
membrane movement must occur. 

Understanding of this, however, 
still does not explain the adaptive 
value of the mechanism. I moved the 
investigation into the field, where I 
hoped to discover sounds with fre- 
quencies in the extra-sensitive range 
from 1,000 to 3,000 cps, the detection 
of which would be vital to the survival 
of the kangaroo rat— sounds produced, 
for instance, by predators. 

Two of the chief predators of small 
desert rodents are the owl and the 
rattlesnake. The owl ( as reported in 
Natural History by R. S. Payne and 
W. H. Drury, Jr., in "Tyto alba: 
Marksman of the Darkness," June- 
July, 1958) can hunt successfully in 
total darkness. This it does, not by 
seeing in the dark, but by listening for 
a small rodent to pause in its normal 
movements. Then, by a sort of tri- 
angulation method, the owl determines 
the exact location of sound cessation, 
and flies directly to that spot. 

A different but equally successful 
method of hunting in the dark has 
evolved in the rattlesnake. The an- 
terior part of the snake's head contains 
an unusual sense organ, the pit organ, 
which is extremely sensitive to tem- 
perature change. This "anatomical 
thermostat" is activated by variations 
as small as three thousandths of a de- 
gree, and can detect the presence of 
the human hand at a distance of thirty 
centimeters. By means of this device, 
the snake can locate small, warm- 
blooded animals even in total dark- 
ness. The kangaroo rat, therefore, 
while foraging for food at night (and 
desert nights can be exceedingly dark) 
is at the same time being foraged for 
by at least two types of animals that 
do not need to see before striking. 
Obviously, the prey can use help. 

In the summer of 1959 I went to the 
Arizona desert to study predation at 
first hand, with three specific ob- 
jectives: (1) to learn if the normal 
kangaroo rat could avoid predatory at- 
tempts by the owl and/or the rattle- 
snake; (2) if so. to discover whether 
it could still do this after the vol- 
ume of the middle ear cavity was re- 
duced; and (3) to determine if during 
predation the owl and/or the rattle- 
snake produced any detectable sounds 
between 1,000 and 3,000 cps. In carry- 
ing out these investigations, I used the 

32 



facilities of the Southwestern Research 
Station of The American Museum 
of Natural History, near Portal, Ari- 
zona, and the Arizona-Sonora Desert 
Museum near Tucson. 

For the first set of experiments I 
used barn owls or screech owls in 
large outdoor cages, in which I placed 
kangaroo rats. A microphone and 
tape recorder collected data, which 
could be simultaneously monitored bj' 
earphones from the tape recorder. 
Some of the tests were also observed 
by a red light, which these nocturnal 
animals do not see but which renders 
them visible to a human observer. 

As an owl swept down toward the 
kangaroo rat, a faint whirring could 
be heard if, and only if, the tape re- 
corder was set at maximum amplifica- 
tion. Except for this, owl flight is 
noiseless. Later analysis of this whir- 
ring sound showed it contained all fre- 
quencies up through 1,200 cps. Just 
as the owl was about to seize its prey, 
the kangaroo rat escaped by a spec- 
tacular, nearly vertical leap of ap- 
proximately one and a half feet, and 
a landing at a different point, usually 
about a foot from where it had begun. 
Then it hopped away with no notice- 
able haste. The owl did not attempt 
to chase it— the normal owl reaction 
when prey is missed on the first at- 
tempt. However, if the kangaroo rat 
used in the experiment was one with 
artificiaUy reduced middle ear volume, 
the owl invariably caught it. 

Similar experiments were carried 
out using a sidewinder rattlesnake. 
The rattlesnake was placed in a large, 
outdoor box with a sand-covered floor, 
and was observed to strike unsuccess- 
fully at a kangaroo rat five times dur- 
ing a three-hour period. The kangaroo 
rat avoided the snake in much the 
same way as it had the owl, making no 
attempt at escape until the moment of 
the strike. In fact, leap and strike oc- 
curred almost simultaneously, so that 
the observer was unsure whether or 
not the snake had hit its target until 
its intended victim was seen hopping 
away. These attempted strikes were 
recorded, as were the owl's attempts, 
with the volume of the tape recorder 
turned to full capacity. Later analysis 
of the tapes, with a sound spectro- 
graph, revealed that immediately be- 
fore the rattlesnake struck it produced 
a brief burst of sound covering all 
frequencies up to 2.000 cps— perhaps a 
hiss, a rattle, or even scales rubbing 
against the substrate preparatory for 



the strike. When a kangaroo rat with 
reduced middle ear volume was placed 
in the box with the sidewinder, it was 
struck successfully on the first attempt 
and devoured by the snake, although 
in this case, as well, the strike was pre- 
ceded by the same sound frequencies. 

Correlating this series of observa- 
tions with anatomical, physiological, 
and behavioral information about the 
kangaroo rat, I could at this point 
propose a consistent explanation of 
the adaptive value and functional sig- 
nificance of the kangaroo rat's en- 
larged middle ear cavities. The in- 
creased size of the middle ear air space 
decreases damping (the resistance to 
tympano-ossicular system movement) , 
and thereby increases the sensitivity 
of the tympano-ossicular system, es- 
pecially in the low-frequency range. 

Such a condition is a logical out- 
come of the evolutionary process of 
natural selection. Two chief predators 
of the kangaroo rat have specialized 
sense organs that allow them to hunt 
in total darkness. Therefore, any 
specializations that would aid the kan- 
garoo rat in avoiding snakes or owls 
in the dark obviously would have an 
important adaptive value. 

THUS I was able to clear up some 
of the initial problems about the 
structure, physiology, and evolution- 
ary significance of the enlarged middle 
ears of the kangaroo rat. But, as al- 
ways, new questions arose. One of the 
most challenging concerns the struc- 
ture of the cochlea, where the change 
from physical vibrations to nerve im- 
pulses occurs. This portion of the ear 
is extremely uniform in all mammals, 
and the cellular structure of its sen- 
sory portion, the organ of Corti, also 
is essentially the same. Therefore, I 
was considerably surprised to discover 
that the kangaroo rat's organ of Corti 
contains cellular and acellular struc- 
tures quite unlike those that have been 
described in other mammals. A cur- 
sory examination of the drawings of 
the organs of Corti in the kangaroo 
rat and guinea pigs {page 30) shows 
the larger size of the kangaroo rat's 
basilar membrane, on which the organ 
of Corti rests, and the unique, flask- 
shaped cells found in the latter struc- 
ture. Even the more basal border cells 
differ considerably in shape and cy- 



Adaptations permit kangaroo rat to 
live for extended periods on dry diet. 



tology from those in the puinea pig. 
As yet I do not know what the func- 
tional or phylogcnetic significance of 
these structures may be; I am cur- 
rently determining what enzymes are 
present in the various portions of ihe 
organ of Corti and am comparing 
guinea pigs and kangaroo rats for 
similarities and/or flifferences. Such 
a comparative approach may even- 
tually tell us more about the way the 
ear functions at the molecular level in 
the kangaroo rat, the guinea pig, and 
perhaps in mammals in general. 

Another result of these studies has 
been the realization that the kangaroo 
rat's enlarged middle ear is not 
unique, as I had first thought. In fact, 
since I saw my first kangaroo ral skull, 
I have learned of several other groups 



of rodents and a group of insectivores 
that have, independently of one an- 
other, evolved greatly hypertrophied 
cavities of the middle ear. These 
groups include the gerbils, jerboas, 
and springhaas of northern Africa and 
the ste|jpes of the Near East, the jirds 
of Mo/ij;olia. and the elephant shrews 
of South Africa. Although diflerenl 
portions f)f the middle ear may be hy- 
pertrophied in different forms, the 
general structural characteristics are 
remarkably alike. Furthermore, these 
groups are all behaviorally similar. 
They all live in arid or semiarid 
regions. All have enlarged hind limbs 
and employ a kangaroo-type of loco- 
motion. All are nocturnal. In other 
words, animal groups independently 
evolved in widely separated parts of 



the world, have developed amazingly 
similar structural and behavioral pat- 
terns to meet similar environmental 
problems. The stresses of desert life 
are great, and several forms, includ- 
ing the kangaroo rat, have become 
highly successful in contending with 
those particular stresses. 

Herein lies a rich area for fruit- 
ful study of parallel evolution, a 
phenomenon that has never been fully 
analyzed and understood. Having seen 
the gross similarities in these different 
forms, for instance, one wonders how 
much similarity there may be in their 
finer structure, physiology, and their 
behavior. Do they have a similarly 
modified cellular structure in the 
organ of Corti? These questions 
and others await further investigation. 







'■'■'y '-■■^mji 



V±i^^ 





SKY 
REPORTER 

Our Galaxy, the Milky Way, 
is a flat, thin island of stars 

By Thomas D. Nicholson 



SHOULD you have the chance to sweep the February skies 
with binoculars or a small telescope, you will not fail 
to notice how much more numerous the stars seem to be 
in certain regions than in others. A particularly star-rich 
band extends from the constellation Cassiopeia, in the 
northwest, up through Auriga, east of Taurus, and down to 
the southeast horizon to the right of Canis Major. This is 
the region of the Milky Way, identified on the star map on 
page 37. If you happen to live some distance from the 
interference of lights from a city, you should be able to see 
the Milky Way with your unaided eye on very clear, dark 
nights. This remarkable belt of brightness, which continues 
full circle around the sky beneath the horizon, was chosen 



34 















i--^ ' 7 ■••*•*'. ' .H" -' ■•. •• 






y-^r-:-;^^:Z:.7'■•/^•: 



.,.::^:-V-.X 



zuvz' a5^i??i«W7/?y 



as the Sixth Wonder in the Planetarium story of the Seven 
Wonders of the Universe. 

Known since antiquity, the Milky Way received its name 
from the "milky" appearance of its bright clouds against 
the darkness of the sky. The discovery that the clouds of 
the Milky Way were composed of stars is attributed to 
Galileo, first to observe the heavens with a telescope. In 
1610, Galileo wrote, in Sidereus Nuncius, "I have ob- 
served the nature and the material of the Milky Way. With 
the aid of the telescope, this has been scrutinized so di- 
rectly and with such ocular certainty that all the disputes 
which have vexed philosophers through so many ages 
have been resolved, and we are at last freed from wordy 



Entire Milky Way is seen in dramng, based on photographs, 
that plots a 360-degree view of earth's sky on galactic grid. 



debates about it. The galaxy is, in fact, nothing but a 
congeries of innumerable stars grouped together in clus- 
ters. Upon whatever part of it the telescope is directed, a 
vast crowd of stars is immediately presented to view." 

This discovery by Galileo can be duplicated easily by 
anyone vvho possesses even the most inexpensive type of 
optical equipment. The stars that produce the Milky Way's 
brightness are too far distant to be observed as points of 
light by the unaided eye, as the nearest stars can be ob- 
served. Yet, the stars are grouped in such vast numbers 
along that belt of the sky that their combined brightness is 

35 



seen as the hazy patches of light that make up the Galaxy. 

The concentration of stars along the Milky Way led 
astronomers and philosophers of the 18th century to specu- 
late that the stars of our sky were arranged in a lens-shaped 
cloud, finite in extent, with its central plane extending out 
along the Milky Way, which was surrounded by starless 
space. During the 19th and early 20th centuries several 
attempts were made to determine the size and structure 
of this lens-shaped island of stars. The results indicated 
that the Milky Way did indeed represent a somewhat flat- 
tened disk of stars surrounding the earth in space, but 
they gave no indication of the true size of the system. 

In trying to probe the extent and structure of the star 
system represented by the Milky Way, 19th-century astron- 
omers faced the same problem that hinders study today— 
the presence of vast clouds of interstellar gas and dust. In 
some areas along the system, these clouds are glowing 
brightly; in others they are dark and obscuring. At any 
rate, this cosmic murk prevents our seeing deeply into the 
star mass. This partially explains why early attempts to 
explore it seemed to indicate that the earth was located 
approximately in its center. We can only see the Milky 
Way for certain distances; we cannot see how much farther 
it may extend in one direction than in others. 

BUT fortunately, astronomers found ways of measuring 
what they could not see. Harlow Shapley, as we saw 
in the "Sky Reporter," January, 1965, made the brilliant 
assumption that the globular clusters are the beacons of 
the Milky Way. Then he located their center and defined 
the extent of the globular clusters by determining their 
distance and direction from earth. The center of the system 
lay in the direction of Sagittarius, where the star clouds 
of the Milky Way are particularly rich and bright. There, 
according to Shapley, is the invisible center of the Milky 
Way itself, revealed by the structure of the globular cluster 
system, even though it is hidden far beyond vast, ob- 
scuring clouds of gas, dust, and stars. Shapley went on to 
describe the size and structure of the Milky Way, as he 
understood it. Except for revisions of distances and the 
modification of some details, our concept of it today is 
essentially the same as Shapley described in 1918. 

The stars of our sky do indeed represent an island within 
the universe, limited in its extent, surrounded by starless 
space. We call this island of stars our Galaxy. The Galaxy 
is flat and thin, sometimes described as disk-shaped, or, 
as earlier astronomers referred to it, lens-shaped, like two 
saucers placed face to face. The flat part of this Galaxy 
extends into space around us along the plane where we see 
the Milky Way. Over the years, our Galaxy has come to be 



MARS APPROACHING OPPOSITION 

On March 9, Mars will be opposite the sun in our sky. 
As opposition approaches throughout the months of 
January and February, the distance between earth and 
Mars rapidly diminishes, and the planet grows dra- 
matically brighter in our sky. On January 1, Mars had 
a stellar magnitude of -f 0.5. By February 1, it brightens 
to —0.2, and it will be —0.9 by the end of February. 
This change of 1.4 magnitudes, which has been taking 
place since the beginning of the new year, represents an in- 
crease of about 31/2 times in the brightness of the planet. 



36 



Dr. Nicholson, the regular author of this column, is also 
Chairman of The American Museum-Hayden Planetarium. 



referred to as the Milky Way because, as noted above, the 
only form in which we are able to see it from earth with our 
naked eye is as an undefined, milky expanse of stars, gas, 
and dust. In a sense, then, the name Milky Way can be used 
ambiguously. It may mean the hazy band of light we see in 
the sky, or it may mean the system of stars that band repre- 
sents—the Galaxy. The context in which the name is used 
will generally make clear what is meant. 

The Milky Way— referring now to our Galaxy— extends 
about 100,000 light-years across and is about 10,000 light- 
years thick at the center, where a dense hub of stars is 
found. The clouds of stars, gas, and dust that surround this 
central hub fan out along the plane of the Milky Way 
in arms that spiral around the center. The hub and central 
disk of the Galaxy are in turn surrounded by an almost 
spherical halo of stars and globular clusters. There are 
at least 100 billion stars in the system, and there may be 
twice that number. One of these stars is our sun, buried 
deep within the central plane along one of the spiral arms, 
about two-thirds of the way from the center. The entire 
Galaxy is like a giant, spiral-shaped wheel, turning most 
rapidly in the center, more slowly out along the arms. 

Our knowledge of the size and structure of our Galaxy 
has been strengthened in recent years by two methods of 
exploring, both of which verified the early picture of the 
Galaxy as provided by Shapley. First, studies of the motion 
and distribution of certain classes of very bright stars have 
shown the location and motion of several arms of stars in 
that part of our Galaxy that is within about 10,000 light- 
years from the sun. Among those identified are the Orion 
arm, in which the sun is located, the Sagittarius arm, which 
is closer to the center of the Galaxy, and a third— the Per- 
seus arm— that is more distant from the center. 

A second modern technique for exploring the structure 
of the Milky Way has developed through radio as- 
tronomy. Invisible clouds of neutral hydrogen located 
among the star clouds of the Milky Way radiate energy of 
21 cm. wavelength, part of the radio spectrum. These clouds 
share in the circular motion of the Galaxy; therefore, any 
part of their motion that is along the line of sight can be 
detected by a shift in the frequency of the 21 cm. energy 
they radiate. Careful analysis of the direction and velocity 
of the clouds detected along the Milky Way has shown that 
they are located in spirals around the center of the system, 
corresponding approximately with the arms of stars in 
the Galaxy. Thus, the size and structure of the spiral arms 
of stars along the central plane of the Milky Way are re- 
vealed by the hydrogen clouds, to the extent that the loca- 
tion of the hydrogen provides us with a guide to the loca- 
tion of the stars. 

Thus far in our story of the Seven Wonders of the 
Universe we have seen that stars are not immortal and 
do not extend infinitely into space. We have explored the 
process by which stars are created and the events that may 
accompany their death. And this month we have seen what 
kind of a system the stars of our sky belong to. Next month, 
in the story of the Seventh Wonder, we shall discuss what 
lies beyond the starless space that surrounds our Galaxy. 



THE SKY 

IN FEBRUARY 



liUCNirUDE SCALE 

f. -0.1 and brightar 
to +0.9 
H +1.0 to +1.9 
". +2X)to+2.9 
-,• +3jOU>+3.9 
> +4.0 and fainter 



\..:'°.''^, 



.\. • •■ 



' \^.-" 



'1*, * '^'^NIS XllNOR 



y*\T 










New Moon February 1, 11:36 A.M., EST 

First Quarter February 9, 3:53 A.M., EST 

Full Moon February 15, 7:27 P.M., EST. 

Last Quarter February 23, 12:39 A.M., EST 





TIMETABLE 


Febri 


uary 1 11:00 P.M 


Febri 


uary 15 10:00 P.M 


Febri 


uary 28 9:00 p.m 



February 3: Saturn is in conjunction with the early crescent 
moon at about 5:00 a.m., EST. Saturn is now, too close to the 
sun and too faint to be seen easily. 

February 8: Look for Jupiter and the nearby first quarter 
moon in tonight's sky. After sundown, they are in the south, 
and the moon is slightly west (to the right) of the brilliant 
Jupiter. If you watch closely, however, you will see the moon 
move eastward (to'the left) slowly to pass under Jupiter along 
about 10:00 p.m., EST. The moon will move, with respect to 
Jupiter, a distance equal to its own diameter each hour. After 
the conjunction at 10:00 p.m., the moon will be to the east 
of the planet. 

February 17: If you have not seen Mars yet this winter, 
be sure to look in tonight's sky. Just look for the moon (two 
days past full), and Mars will be the brilliant, reddish, starlike 
object a little to the right (west) of the moon. At 5:00 p.m., 
EST, the moon and Mars are in conjunction, even though they 
have not yet risen to a position over the United States whereby 
they can be observed. In parts of south and east Asia, how- 
ever, the moon can be observed to occult the planet. 



February 23: Mercury is at superior conjunction (in line 
with the sun and earth, but on the far side of the sun), and 
passes into the evening sky. 

February 26: Saturn is in conjunction with the sun and 
becomes a morning star. 

Jupiter becomes visible in the south soon after sunset in 
early February. On the 7th, its elongation from the sun is 
90 degrees easterly, so that it sets just about six hours after 
sunset. Toward month's end, it appears in the southwest as 
darkness comes on and sets well before midnight. Jupiter 
is easily distinguished by its brightness (magnitude —2.0 in 
early February, fading to —1.8 at the end of the month). It is 
located among the stars of Taurus, west of the Pleiades (see 
map above). 

Mars is in Virgo, but becomes so much brighter this month 
than it has been all winter that stargazers may be surprised 
when they see it and may wonder where it came from. The 
planet rises shortly after sunset each evening and remains 
visible throughout the night until it disappears into the grow- 
ing twilight of the morning sky (see box on opposite page). 



Flowers, Insects, 
and Evolution 






Specialization developed from mutual adaptations 



By Herman F. Becker 

ANY endeavor to unravel the evolu- 
tionary history of our fascinat- 
ing flower-insect relationships reveals 
divergent interpretations among scien- 
tists. For such an undertaking a 
comprehensive knowledge of the natu- 
ral sciences is required, especially of 
geology, botany, entomology, and, 
above all, of paleobotany, paleoento- 
mology, and evolution. Many people 
realize the existence of interdepen- 
dence between some plants and insects, 
but few are aware of the aeons of 
time involved during which this proc- 
ess reached its present state of de- 
velopment. Evolution has no definite 
end result and never a deliberate, 
predestined direction. In the case in 
point, it is expressed by a high degree 




Fossil of Rosa hiiliae Lesquereux 
resembles many rose leaves of today. 

38 



of specialization and an intricate re- 
lationship that developed into such 
widely divergent biological entities as 
the flowering plants and the insects. 

First, of course, we must consider 
the interdependency between plants 
and insects that exists in nature to- 
day; then we must apply the dictum, 
"The present is a key to the past." The 
geological record presents a chronicle 
of 400 million years of fossil life that 
can be traced through each subsequent 
younger formation. The evolution of 
each living plant and insect has been 
a continuous chain of events, which, 
if broken, would have resulted in ex- 
tinction. In turn, a complex and har- 
monious interdependency— or mutual- 
ism—exists between many plant and 
insect species. If that interdependency 
should be severely disrupted, mutual 
annihilation could result. 

Early organization of flower struc- 
tures appears to have been a slow, 
gradual process of adaptation and 
specialization without functional stim- 
ulus by insects. When the first insect- 
like animals appeared during Devoni- 
an time, the evolution of highly 
specialized reproductive structures 
among such plant groups as the seed 
ferns, the treelike club mosses {Lepi- 
dodendron, Sigillaria) , and the giant 
horsetails or scouring rushes {Calam- 
ites) was already well on its way. 
Early "insects," according to fossil 
evidence, were doubtless primitive, 
wingless, and unspecialized. Their 
food requirements were not restricted, 
but may have comprised a varied diet 
of decaying debris. 

The reasons for the sudden rise and 
expansion of the angiosperms— the 
higher plants, which have seeds en- 
closed in an ovary— are still shrouded 
in mystery, but a phylogenetic plasti- 
city coupled with favorable ecological 



opportunities surely played a major 
role in their rise. Their explosive di- 
versification and dispersal in the late 
Cretaceous and early Tertiary nearly 
parallels an equally momentous rise 
and diversification, or speciation, 
among the insects. An intimate inter- 
dependence between these two groups, 
therefore, must be considered a rela- 
tively recent geological phenomenon 
—one initiated about 70 million years 
ago. Most earlier relationships prob- 
ably were essentially haphazard, and 
at first contributed little to the eventual 
physiognomy and requirements of 
either plant or insect. 

NOTHING in nature is constant but 
change. In a nutshell, organic 
evolution, expressed in terms of phy- 
logenies, is "descent with modifica- 
tion" as a function of perpetual genetic 
variation, mutation, and natural selec- 
tion. Those traits that do not contrib- 
ute to species survival are gradually 
discarded. In rare cases, according to 
fossil evidence, species remain in a 
state of what might be called "evolu- 
tionary suspension," or status quo. 
That is, they have changed relatively 
little either because their environment 
has not changed, or because they are 
adapted to a wide range of environ- 
ments. Cases in point are such ex- 
amples as the "living fossils" of the 
Dawn Redwood (Metasequoia) , the 
Katsura tree {Cercidiphyllum.) , Gink- 
go, and, to some extent, the roses. 
Among the insects, the dragonflies, 
roaches, and silverfish fit into the liv- 
ing fossil category. 

Essentially, then, over a long period 
of time, each gradual and minute 
change in both flower and insect 
morphology was triggered by subtle 
genetic and environmental changes. In 
some cases, our interpretation of an 




Upper Rul»y River valley in Mont<ina 
is site at whii-h the author lollecled 
gome 12,000 plant and irn^eot iukiih. 



Chanefly (Tipulidael was liuried in 
the Ruhy seilinieiit during Oligocene 
E\'<ir\i iimri- llian 36 million years ago. 



^ 




•9, *,.-. , '^'^V 



%^!^^3 




Many insects distinguish flowers by petal and sepal forms, 
as in pattern combinations above. Upper row shows petal 



types from simple to complex; lower sequence includes the 
sepals. Recognition is the key in pollinating relationships. 



early phylogeny is only as valid as 
the fossils on which it is based, and 
additional fossil material that comes 
to light frequently causes us to recon- 
sider and modify previous conclu- 
sions. This procedure permits a flexi- 
bility to amend previously established 
plant-insect relationships according to 
new evidence. 

Some of the early insects of the 
Carboniferous and Permian periods 
were doubtless carnivorous or omni- 
vorous, while herbivorous forms were 
destructive to plant life. It has been 
suggested— as a hypothetical beginning 
to plant — insect interdependencies — 
that there gradually appeared cells that 
secreted nectar. These surrounded the 
reproductive (flower-like) regions, and 
the feeding activities of insects began 
to be channeled toward such central 
lures. This, then, may have resulted 
in the preservation of vegetative struc- 
tures and, concurrently, promoted the 
transfer of microspores and insured 
pollination. From such convergent 
developments arose a mutualism that 
was beneficial— in some cases a survival 
factor— for plants and insects alike. 

It is sometimes assumed that flower 
types were determined by their ex- 
ploiters, the pollinators. To the un- 
initiated, the examples are superfi- 
cially plausible when we say that 
"bumblebee flowers," such as clover, 
arose in response to specific structures 
of the bumblebees ; that "bird flowers," 

40 



such as cardinal-flower or trumpet- 
vine, arose in response to parrots and 
hummingbirds; and that "bat flowers" 
—Kigelia (the tropical sausage tree) 
or certain cacti— developed in response 
to bats. Such reasoning assumes an 
independent "leading" development of 
the fauna with a resulting adaptation 
of flowers to their visitors. It can 
hardly be argued that the insects are 
the sole exploiters of flowers for food 
as long as the flowers equally "exploit" 
insects for pollination— an exchange 
that results in harmonious relation- 
ships to each other's advantage. 

MANY instances of insect behavior 
toward plants may be traced to 
a functional structure, color, or fra- 
grance in plants, and one might be 
tempted to say that insects "behave" 
in a particular fashion because of these 
attributes. Whether the insects directed 
or caused the evolution of flowers to 
conform to their own entomological spe- 
cializations is certainly not decipher- 
able from the geological record. But 
if they did so, it would follow that 
flowers must always have lagged be- 
hind insects in their optimum adapta- 
tion. It is more realistic to assume 
that reciprocal adaptation among 
primitive and advanced flowers and 
insects was achieved contemporane- 
ously or in a limited, seesaw fashion. 
Secretion of nectar, for instance, is 
physiologically linked with flower 



maturity, the opening of stamens, and 
the discharge of pollen. Nectar glands, 
or nectaries, of the earliest flower types 
attracted primitive arthropods of the 
class Insecta. Floral parts provide a 
region where sugars, starch, albumen, 
fats, and vitamins accumulate to be 
incorporated into developing fruits 
and seeds. Nectar and pollen thus 
furnished, then as now, a concentrated 
and palatable food for the arthropod 
visitors who "learned" to utilize these 
sources for their daily needs. 

Today, insects are divided into two 
great subclasses, the wingless Aptery- 
gota and the winged Pterygota. Wing- 
less insects entered the geological stage 
during early Devonian time and have 
remained relatively unchanged and 
primitive to this day. They contain the 




Fruit of China-tree, now native in 
Asia only, was found in Ruby shales. 





Dogwood blossom, nfcore, is among the 
fossils represenlalivi; of the Oligocene. 



Leaf of an alder tree, left, suggests 
that its environment was once moist. 



Fine venation of elm leaf compression, 
at right, shows excellent preservalioii. 




^\ 



J 



present orders of Thysanura, with 
bristle tails or caudal filaments and 
chewing mouthparts (silverfish), and 
the Collembola, minute— or even micro- 
scopic — vegetarian springtails. Only 
one in a thousand of all insect species 
is wingless today. Pterygota appeared 
somewhat later, but the exact time of 
derivation from the wingless forms is 
problematical, and the morphological 
changes that resulted in wing develop- 
ment are still not clearly understood. 
The attainment of winged flight pre- 
cedes that for reptiles and birds by 
nearly 100 million years. This mode of 
locomotion obviously unlocked new 
vistas and evolutionary potentialities 



for the whole group. Nearly 200 mil- 
lion years elapsed before the greatest 
number of insect species took to the 
air, which coincided with the early 
Tertiary ascendancy and diversifica- 
tion of the flowering plants. 

Among the Pterygota. the Palaeop- 
tera, or ancient-winged, had out- 
stretched, non-flexible wings that could 
not be folded flat over their bodies. 
Dragonflies and mayflies are examples. 
They were mainly predaceous, and 
evolved into the largest insects that 
ever lived. Fossil dragonflies with a 
wingspread of 30 inches are not un- 
common. Toward the end of the Car- 
boniferous the Palaeoptera gave rise 




Today, Holmskioldia, above, grows in 
.Southeast Asia and Madagascar only. 



Fruit of today's Penny-Cress, left, 
is compared to fossil specimen, right. 



to the new-winged insects, the Neop- 
tera, which could fold their wings. To- 
day. 90 per cent of all existing orders 
of Pterygota, comprising 97 per cent 
of all species, belong to this group. 

FOR the first 100 million years fol- 
lowing the origin of the winged 
insect, the air was shared with no 
other organism. They reigned supreme 
until the Jurassic and the advent of 
the birds, which soon turned the in- 
sects into a source of food. Neopterous 
insects of the Upper Carboniferous. 
related to our cockroaches and stone- 
flies, had an incomplete, or hemime- 
tabolous, metamorphosis, in which 
each stage was larger than the previous 
until adult size was reached. Insects 
with a complete, or holometabolous. 
metamorphosis— that is, those that go 
through grub and pupal stages— ap- 
peared in Lower Permian times and 
comprised about 5 per cent of all in- 
sects. Today, 88 per cent of all insects 
are in this group; their larvae and 
caterpillars differ from adults in struc- 
ture and in food and ecological re- 
quirements. 

One of the keys to the successful 
evolution of pollinating relationships 
is the faculty of insects to distinguish 
diagnostic forms of basic flower types 
that consist of a definite number of 



41 



sepals and petals {drawing, page 40) . 
Such structures are termed "numeral" 
patterns and were first recognized in 
"flowers," or fructifications, in the 
cycad-like plants of the early Mesozoic. 
Gradually, through various evolution- 
ary lines, they attained their present 
angiospermous complexity of ovary- 
enclosed seeds. Perhaps one evolution- 
ary system of flower "type classes" 
may be equated with a complementary 
sensory evolution of pollinating in- 
sects. During the progress of natural 
selection, each previous sign of "rec- 
ognition" on the part of the insects 
was augmented by a new, more adap- 
tive, and more successful sign. Primi- 
tive, spirally arranged, beetle-polli- 
nated magnolias of the Cretaceous, for 
example, gave rise to some modern 
species {Magnolia denudata, M. coco) 
with a radial symmetry and a more 
efficient pollination by Hymenoptera. 

THE following botanical terms in 
their evolutionary sequence tele- 
scope these trends: 

Amorphic, or "structureless," ex- 
tinct flower types usually possessed 
dense whorls of leaves or bracts, often 
without definite form, and growing 
beneath the floral reproductive struc- 
tures. Some of the Triassic ancestral 
cycads with amorphic "flowers" 
{Wielandiella) attracted certain 
primitive beetles and roaches, and pos- 
sibly some wingless insects that 
learned to associate the pollen and 
secretory food supply with the density 
of whorls of bracts or basal leaves of 
the flowers. 

Haplomorphic, or "simple," flowers, 
in their often "spiral" arrangements 
of variously colored petals and sepals 
(the perianth) , trace their ancestry to 
the middle and late Mesozoic Era. 
Magnolias, the tulip tree, and water- 
lilies belong in this group, which is 
considered to be one of the most primi- 
tive among the angiosperms. 

Actinomorphic, or "regular," flow- 
ers have emerging "radial" and two- 
dimensional symmetries. Roses and 
peonies, which have all floral parts and 
nectaries on one level, are examples. 
Here are associated composite, radial 
forms of from three- to six-perianth 
segments that probably are perceived 
by the insect as a unit. Together with 
color and fragrance, these flower types 
represent a food attractant for certain 
flies or bees and a few other well- 
adapted pollinators, including beetles, 
that need no specific ability to gather 




Bumblebee may have been vital 
as a pollinator of Oligocene flora. 



Mirror image of ichneumon wasp, 
right, was found between shale pages. 



the abundant pollen offered. No flow- 
ers of the truly radially symmetrical 
type have been reported from the Cre- 
taceous Period. 

Pleomorphic flower types (the root 
word means "more than one") , with a 
four- or five-part recognition pattern, 
were found in Cretaceous beds, but 
they became abundant only in Ter- 
tiary floras. Some lily-like compres- 
sions of the Tertiary suggest bee 
pollination, as in modern, colorful 
monocotyledonous flowers with a 



Tropical grasshopper from Ruby 
site is now extinct in United States. 



'^' 





Insect with a striped abdomen has 
been identified as a hymenopteron. 




42 





Antennae, wing veins, and limbs are 
well preserved in stiletto fly, above. 



three- or six-part perianth. Flowers of 
the mustard and dogwood families 
were first recognized in the Oligocene 
Ruby shale deposits of southwestern 
Montana, of some 3.5 million years 
ago. Bees ( including bumblebees I and 
flies (including flower flies I were 
abundant by then, and mav often have 
chosen specific flowers on which to feed. 
Stereomorphic, or three-dimension- 
al, often tubular, flowers with a sym- 
metrical three-, five-, or six-parted 
perianth, are a late Tertiary derivative 



Specimen, possibly a robberfly, is 
magnified S^/^ times its actual size. 




(Ji.K.ocENE fossil area is 70 miles north- 
west of \ellowstone National Park. 



from pleomorphic ancestry. They in- 
clude gentians, bellflowers, colum- 
bines, primroses, phlox, and daffodils. 
Their corollas protrude considerably 
above the deep-set and often concealed 
nectaries. Butterflies and hawk moths, 
some of which have refined adapta- 
tions of mouthparts ( a long, curled 
tongue, for instance I , or certain bees 
I which, with long tongues or very 
small bodies, are able to force entry 
into the tubes I feed on and pollinate 
stereomorphic flowers. 

Zygomorphic. or bilaterally sjth- 
metrical, floral development represents 
the highest and most intricate evolu- 
tion of morphological structures in 
response to, or contemporaneous with, 
a very limited number of pollinators 
whose sensory organization is attuned 
to a highly specialized perianth. These 
perianths offer complicated recogni- 
tion patterns together with nectar and 
fragrance that must be grasped in their 
entirety, as was experimentally shown, 
no matter how ornamented their sym- 
metry mav be. Zvgomorphism crosses 
the boundaries of many families (or- 
chids, milkweeds, legumes I and dem- 
onstrates what may be the ultimate in 
floral specialization. Orchids and their 
pollinators pose the greatest morpho- 
genic and taxonomic problems to an 
investigator. They do not always con- 



43 



\ 




Wing is well preserved due to volcanic 
ash content in the Oligoeene sediment. 



Beetle fossil rests on same segment 
of paper shale as alder leaf, right. 



form to botanical criteria that are 
considered valid for other families. 
For instance, they possess unique pol- 
len structures, the pollinia, which ad- 
here as units to the visiting insect 
(often flies and moths), and are thus 
assured of delivery to a receptive 
stigma of the same species. This is 
made easier because the highly adapted 
pollinators regularly visit the same 
kind of flower. 

THROUGHOUT evolutionary time 
each flower type, from the amor- 
phic to the zygomorphic, has corre- 
sponded to a concurrent level of sen- 



y/«ca 



sory adjustment in those pollinating 
insects that had the greatest reaction 
to a particular plant. Such adjustments 
continue to evolve, if imperceptibly, 
without the sacrifice of previously ex- 
isting, advantageous flower-insect re- 
lationships. The story of the present 
adaptation of insects to their flower 
hosts, and the intricate endowment 
of flowers to lure, attract, trap, deceive, 
and feed pollinators to their own ends 
is a source of wonder. Even birds and 
bats entered the competition when spe- 
cialized structures and functions, 
serving the pollination of the host, 
arose with equally efficient features 



y^^W 




for food requirements of their verte- 
brate visitors. This resulted in an ad- 
vantageous, mutual dependence. 

After these more or less theoretical 
considerations, let us now look at some 
specific aspects based on relatively re- 
cent discoveries of plant and insect 
compressions in our own western back- 
yard. During the summer of 1947, I 
found the first Tertiary plant compres- 
sions in the upper Ruby River basin 
of southwestern Montana. I could not 
foresee, however, the significance of 
that find until I showed a shoe box 



Mayfly nymph, with visible leaflike 
gills, has been enlarged 9 times here. 





44 



full iif fossil h.'avcs and assortecJ insccls 
Id JJr. C. A. Arnold of the University 
of Michigan. He immediately recog- 
nized the scientific potential of the 
(lora and encouraged me to expand 
the collection. That suggestion resulted 
in seven additional field trips during 
the next fifteen years, and an accumu- 
lation of about 12,000 specimens, in- 
cluding some 200 species of plants and 
a great number of insect remains. 

AMONG paleoentomological regions, 
_ the Oligocene Florissant sites of 
central Colorado had been the most 
lucrative and best-known in the United 
States, and this fauna was exhaustively 
described seventy-five years ago by 
S. H. Scudder. The Ruby plant sites 
rank second only to those of Florissant 
in richness of insect species and may 
surpass them in detail of preservation. 

The Ruby River valley is 70 miles 
from Yellowstone National Park in a 
basin of the Rocky Mountains formed 
by geological faulting. It is flanked by 
the Ruby and Gravelly ranges. During 
most of Tertiary time, the entire valley 
was occupied by a lake in which a 
sequence of sediments was deposited. 
A vegetation much denser and more 
varied than that of today supplied 
leaves and other plant debris that were 
carried into the lake by numerous 
streams and buried in the mud. A high 
mineral content of the water and a 
possible absence of decay organisms 
provided favorable conditions for the 
preservation of organic remains, in- 
cluding insects that had been washed 
or blown into the lake. 

Fossil sites exposed along the walls 
of dry washes consist of laminated, 
light-colored shale that separates along 
some of its bedding planes. Where 
such rock is exposed to annual sub- 
zero temperatures and to baking dur- 
ing the summer, it splits into progres- 
sively thinner slabs. These are the 
"books" of shale with their "pages," 
or layers, so thin that the slightest 
breeze will waft them into the air. 
It is this "paper shale" that contains 
the fossil compressions of most plants 
and insects at the Ruby sites. 

We rightfully assume that the large, 
varied Ruby River basin insect fauna 
was attuned to the equally varied 
angiospermous flora of trees, shrubs, 
and herbaceous plants, and that a de- 
pendent relationship existed between 
these two groups. This image is re- 
created from fossils nearly fifty times 
as old as mankind itself— from plants 



and insects that left nothing but films 
of carbon, which are sharp, clear rep- 
licas of their former selves. 

The Ruby fossil plant assemblage 
provides an eloquent basis for local 
divisions of vertical life or climatic 
zones, each with its adapted ento- 
mological fauna. In most cases, diag- 
nostic criteria for fossil insect identi- 
fication are sudicient to place them in 
their jjroper orders, families, subfami- 
lies, tribes, and even genera. Their 
taxonomic status is therefore accurate 
except on the species level. The ento- 
mological sample of the Ruby shales 
])robably represents but a small frac- 
tion (jf the genera and species that 



Graph traces evolution of insects 
from Devonian to Recent geologic 



actually existed. Recognizable fossil 
insects thus indicate a reliable, if not 
a specific, correspondence with then- 
existing plant relationships and with 
plant— insect interdependence. 

In the light of applied evolutionary 
principles, the botanical and ento- 
mological participants of the Ruby 
flora give us a glimpse into antiquity 
that allows us a sharp focus on pres- 
ent phenomena. Our limited picture 
can only dimly suggest the meander- 
ings of the evolutionary path, the im- 
mensity of geologic time involved, and 
the astronomical numbers of species 
and individuals that fell by the way- 
side as links between past and present. 



periods. The Neoptera group ronipriseg 
97 per cent of today's insect species. 



GEOLOGIC 
PERIODS 



MAIN LINES OF 
INSECT EVOLUTION 



AGE IN 
MILLIONS 
OF YEARS 




45 




ABORIGINAL 

ART AND 

MYTHOLOGY 

Bark panels reflect clan symbolism 



By Stuart Scougall and Philip C. Gifford 




46 




jtist's handprint is his signature on 
cks of some recent bark paintings. 



Mythological scene depicts sources of 
food: snakes, lizards, and kangaroos. 



A racially distinct group among 
the world's peoples, the Abori- 
gines of Australia migrated across the 
islands from the north more than 
10,000 years ago, spreading to all 
parts of the continent and exploiting 
its meager resources of food and 
water. Today's Aborigines, still mov- 
ing about their traditional hunting 
grounds, arm themselves with the 
simplest weapons: the spear, the throw- 
ing stick, and the stone knife. Their 
"patterned nomadism" is based on ex- 
pert knowledge of the ways of the 
animals and fish they hunt, and the 
location of the vegetables and fruits 
they eat. They do not till the soil or 



practice animal husbandry, but they 
are men and women with centuries of 
experience that give meaning to their 
traditions. To call them a Stone Age 
people may cause us to overlook a sig- 
nificant part of their culture. 

Arnhem Land, a section of the 
north-central coast of Australia that is 
the size of Scotland, has been set aside 
as one of the country's aboriginal re- 
serves. The 4,000 Aborigines who live 
here have little contact with Western 
civilization, and among the many in- 
teresting features of their way of life, 
the latest to be studied is their art— 
particularly their designs painted on 
eucalyptus bark panels. The contrast- 



ing colors and exotic subjects por- 
trayed in their paintings are coming 
increasingly to the attention of the 
world public. Arnhem Landers, as well 
as Aborigines of other parts of Aus- 
tralia, also carve wood, paint designs 
on the walls of cave shelters, and use 
painted designs ceremonially on their 
bodies, but this is the only area w-here 
bark paintings are still made. 

Three separate styles of bark paint- 
ing have been developed, and these 
may be arranged geographically. The 
main, or standard, style is located in 
central Arnhem Land and features one 
or more figures on a plain dark back- 
ground. To the west, the "X-ray" style 



47 





Ritual at left portrays birds, fish, 
dancers, and musicians. Dancers hold 
their arms in standardized positions. 



/I 



m ; 



/i 



predominates, in which the native art- 
ists draw bones and inner organs of 
fish or animals within the body's out- 
lines. The most complex compositions, 
however, come from northeast Arnhem 
I^and. Here, diawing covers the panel, 
and its backjiround is filled and framed 
with hatched or dotted designs. The 
arrangement of the delicately drawn, 
parallel patterns often achieves a 
somewhat geometric effect. Yirrkala, a 
location on the coast meaning "run- 
ning sjjring waters" in the language of 
the Aborigines, is a center for this 
style, and it was here that the illustra- 
tions for this article were collected. 

MOST of the paintings on these 
pages reflect in some manner 
aboriginal mythology, which has been 
developed over many generations and 
which enables religious values to be 



attached to almost every facet of their 
lives. They consider landmarks along 
the shores— the mouths of rivers, rocky 
islands, and points of land— as pur- 
posely placed there for their use by 
the "Creative Beings" during the pre- 
human "time of creation." The prod- 
ucts of the sea were also granted to 
human use, as were the animals and 
jjlants of the land. The m\thological 
origin of these landmarks and sources 
of food and water within a particular 
clan area is frequently shown in the 
paintings, as in that at the left. In 
this picture we see Tjambuwal, the 
Thunder-man. the source of rain and 
thunder, standing with his club before 
a background of characteristically 
curved lines that represent clouds. Sea 
animals, available at the time of mon- 
soon rains, surround him. Paintings 
such as this are typical of the coastal 



8?^. ? 



H^ n 



"***»• ^ '>t r'^ *mim-,,^~. 



JAMTiuwAL, the Thunder-man, stands 
ith a club in panel above. He is one 
f the mythological "Creative Beings." 




Turtles, among the animals placed in 
the sea during the prehuman "time of 
creation," swim in a tree-lined swamp. 



49 



areas that face the Gulf of Carpentaria 
and the Arafura Sea. 

ARNHEM Land has a variety of 
, landscapes: the hilly interior, 
which is extremely dry except for the 
rainy season; fresh-water and euca- 
lyptus swamps; and grass-carpeted 
sand hills bordering parts of the ocean. 
A considerable number of animals and 
birds may be found here and are used 
by the Aborigines for food. Each clan 
has its own traditional hunting area, 
and clan mythology centers in that 
particular section. Although they paint 
descriptions of places, they are not 
landscape paintings in our sense, in 
which sky and trees are drawn with 
shading and perspective. Rather, the 
artistic elements of the bark paintings, 
though not truly abstract, are simpli- 



fied symbols that have specific, recog- 
nizable meanings for the Aborigine. 
The works are not meant for the casual 
viewer, and most of them are impos- 
sible to "read" without instruction. 

As an example, the types of snakes 
portrayed in Arnhem Land paintings 
are varied. The snakes used for food 
often represent a totem place, or sacred 
locality, where the ceremonies of in- 
crease are held. Other snake drawings 
are associated with the creation of 
water holes and rivers. Some of these 
snakes are shown in the sky, where, it 
is believed, they go during the rainy 
season. The "lightning snakes" pass 
from cloud to cloud— often in groups— 
and the "rainbow snake" may be 
drawn in an arched position. 

Even the plaidlike hatching in the 
background is important, as usually 



it is a clan-owned pattern, which only 
clan members may adopt. The "plaid" 
is adaptable, and it may be used uni- 
formly throughout the painting or only 
to fill in areas that are not colored 
solid. Parallel stripes in this mode are 
sometimes understood as waves in a 
water design, or as rain in a picture 
representing the sky. A complicated 
background is shown in the painting 
of long-necked turtles on page 49, 
which is made up of rows of connected 
diamonds, colored alternately black 
and brown. The diamonds, interpreted 
as paperbark trees (Melaleuca) , sig- 
nify a swamp in which the turtles are 
swimming. A similar pattern may also 
be used to designate ashes that cover a 
burned-over area of land. The right to 
relate a particular myth, as well as the 
right to use a background pattern, is 




coiisidiTcd Id I)i; |I](/ |)ii)|jcrly of a rhin. 

IJark is widely avaijablo in Aus- 
tralia. It is used to wrajj bundles, to 
hold food, and to make boats. Al- 
thoufi:h the oiiffin of its use as an art 
rnalerial has been forgotten, it is jjos- 
sible that the Aborigine develo|jed his 
jjainting technique during the rainy 
season, known simply as "the wet," 
while sheltered in a temporary bark 
hut or lean-to. 

To prepare the panels, the Abori- 
gines strip curved slabs of bark from 
the stringybark eucalyptus ( Eiicalyp- 
Ins letradonla) and steam them over 
the coals of a fire. After a few minutes, 
they peel off the outer fibrous surface, 
place the damp bark sheet on level 
ground, and cover it with sand to dry 
it— a process that takes several days. 
The red, white, and yellow colors in 





Complex painting above shows a Malay 
Snakes at left are seen inside their prau and its crew viewed from several 

nests near a water hole represented by angles. Black squares form boat's hull. 

wavy lines. Snake on right eats a rat. 



51 



the paintings are ground ochers mixed 
with water or saliva. The black may be 
an ocher or some compound using car- 
bon. Traditionally, the ochers are not 
mixed and are applied over a base 
coat of solid colors. (One contempo- 
rary Yirrkala artist, Wandug, now uses 
an olive color that is black and yellow 
mixed. The lively fish in the seascape 
on the facing page are in this experi- 
mental color, which other artists are 
beginning to use sparingly.) The juice 
of a local orchid may be added as a 
kind of fixative to prevent the paint 
from flaking. Chewed twigs or frayed 
leaf edges make paintbrushes, and fine 
lines are made either with a feather or 
with a few hairs fastened to a handle. 

THE process of painting a religious 
subject has value in itself as part 
of a ceremony. The Aborigines believe 
that relating the clan myth in colors 
and on bark actually re-creates the 
portrayed spiritual reality. Some sa- 
cred paintings are revealed to initiates 
as part of coming-of-age ceremonies, 
and contact with them during the rite 
is a religious experience for men only; 
the paintings may not be viewed by 
the tribeswomen or by outsiders. They 
represent the continuity of the natural 
order necessary for the clan to main- 
tain itself as a group. The actual bark 
and its painting are not felt to be sa- 
cred, however, and are discarded. 

Other types of drawing are less im- 
portant ceremonially, although they 
also may be related to native belief. 
One of these is shown on page 51. It re- 
counts a mythical incident when Thun- 
der-man dispersed an early, unidenti- 
fied people during the spiritual 
"dreamtime" to make the land ready 
for the Aborigines. The elements of the 
story are so arranged that one must 
view them from several angles. The 
principal feature of the painting is a 
sailing vessel with its crew. The hull of 
the boat is a dark, grid-marked rec- 
tangle, with the bow toward the top of 
the picture. (The boat is best viewed 
from the left side.) The sail is parallel 
to the hull, with its triangular corners 
painted black. A tripod mast holds the 
sail, and the lines of the rigging may 
be seen. The stern of the boat appears 
as though viewed from above, with the 
two steersmen holding their oars. Two 
other crewmen stand in the top left 
corner of the painting, and the captain 
stands alone, hands on hips, in the 
lower right corner. 

The boat and its rigging represent a 

52 



Malay prau. Malay fleets actually 
sailed to the north coast of Australia 
to fish for trepang until sixty years 
ago, and their boats were incorpora- 
ted into aboriginal myths as the crafts 
of a prehuman population. The tech- 
nique of dispersing parts of the natu- 
ral order and then regrouping them 
into a design is a typical feature of 
Yirrkala art style. In some instances, 
as here, the background pattern is in- 
terspersed within and around the story 
elements, and the effect is that of a 
complex abstract painting. 

To add to our appreciation, we must 
consider two important points. One is 
the nature of the symbols used; the 
other is the importance of the myth 
cycles to Arnhem Land Aborigines. 
We must first remember that the art 
we see here is a developed system with 
a long history. Outlines of the fish 
and animals are not crude or inept, like 
those of a child's drawing. A fish 
painting emphasizes specific character- 
istics that distinguish it as a barra- 
munda instead of as a shark or a ray 
or some other fish or animal. A symbol 
is intended, not a detailed drawing. 
Whatever action, size, climatic condi- 
tions, or other information that is 
necessary to the story beyond the 
painted symbols is furnished either in 
a story told by the "song-man" who 
conducts a ceremony, or in imitative 
dances. Symbols, once arrived at, tend 
to be retained and repeated in other 
paintings. Since the aboriginal artist 
paints his pictures from memory, he 
can reproduce simple shapes and de- 
signs most easily. In many of the tra- 
ditional paintings, symbols make up 
the entire pattern, and they must be 
held accurately in the mind from one 
year to the next. Some of the artistic 
"distortions" and what seem to be 
products of poor observation can thus 
be understood. The symbols have a 
striking effect on the mind of both the 
viewer and the artist, whose duty it is 
to remember them. 

PATTERNS of the traditional myths, 
which bark paintings help to re- 
create, are connected with the symbol 
system. Clans in neighboring areas 
often share "general" creation stories, 
but individual episodes, such as telling 
how the mythological Wawalik sisters 
or Djunkgao and his sister created 
particular landmarks, are significant 
only to specific clan areas. Most of 
these Creative Beings represented 
in the paintings have strongly devel- 



oped characteristics that are used I 
symbolically and help to identify them. 
Tjambuwal, the Thunder-man, is a 
good example. His totemic place is 
Jalboa, a point of land on the shore 
near Yirrkala, and stories of his good 
offices toward the residents of the coast 
are popular in the neighborhood. He 
is represented as a standing figure, 
usually holding his magic club, which 
he uses to stun rock cod out at sea. 
Background patterns of curved lines 
are thunder clouds when associated 
with this figure, and he is often shown 
urinating— the source of rain. In the 
painting on pages 48-49, diagonal rain 
streaks are indicated between his legs. 
In a sense, an aboriginal painting is a 
formula, made up of graphic elements 
in which the story is made visually 
evident. The particular elements and 
their combination, however, are not 
"explained." An artist may draw the 
same figure to represent Tjambuwal 
in any of the several stories concerning 
him. Thus, to interpret fully such a 
multipurpose symbol, the artist's own 
statement of purpose is essential. 

DURING the last decade, several ex- 
tensive scientific collections of 
bark paintings have been made, and 
detailed information has been re- 
corded for each panel. With the use of 
recently developed plastic sprays and 
laminated backing to prevent wear and 
warping, the paintings, which would 
ordinarily have had a short life, now 
form a valuable record of the artistic 
capability of this people and the way 
their styles have developed. As more 
painting is done for non-ceremonial 
purposes, larger and more ambitious 
pictures have appeared, which may 
include many figures. 

Traditionally, any male Arnhem 
Lander is capable of making a bark 
painting. The experience of its con- 
struction is one part of his powerful 
art tradition, which includes chants 
and the dance, that brings the distant 
past into the immediate present. The 
skilled aboriginal artist, working with 
his limited materials and with a system 
of symbols that are personal to himself 
and to his group, creates what we must 
consider a valid art form. He achieves 
in the bark paintings a remarkable 
synthesis of belief and experience that 
is most certainly worthy of attention. 



Colors are usually pure ochers, bii 
the olive in this panel is a mixturt 



<^e..=-.\ ;::-'r --^J 





Desert Araehnids 



Emerge 



Young scorpions piilured at left are 
about two weeks old and are gradually 
changing color from white to pale tan. 



Gravid female was photographed two 
weeks before giving birth, after which 
the body resumed usual flat appearance. 









\'r 










<J>- 



* ^ 






The greatest danger to newborn scorpions may be their mother 



A fascinating phenomenon in itself, 
the birth and early life cycle of 
the scorpion becomes even more re- 
markable when one realizes that the 
basic characteristics of this arachnid 
have remained virtually unchanged 
over hundreds of millions of years, 
making it the oldest true arachnid. 

Scorpions were already in existence 
in the Silurian Period (400 million to 
425 million years ago ) , and although 
they were still aquatic during this time, 
fossil records have revealed no dra- 
matic structural differences between 
the ancient forms and those of the 
present day. While behavioral charac- 
teristics vary to some degree among 
different families and species of scor- 
pions, the birth sequence of the Had- 
rurus arizonensis, found, as the name 
implies, in Arizona and pictured on 
these pages, is generally representative. 

The mating of Hadrurus is char- 
acterized by an elaborate courtship 
dance in which the male lays a strik- 
ingly contrived spermatophore on the 



By Robert H. Wright 

ground, then pulls the female across it 
so that the spermatophore becomes in- 
serted in her genital aperture at the 
base of the abdomen. The courtship 
sometimes ends abruptly with the fe- 
male devouring the male. 

Once fertilized, the eggs develop 
inside the female. The course of devel- 
opment may vary among species, de- 
pending on the richness of the egg 
yolks. The rate at which the young are 
expelled from the genital pore also 
varies; in the case of the particular 
Hadrurus pictured here, two or three 
young were born at intervals of twenty 
to forty minutes, a total of eighteen 
over a period of five hours. At birth, 
the young average three-eighths of an 
inch in length and, completely white 
except for their eyes, resemble mag- 
gots. When they emerge, they are en- 
cased in a thin membrane, or amniotic 
sac, from which they must wriggle 
loose. If the mother happens to be 



hungry, the young may meet the same 
fate that befell their father. In the lit- 
ter shown here, three out of eighteen 
failed to free themselves before they 
were devoured. 

Those that are successful in strug- 
gling free proceed to climb onto the 
mother's back. This may take two or 
three hours, since the young are weak, 
plump, and move slowly. After they 
have executed the climb, they remain 
there until they can shift for them- 
selves. Depending on the species and 
the climate in which they are born, the 
young may stay on the mother's back 
from ten to sixteen days. During this 
period, their food comes from yolk 
materials retained in their bodies. 

The young scorpions undergo in- 
complete metamorphosis ; their growth 
and change is accomplished through 
a series of molts. After the first molt 
they acquire recognizable scorpion ap- 
pearance, after which they remain with 
their mother for one or two more days 
before they strike out on their own. 

55 



-♦"VS,^ 




Hour-old scorpions, above, have freed their legs from the 
amniotic sac. The tails are still tangled in the membrane. 



Mouth of adult, located between front pinchers, consists 

of small, clawlike structures that pull in and mash food. ^t 



Two NEWBORN SCORPIONS, belotv, were the first of a litter of 
eiphlceii that emerged over a period of about five hours. 









Mother is devouring one of her young, below. Three of the 
litter were eaten before they were free of the amniotic sac. 




57 



IBM computers 
help men find secrets in scrolls, 

history in the stars- 
and answers to literary puzzles 



4 • -S-l 




IN 1947, an Arab boy searching a cave 
for a goat stumbled upon the first Dead 
Sea Scrolls. They were in tatters when 
scholars received them. Words, even whole 
sentences, were missing. 

Scholars used an IBM computer and 
"crossword puzzle logic" to test thousands 
of combinations of words until they found 
the best-fitting meanings. 

Further computer work on the Scrolls 
has helped shed new light on Biblical times, 
and the use of language 2,000 years ago. 

Recently, IBM computers have helped 
scholars explore other fascinating subjects. 

Books of clay and IBM computers 

The drawing below shows one of many 
clay tablets on which ancient Babylonians 
wrote their history. Scholars could read 
them, but could not easily date them. 

Then an IBM comput- 
er was used to chart the 
r.^^^iai^f f movements of planets over 
^^^af' Babylonia from 600 B.C. 
msVS^V k unto 1 A.D. These plan- 
etary tables could then be 
compared with observa- 
tions of the heavens Baby- 
lonians had marked on 
these tablets. It is now easier to place six 
centuries of history in proper sequence. 



Stonehenge, a huge monument in England, 
has mystified men for centuries. What in the 
world was it fur? Recently, scholars gained 
a new theory as to its purpose. With the 
help of an IBM computer, they analyzed 
the curious placement of its stones. 




The research showed the stones could have 
been used to "sight"" the sun and moon 
3,500 years ago — to predict seasons and 
even eclipses with reasonable accuracy. 

Helping solve literary puzzles 

There are many unanswered questions 
about world literary figures, from Yeats 
back to ancient Homer. 

Using IBM computers, scholars are get- 
ting many new perspectives on the work of 
these men. Disputes about who wrote what 
are being settled. Literary indexes that 
once took tedious years to complete can 
now be finished in weeks. 

Computers are helping man fill in blank 
pages of his past, to gain a new understand- 
ing of that fascinating subject— himself. 



IBM 



The Dead Sea Scrolls were found in caves like this; missing words were reconstructed with the help of an 
IBM computer. Soon, IBM's new SYSTEM/ 360 will help scholars do such research even more efficiently. 



r 



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About the Authors 

Dr. Gilbert Gottlieb, author of 
"Components of Recognition in Duck- 
lings," received his A.B. and M.S. de- 
grees in psychology from the University 
of Miami and his Ph.D. from Duke Uni- 
versity. From 1959 to 1961 he performed 
animal behavior research and practiced 
clinical psychology at Dorothea Dix Hos- 
pital in Raleigh, North Carolina. He has 
now turned solely to research at the hos- 
pital, centering his studies on the pre- 
natal aspects of behavior in birds, par- 
ticularly the development of sensory 
organization. Dr. Gottlieb is also Assist- 
ant Professor of Psychology at the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina and is editor 
of the comparative behavior section of 
Biological Abstracts. 

Nancy Flowers, a free-lance writer 
and photographer, wrote the article on 
Portuguese boats and took the accom- 
panying photographs. She has traveled 
throughout the world since childhood, 
living on Madeira during World War H 
and in Portugal for the next ten years. 
Her interests include the social and eco- 
nomic problems of developing countries, 
maritime history and the history of ex- 
ploration, and Portuguese and Brazilian 
folklore and folk art. 

"Ears of Dipodomys" was written by 
Dr. Douglas B. Webster, Assistant 
Professor of Biology at New York Uni- 
versity. Dr. Webster received his A.B. 
from Oberlin College, his Ph.D. from 
Cornell University, and was a Postdoc- 
toral Fellow at the California Institute 
of Technology from 1960 to 1962. His 
research interests include morphology 
and the adaptive value of specialized 
structures in desert rodents, and the 
functional morphology of the brain. 

"Flowers. Insects, and Evolution" was 
written by Dr. Herman F. Becker of 
The New York Botanical Garden. Dr. 
Becker received his A.B. from Brooklyn 
College, his M.A. from Columbia Uni- 
versity, and his Ph.D. in paleobotany 
from the University of Michigan. He has 
taught at Brooklyn College and the Uni- 
versity of Michigan and is now conduct- 
ing research in paleobotany under a 
National Science Foundation grant. 

The late Dr. Stuart Scougall. an or- 
thopedic surgeon of Sydney, Australia, 
became acquainted with aboriginal art 
while engaged in a study of the body me- 
chanics of the Aborigines. His interest 
stemmed from the one-footed stance of 
the aboriginal hunters. Dr. Scougall 
gathered contemporary bark paintings 
for exhibition throughout the world and 
helped to publicize this unique form of 
art. Following Dr. Scougall's recent 
death, Philip C. Gifford, Scientific As- 
sistant in The American Museum's De- 
partment of Anthropology, completed 
the manuscript for publication. 




Rosaceae 
. or Homo sapiens 



...get 
them all 

with the versatile new 



_y 




Miranda^'F' 

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nature 
and 
photography 

a planned approach 
to zoo movies 

by Sam Dunton 



BACK ill the Roaring Twcnlics. and 
even into the early thirties, it was a 
iiiiirageous individual indeed ulio at- 
li'inpled amateur movies of any soil. Sel- 
dom were niol ion-picture cameras seen 
in a zoological park unless they were the 
s operated hy newsreel cameramen 
nr other producers of professional lilnis. 
Now. hut a few decades later, the ama- 
teur photographer's sun has risen in 
great hrilliance, and we are inevitably 
enmeshed in the era of the "Big Picture." 

Thousands of feet of color film are 
exposed annually by visitors to the 
large zoological parks and smaller zoos 
throughout the world; as Staff Photog- 
i-apher for the New York Zoological So- 
ciety. I have had the pleasure of examin- 
a substantial sampling of amateur 
200 filming. Much of the footage I have 
viewed has been very good, but a con- 
siderable amount could have been im- 
proved immeasurably from an aesthetic 
viewpoint. Some of it failed to be even a 
practical representation of what the pho- 
tographer had seen. 

Today, with the technical advantages 
of automatic exposure control, battery- 
driven motors, and relatively inexpen- 
sive telephoto lenses of good quality, the 
average amateur should be able to con- 
centrate on the aesthetic value of his 
filming; unfortunately, many do not. Too 
often the regal stature of a lion, the 
graceful carriage of a gerenuk, or the 
ethereal beauty of an egret is marred 
by encroaching bars or wire screening. 
Even when such obstructions do not ap- 
pear directly in the picture, their shad- 
ows may cast disfiguring patterns across 
the animals. Glass-fronted cages with a 
high level of lighting present somewhat 
less of a hazard, but considerable care 
must be used in angling the lens to keep 
the photographer's reflection from in- 
truding into the picture area. A polariz- 
ing filter will help in some instances, but 
the attendant increase in exposure often 




THE BEST TELESCOPES WILL HAVE QUARTZ MIRRORS 



Half the Qiiestar telescopes we now produce have 
mirrors made of quartz. We started using this 
precious material back in 1957 because quartz 
mirrors are the very best obtainable. When we 
take one from a warm room into colder outdoor 
air, quartz resists the thermal shock about 5 
times better than Pyrex low-expansion glass. The 
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The price of fused-quartz disks is awfully high 
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Since the cost and weight of such disks, like 3- 
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can readily understand why there are only a few 
hundred telescopes with quartz mirrors in the 
entire world. We ourselves have probably made 
most of them. 

As yoii may know, we still have to make each 
aspheric set of Questar optics at least 3 times, 




until its resolving power is astonishing, and each 
will support images that do not break down at 
more than 800 diameters. This unusual ability to 
resolve, coupled with small aperture, allows these 
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This is the Questar idea, the Questar secret. 
In the 8 years of research we spent before mar- 
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This very smallness becomes another favorable 
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only SlOO extra. 



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A cordial invitation— especially for those Associate Members who live 
in or near New York City. 
Come and enjoy additional benefits reserved for higher membership 
categories by becoming an ANNUAL, FAMILY, or LIFE member of 
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tution. The additional benefits are . . . 

As an ANNUAL MEMBER, you receive: 



10 Exclusive Thursday evening lectures for yourself 
and a guest 


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10 Exclusive Saturday morning children's lectures 
for yourself and a guest 


• Use of the newly refurbished Members' Room 

• Membership Card 


Complimentary admission to 7 of The American 
Museum-Hayden Planetarium Sky Shows 

10 parking lot tickets 

A subscription to NATURAL HISTORY magazine 


• 10% discount on all purchases over SI at the 
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• Special discoimt rates and preferences in enrollment 
for the numerous courses and programs offered by 
the Museum's Division of Adult Education 



As a FAMILY MEMBER, all of the above privileges are yours, plus tickets for 3 guests 
at the evening adult lectures. 

As a LIFE MEMBER, you also have unlimited attendance at the Planetarium. 

Any category you elect brings you the satisfaction of knowing that your member- 
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Won't you join us? 



FEES: Annual $15 per year; Family $25 per year; Life 



single payment 



Write today, enclosing fees for the category you prefer. Address the Membership 
Secretary, Tbe American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, 
New York, N. Y. 10024. 

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Boo Sun lives with 9 relatives in a one-room 
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Founded 1932 
SAVE THE CHILDREN FEDERATION 

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I wish to contribute $150.00 annually to help a 

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prevents its use. In most instances a care- 
ful choice of camera angle will suffice. 

The Mind's Eye 

APPARENTLY, most persons viewing the 
, exhibits at a zoo never really see 
such obstructions, but see past them, 
their vision concentrated on the animals. 
Unfortunately, the camera lens will not 
duplicate this feat, for while human vi 
sion is binocular, the motion-picture 
camera is monocular, and footage that 
is shot without consideration of this fact 
is apt to show a great detail of wire mesh 
or bars and very little of the animal. 
■ It is difficult to excuse the constant 
repetition of such mistakes by Individ 
uals of accepted competence. One pho- 
tographer I know spent most of his spare 
time at the zoo, taking picture after 
picture of all kinds of animals without 
ever realizing that most of his efforts 
were worthless because of the predomi- 
nance of wires and bars. He came to my 
office one day with a dozen Ektachromes 
of three tiger cubs. He was as pleased as 
Punch because the color was good, but 
quite unaware that the transparencies 
were marred by a pattern of wire mesh 
To show him the error of his ways I took 
him into the projection room and 
screened a recently completed movie 
showing these same three cubs romping 
and playing, with no evidence of un- 
sightly wires anywhere in the picture. 
The film clip finished. I sat back to await 
his inquiries as to how I had managed to 
avoid the wire. 

"Say! That's quite a film!" was his 
only comment, and then, apparently as 
an afterthought, "Cute little fellows, 
aren't they?" 

Actually, there is no magic formula 
to "make the wires and bars disappear." 
The photographic emphasis should be 
placed on avoiding situations where they 
occur, and one's photography should be 
concentrated in the many areas avail 
able in most zoos where such obstruc- 
tions are at a minimum. Where it is 
necessary to photograph into a barred or 
wired cage or enclosure, it is often pos- 
sible to angle a telephoto lens in such 
a manner that one just misses the in- 
clusion of bars or mesh. In areas where 
security regulations permit, a telephoto 
lens of at least three times the length 
of your normal lens can be placed within 
an inch or two of fine mesh wire, and if 
an aperture no smaller than f/4 is em- 
ployed, the mesh will be so far out of 
focus as to be entirely invisible in the 
finished film. Obviously, the subject 
should be at some distance from the 
camera when this technique is used, so 
that the focal plane is as far removed 
from the wire as possible. 

There are two standard methods of 
approach to the making of good motion 
pictures of animals in the average zoo. 
One is to walk slowly through the 




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Address- 
City 



grounds and phrjtograpii at once auy 
interesting action occurring at the mo- 
mi'iit in wcil-jigiiled locations willi good 
backgrounds. The other is to maice tlie 
a(i|iiuijitance of the itcepers and enlii-t 
tlicir aid in obtaining specific results. 

Either plan works. I knew of one ad- 
vanced amateur who practically made 
a career of getting to know Bronx Zoo 
curators, keepers, and any and all per- 
sonnel who migiit iielp him lo arrange 
his subjects. .Some of his pictures were 
excellent. I knew another amateur who 
spent every Saturday morning roaming 
the zoo wilii his camera. He never asked 
for special favors and carefully observed 
all tiie visitor regulations. His pictures 
were outstanding and won many awards. 

Anticipation is Key 

No two animals are exactly alike in 
respect to temper and tempera- 
ment, and this makes it difficult to set 
up iuud anri fust rules for photograph- 
ing tiiem. l'r(il)ai)ly tiie best procedure 
for anyone concerned about making out- 
standing motion-picture footage in a zoo 
is to walk tiirough the grounds slowly, 
with tiie camera "at ready." Spend a 
little time at each exhibit just watching 
tiie animals. If the action— and back- 
ground—looks good, photograph it! H 
not, make a note of the location and the 
lighting available at that time of the 
day and go on to some other enclosure 
to follow the same procedure. At ani>ther 
lime, conditions may be entirely favor- 
able in the exhibits you have passed by. 

Don't feel that you are at a disadvan- 
tage because you must photograph from 
outside the enclosures. Most profes- 
sionals work the same way, for there is 
not as great an advantage to be gained 
by entering a cage or enclosure as you 
might think. Zoo animals are accustomed 
to a definite spatial relationship to the 
visitors, as defined by the cage bars or 
enclosure walls, and you can often ap- 
proach within a few feet as long as they 
are separated from you by their familiar 
physical barrier. I have been able to 
place my camera within twelve inches of 
penguins in an outdoor, fenced enclos- 
ure. However, once I entered the en- 
closure I was unable to get within twelve 
feet of them before they dived into their 
pool in great alarm. I had penetrated 
their first line of defense! 

The New York Zoological Society had 
plenty of room at its disposal when it 
created the New York Zoological Park 
—better known, perhaps, as the Bronx 
Zoo— in 1899, and it provided generous 
ranges, corrals, and exhibition areas. In 
such surroundings the animals may be 
seen and photographed in a reasonable 
facsimile of their native habitats. Our 
African Plains exhibit is an example, 
and its success is such that in the near 
future it will be extended in size and 
scope to include an even greater range 



Ornithological 
Tour 

From the Caribbean 

through the Andes 

to the upper reaches 

ot the Amazon 




"From the trackless forests of the Ama- 
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paramo of the Andes, a fascinating bird 
world awaits amateur and professional 
alike. 

Nowhere in the world can be found, 
within the boundaries of a single coun- 
try, the number of forms recorded from 
the Republic of Colombia. Its 1555 spe- 
cies (twice as many as the United States 
can claim) represent 56°i of those re- 
corded from the entire South American 
continent!"-From: the biros of Colombia 

AVIANCA, The Colombian Airline, has 
coordinated a tour based on the recent 
and well received book, THE BIRDS OF 
COLOMBIA. The author, Mr. R. Meyer da 
Schauensee, is Curator of Ornithology at 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phil- 
adelphia, and is acting as Scientific Con- 
sultant to the tour. 

Date of Departure: August 7, 1965 
For further information on the 

Ornithological Tour, please write: 



6 West 49th Street 
New York, N.Y. 10020 • JU 6-6040 

Please send me by return mail, 
copy of your folder describing 
Ornitliological Tour. 



63 



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of animal life, and will present even more 
material and opportunities for the seri- 
ous photographer. 

During the past year one of the oldest 
exhibition enclosures in the Zoological 
Park, the big outdoor flying cage, was 
transformed and augmented in display 
value by the installation of an attractive 
promenade where the visitor can walk 
through the central portion and view 
avian life at very close range. The birds 
soon became accustomed to this invasion 
of their private preserves; they accept 
visitors completely and go about their 
normal activities of swimming, feeding, 
and nest building undisturbed, because 
the "intruders" are always in the same 
location, although within the cage. 

A Children's Zoo is a likely location 
for "serious" photography, for the rela- 
tionship of children and animals has 
always interested students of psychology. 
Motion-picture studies of small children 
and their reactions to various animals 
(best taken with the camera far enough 
away so that it is not a distracting ele- 
ment) can prove a fascinating study that 
could form the basis for a really ex- 
tended film treatment. 

Tips for Scenarios 

UNUSUAL opportunities for amateur 
motion pictures constantly crop up 
in any large zoological park. For in- 
stance, an animal alphabet film can be 
as simple or as complex as you wish to 
make it. Most large zoos have an aard- 
vark— or at least an aoudad— and virtu- 
ally all have zebras, so at the outset you 
have material for an opening scene and 
a final fadeout. Another hint: Xenopus, 
the African clawed-toad, can usually be 
found in a large collection of reptiles. 

A film treatment of such subjects as 
the locomotion of birds or mammals can 
be accomplished by anyone willing to da 
a little research prior to shooting, and 
films on such vital aspects of animal life 
as sleeping, feeding, or defensive and 
aggressive behavior could be challenging. 

No matter how you approach zoo pho- 
tography, caution should be the watch- 
word. And caution should embrace not 
only the care of your equipment, but 
your personal welfare as well. Few zoo 
animals are really tame, and none is 



64 



Mil. DiNioN, wlio Ih a director of tlic 
Itioloniiiil I'liolonriipliir ABKoiialion, 
Inc., H.MVch as the Slall I'lioloiiraplicr 
of the Mew York Z,.(.l.>(!ical Society. 



fiilircly |iic(li(lal)lc. .Sij^tis that advisi- 
yoii to "keep hack" really mean wlial 
they say, and are posted at certain ex- 
liihits to protect you. Always consult 
a keeper if at any lime you wish to place 
your camera in such a position that it 
might violate regulations of the zoo. The 
keepers, too, are often ahle to supply 
you with information regarding the op- 
limNiii limes for piiotograpiiing the ani- 
mals in their care, and these individuals 
know from experience when their charges 
are active and alert. 

It might appear trite to urge the use 
of a Iripod for motion-picture photog- 
raphy, as this is a point that is stressed 
in virtually every i)holographic manual. 
Yet. it is an anomaly that most amateurs 
at the Bronx Zoo using still cameras 
equipped with telephoto lenses use tri- 
pods, while those with movie cameras 
seldom do! Beware that attractive pistol 
grip on your 8 mm. camera. It is a handy 
device for picking up and carrying the 
camera, but for really steady pictures 
one should use a tripod wherever possi- 
ble. Beware, too, the "zoom" capabilities 
of the popular variable-focus lens. Cer- 
tainly, it is a useful device, but the 
continuous use of its zoom effect can 
prove to be a most distracting element 
in the finished film. And unless it is a 
really costly lens, it will not provide 
the critical sharpness— so essential in 
good photography of animals— that a con- 
ventional lens of non-variable compon- 
ents provides. 

Yes, motion-picture photography at 
the zoo is a fascinating pastime and a 
rewarding hobby, and by utilizing a sen- 
sible approach, with careful observance 
of the technical recjuisites of good pho- 
tography and with appropriate attention 
to the aesthetic quality of your footage, 
you can produce films of enduring 
quality and high intrinsic value. It is 
hoped that the suggestions and admoni- 
tions set forth in this article will help 
the reader toward the accomplishment 
of this pleasant and rewarding objective. 



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TRAVEL I FAR AND NEAR 



The African poison test 



The i 



iBy Merlin Ennis 

A visitor to Angola today will find a 
(country deeply involved in serious 
polilieal and soeial upheaval, a land 
wlu;re age-old eustoms often obstruct the 
inroads of modernity. When 1 went to 
Angola in 1903. traditions were already 
giving way, and yet, during my stay, I 
was exposed to many fascinating prac- 
tices. One that has remained with nie 
most vividly over the years is the ritual 
of the African jjoison test. 

The poison test was once widely used 
throughout the African continent. 
Among the kingdoms of the Ovimhundu 
in the highlands of Angola it was equiva- 
lent to a Supreme Court decision. Ordi- 
nary disputes were usually handled by 
a "people's court" where the contending 
parties presented their evidence and 
argued over the principles involved. A 
settlement was usually handed down 
after general agreement among tribal 
authorities, but when a case could not 
be resolved, one of the contestants might 
appeal for trial by poison. This final 
trial was conducted by the king, and it 
was a matter of life or death. 

In order to understand the character 
and finality of this lest, one must keep 
in mind that to a duly installed African 
king were attributed magical powers and 
divinity. The Ovimbundu believed, for 
instance, that their king had control over 
the weather. When a king died, all fires 
in the country were extinguished, then 
kindled afresh from a new fire furnished 
by the new king after his installation. 
When a king of the Ovimbundu traveled, 
he was preceded by a herald and was 
carried in a palanquin. The herald 
sounded a gong and blew a whistle to 
warn ordinary mortals to get off the path 
and move upwind, lest the effluvia ema- 
nating from the royal person should 



cause them harm. It was universally 
accepted that a gourd of beer magically 
charged by u king could discriminate be- 
tween contending parties who drank it, 
proving harmless to the innocent but 
deadly to the guilty. This popular confi- 
dence in the king's magical powers made 
the poison test valuable for settling dis- 
putes and promoting harmony. 

The beer used in the poison test was 
like nothing from Milwaukee or Bavaria ; 
it was an opaque, turbid liquid made 
from a thin, watery gruel that had been 
soured. The two sides of the dispute hav- 
ing been presented to the king, he would 
take a gourd of beer duly and magically 
charged, put magic powder in it. stir 
it with the royal hnger. and give it to 
one of the principals. This litigant would 
take a drink and hand the gourd back 
to the king, who would stir it again with 
his finger and give it to the other prin- 
cipal, who in turn would drink. To the 
beating of drums the two would dance 
until one of them fell down and died, 
obviously proved guilty. 

A Visit to King John 

ALTHOiif.H white men heard of it. no 
white man in Angola, to the best of 
my knowledge, ever saw the poison test 
administered; the Ovimbundu were too 
careful for that. But late in 1903 I had 
the opportunity to learn more of its 
"magic" properties. I had recently ar- 
rived in Angola from the United States 
to begin work as a missionary under the 
American Board for Foreign Missions of 
the Congregational Church. The Ameri- 
can Board was still pioneering in Ango- 
la, and had established its second station 
at Kamundongo in Viye, about 350 miles 

Angolan at the left testifies before a 
"people's court" in this 1903 photograph. 





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Rev. Merlin Ennis died recently. In 
40 years as a missionary, he helped 
introduce new agricultural ideas to 
Africa and established many schools. 



east of Benguela. The people here were 
Ovimbundu, their language Umbundu. 
I was sent to Viye to assist Dr. Freder- 
ick C. Wellman, an experienced mission- 
ary and a brilliant man with a flair for 
learning languages quickly. 

Viye was one of the chief native king- 
doms of Angola. The Portuguese care- 
lessly spelled its name either Bie or 
Bihe. For some reason, in extending their 
civil control over the area, the Portu- 
guese had recently exiled the native king 
of Viye to the Cape Verde Islands. Then, 
not realizing that among the Ovimbundu 
in Viye the kingship was elective, they 
assumed that it was hereditary. Wishing 
to have a pliant native authority to deal 
with, they sought out John, the son of 
the deposed king by a slave woman, and 
proclaimed him monarch. John went to 
the king's capital, took possession of the 
royal regalia and magical equipment, 
and retired to his village, some forty 
miles away. It was here that Dr. Wellman 
and I visited him. 

After we had come into the royal house 
and were seated, we were greeted cere- 
moniously by the king according to the 
custom of his people; he expressed his 
happiness over our visit, and said that 
as an indication of his pleasure he was 
presenting us with a fowl, which was at 
the door. When we went to the door, we 
saw that the "fowl" was a sturdy three- 
year-old bull. This was in keeping with 
Ovimbundu etiquette, since they were 
masters of the understatement. Calling 
a bull a fowl was the king's way of depre- 
cating his gift. 

Dr. Wellman had learned to speak 
Umbundu and to understand the cus- 
toms of those who spoke it, so he knew 
how to deal with a fowl of this size. If 
he had taken the bull, the king would 
have returned our visit expecting a larger 
fowl in return. So Dr. Wellman admired 
the animal and offered thanks in pro- 
portion to the greatness of the gift, but 
said that he had a request to make. The 
king said, "Make it." Then the doctor 
explained that we were traveling light, 
and it would be a kindness to us if the 
Ovimbundu would care for the fowl until 
we returned. The king considerately 
agreed to this. Each of the two knew 
that this ended the matter. 

Unerring Justice 

As we continued talking. Dr. Wellman 
J mentioned the poison test, and the 
monarch offered to demonstrate for us 
how the magical discrimination between 
guilty and innocent was worked. He went 
into another room and returned with aU 
the paraphernalia except the beer. First 



lie cxliiljilod a large goiird used fur 
lioldiiiK llic beer, and a long, ?lim- 
necked leallicr Img made from material 
rcsenihling buckskin. Allbough it was 
siiglilly larger, the hag looked like the 
shot piiiieli used willi (ihl-fashii)iied niNz- 
zle-loading guns. He liien poinli'd out a 
detail that onlookers could not have dis- 
tinguished: the bag was double, as was 
the neck that led from ils two pouches. 
King .lohn ex|)lained that in one side 
of this double dispenser was a liglil- 
coloretl, inert powder. The otiier sidi- 
contained a poLsonous powder of siniiiaj 
appearance. He then took up the gourd 
and, jjretending that it was twotiiirds 
full of beer, pinched shut the opening 
on one side of the double leather bag, 
])oured some of the harmless powder 
into the gourd, and went through the 
motions of stirring it with his finger. 
Then, taking the gourd in both hands. 
as Ovimbundu etiquette required, he 
went through the motions of iiresenting 
it to the first litigant. The jierson re- 
ceiving it would drink from the gourd 
and hand it back to the king. The re- 
cipient of the harmless powder, of 
course, would be proved innocent. 

Then the king pinched shut this "out- 
let of innocence," and from the other 
outlet poured some of the poisonous 
powder into the assumed beer, validated 
the charm by stirring with a finger, and 
went through the motions of presenting 
the gourd to the second litigant. He. too, 
would drink and give the gourd back. 
As the contenders danced to the drums, 
this second man would fall and be 
judged guilty. 

This was only the first part of King 
John's demonstration. He next exhibited 
another powder that he said was poison- 
ous, heavy, and not very soluble. When 
this powder was put into the beer it 
would sink to the bottom. The king 
would stir only the surface of the liquid 
before presenting it to the first drinker. 
When he had drunk, and the gourd had 
been returned, the beer would be stirred 
thoroughly from the bottom. The sec- 
ond man would take the gourd, drink the 
"spiked" beer, and start the dance of 
death. This would continue until the 
verdict was rendered. 

After exhibiting these two methods of 
dispensing justice by his divine magic, 
the king brought out a ball of translu- 
cent gum. He worked this with his 
fingers into a thin, plastic-like wafer. He 
put a small quantity of another powder 
upon the center of the wafer, which was 
then attached to the inside wall of a dry 
gourd. In this way the poison was con- 
tained between the gourd and the wafer. 
This procedure had to be done in ad- 
vance. At the time of the trial, beer 
would be poured into the gourd. When 
the ceremonies were complete, the king 
would take the gourd, stir the surface of 
its contents lightly in the center with 



lije lip (,f bis finger, and give it to the 
lir^l man. Uefore the second man drank, 
the king would stir deeply next to the 
outside, taking care to remove the wafer 
from the gourd wall with his fingernail, 
ihus releasing ihe [jowder into th<: beer. 
The victim would drink and be convicted. 

Dr. Wellman asked: "If a mistake 
should be made in administering the 
[loisoned beer, what would happen?" 

John smiled and said. "Kings do not 
nuke mistakes." He then explained some 
of the administrative values of his judi- 
rial procedure. If there should be a 
I roubleiiiaker in the kingdom, or a per- 
sonal enemy of the king, the monarch 
would encourage some henchman to pick 
a quarrel with the undesirable citizen 
and then challenge him to the poison test. 
The king would attend to the rest. There 
would he occasions when the person who 
was asked to pick the (|uarrel might also 
he in disfavor. In that event there would 
be a double funeral. A firm popular be- 
lief in the validity of a poison test was 
useful to the throne and helped to stabi- 
lize I he kiiij^diim. 

The End of Magic 

I ONT, after our interview with King 
I John we wondered why he had 
chosen to reveal these mysteries— the in- 
valuable props of his kingship and his 
divinity— to two white men on a casual 
visit. Our answer was a web of several 
strands. He was an intelligent man who 
realized that the beginning of the twen- 
tieth century was the end of an era of 
native independence in Angola. The 
Portuguese, who had placed him on the 
throne, forbade him to use the poison 
test as a judicial procedure. He knew, 
as the Portuguese did not. that although 
he was the son of a king, his birth to a 
slave mother had made him ineligible to 
the kingship, and that since he had not 
been duly installed and consecrated, his 
people would never believe him to have 
magical attributes or accept him as mon- 
arch. I would like to think, too. that he 
considered us friends, and wanted us to 
realize that old customs among the 
Ovimbundu had values, even though we 
taught other ways. 

I left Viye after eighteen months to 
work in a distant part of Angola. Some 
time later I learned that the Portuguese 
had removed John from his throne. The 
era of magic-working kings had ended. 

This list details the photographer, artist, 
or other source of illustrations, by page. 
COVER-Lee Boltin Webster 

12-14-Gus Martin except 33-Robert H. Wright 
14-ieft. Gilbert Gottlieb 34-35-Lund Observatory 
15-Gilbert Gottlieb 37-AMNH 

16-17-top, Gus Martin, 38-45-Cliester A. Arnold 
except 16-bottom, AMNH except 40-top, AMNH 
after Gilbert Gottlieb, after E. E. Leppili, 43^top 
17-bot. Gilbert Gottlieb right, AMNH, 45-AMNH 
18-19-Gus Martin after F. M. Carpenter 

20-25-Nancy Flowers 46-53-Lee Boltin 
26-Robert H. Wright 54-57-Robert H. Wright 

27-Douglas B. Webster 64-New York 
28-Robert H. Wright Zoological Society 

29-31-Douglas B. Webster65-AMNH 
except 30-AMNH after 67-Merlin Ennis 



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Additional Reading 

COMPONENTS OF RECOGNITION 
IN DUCKLINGS 

Instinct. D. A. Spalding. British Jour- 
nal of Animal Behaviour, Vol. 2, pages 
2-11, 1954. 

The Companion in the Bird's World. 
K. Z. Lorenz. Auk, Vol. 54, pages 245- 
273. 1937. 

"Imprinting" in Animals. E. H. Hess. 
Scientific American, pages 81-90, 
March, 1958. 

Imprinting: Empirical Basis and 
Theoretical Significance. H. Moltz. 
Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 57, pages 
291-314, 1960. 

Imprinting in Nature. G. Gottlieb. Sci- 
ence, Vol. 139, pages 497-498, 1963. 

Imprinting in Birds. E. H. Hess. Sci- 
ence, Vol. 146, pages 1128-1139, 1964. 

MAJESTIC WORKBOATS 
OF A PORTUGUESE LAGOON 

The Viking Ships. A. W. Br0gger and 
Haakon Skeletig. Translated by Kath- 
arine John in co-operation with Drey- 
ers Forlag, Oslo, 1953. 

EARS OF DIPODOMYS 

Physiological Acoustics. E. G. Wever 
and M. Lawrence. Princeton Univer- 
sity Press, Princeton, 1954. 

A Function of the Enlarged Middle 
Ear Cavities of the Kangaroo Rat, 
DipoDOMYS. D. B. Webster. Physio- 
logical Zoology, Vol. 35, pages 248- 
255, 1962. 

FLOWERS, INSECTS, AND 
EVOLUTION 

An Introduction to Paleobotany. 
Chester A. Arnold. McGraw-Hill Book 
Co., N.Y., 1947. 

Studies in Paleobotany. Henry N. An- 
drews, Jr. John Wiley & Sons, N.Y., 
1961. 

An Introduction to Entomology. J. 
H. Comstock, Comstock Publications, 
Ithaca, 1962. 

An Introduction to the Study of In- 
sects. Donald J. Borror and Dwight 
M. De Long. Holt, Rinehart and Win- 
ston, N. Y., 1964. 

ABORIGINAL ART AND 
MYTHOLOGY 

The Australian Aborigines. A. P. El- 
kin. Anchor Books, Garden City, 1964. 

Australia's Aborigines, Their Life 
and Culture. F. D. McCarthy. Color- 
gravure, Melbourne, 1957. 

Australian Aboriginal Decorative 
Art. F. D. McCarthy. Australian Mu- 
seum, Sydney, 1938. 

Art, Myth, and Symbolism. Charles P. 
Mountford. (Vol. 1, American- Aus- 
tralian Scientific Expedition to Arn- 
hem Land.) Melbourne University 
Press, 1956. 



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Designing woman? Yes indeed, but in a most admirable sense. As a member 
of the General Motors design team, she is preparing sketches of a steering 
wheel for a future GM car. Like her male associates on GM's Styling Staff, 
she is fully qualified and competent to design consumer products in any field. 

General Motors hired its first woman designer more than 20 years ago. 
Originally color and fabric consultants, the young ladies advanced rapidly 
to full membership in a group effort which now involves the skills of hun- 
dreds of people in GM Styling. In the past two decades, the feminine in- 
fluence has changed many concepts of automotive design. 

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venience features, safety items and such innovations as color coordination 
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GENERAL MOTORS IS PEOPLE . .. 

Making Better Things For You 




J i 







This is a system. 

Not to be confused 
with a camera. 



m 

-Lhe system" does what 
cameras never dreamed of. Be- 
cause "the system" is just that. A 
system. A unique and complete 
system of interchange- 
able components 
that gives 
you greater 



pled EVS system. All with resolv- 
ing powers that permit greater 
enlargements than any other 
lenses made. 



A: 




nd take film backs. 
Ever see a "camera" that lets you 
switch from black and white to 
color mid-roll ? We think not. But 
that's "the system" for you. A 
choice of 4 separate and inter- 
changeable magazines. 3 for roll 
film. Each in a different format. 
1 for cut film. And viewfinders. 
"Cameras" have them, right? 
One. "The system"- five. 
Eye-level prisms, 




Left to right: Zeiss: 15(1 
mm; and film magazine. 



might say that 'the system' is ver- 
satile enough to act as an exten- 
sion of myself. I can't ask for 
more than that." 



:>**** 



precision, greater 
versatility than any- 
thing called "camera". 

T 

±ake interchangeable 
lenses, for instance. "The system" 
has six. 50, 80, 120, 150, 250, and 
500 mm. All Zeiss. All with Syn- 
chro-Compur shutter, automatic 
and manual diaphragm and cou- 




K 




Hasselblad 5U(i C 
rvith 150 mm len-,. 
focusing hatidU , 
light meter Iciiab. 

sports viewfinders, magnifying 
hoods-the works. And sunshades. 
And filters. And proxars. And ex- 
tension tubes. Exposure meters. 
Microscope adaptors. You name it. 



<ow you know what we 
mean by "the system". And you 
know why we cringe when peo- 
ple confuse us with our more 
limited look-alikes. Let there be 
no confusion. "Cameras" take 
pictures, "the system" takes pic- 
tures, the resemblance stops 
there. Write for literature to your 
dealer or to Paillard Incorporated, 
1900 Lower Road, Linden, N. J. 



No 



Eye-level pentaprism (left), magnifying 
hood (right.) 



Now you might ask "why 
the system?" Why an inter- 
changeable everything? We did. 
We asked Timothy Galfas. His 
answer: "Versatility. 'The sys- 
tem' lets me do what I want, when 
I want. I don't find myself wish- 
ing for something extra. Or 
scraping to make do. I know that 
it will be optically right. You HASS "EL B L A D 




Timothy Galfas, noted New York editorial 
and fashion photographer, with "the sys- 
tem.'* 




The Encyclopedia of World Art 

is printed in limited quantity for a 

relatively few persons who share a deep 

interest in the visual arts (?%^ If you 

count yourself within this select group, 

send for a complimentary copy of 

our new 20-pag'e Prospectus. 




The Encyclopedia of World Art embraces, in 15 volumes of surpassing 
beauty, all of man's greatest achievements in the visual arts through 
the centuries. It has fully 7,000 full-page plates, and hundreds of illuminating 
essays by the foremost art authorities of our time. The prospectus above 
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plan available to Subscribers. For your copy, simply mail the attached card. 



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PRESIDENT 

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DIRECTOR 

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ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

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REVIEWS 

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PHOTOGRAPHY 

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PRODUCTION 

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CONTRIBUTIONS 

Ernestine Weindorf 



CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul M. Tilden, Thomas D. Nicholson 
David Linton, Julian D. Corrington 



EDITORIAL ADVISERS 

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Natural History 

Incorporating Nature Magazine 

THE JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



Vol. LXXIV 



MARCH 1965 



No. 3 



ARTICLES 
HERITAGE OF SURVIVAL 
DAY LENGTH AND FOOD CACHES 
GREEN ALGAE DIVIDE TO MULTIPLY 
MYSTERY OF A MILLIPEDE 
STUDY IN SPECIFICITY 



Robert M. Netting 14 

Illar Muul 22 

Winton Patnode 28 

T. Eisner and H. E. Eisner 30 

Richard K. Benjamin 42 



SPREAD OF A PARASITE Frank C. Hawksworth and Thomas E. Hinds 52 



DEPARTMENTS 
BOOKS IN REVIEW 
SKY REPORTER 



Harry Bober 6 
Thomas D. Nicholson 38 



NATURALISTS' NOTEBOOK: Photographs by Robert H. Wright 50 

A KING SNAKE DINES ON A SPARROW EGG 



ABOUT THE AUTHORS 
NATURE AND PHOTOGRAPHY 



SCIENCE IN ACTION: 

HOAXES AND HALF-TRUTHS 



SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL READING 



58 

David [Anton 59 

Robert Silverberg 62 
66 



COVER: The Kofyars of northern Nigeria have displayed ingenuity and tenacity 
in adapting their methods of agriculture to a difficult environment. Protected 
from conquest and change by the steep, rocky hills of the Jos Plateau, these 
hill dvi^ellers have farmed their broken land for hundreds of years, developing 
techniques that are highly regarded by experts of today. The cover photograph, 
taken by Dr. Robert M. Netting, shows a Kofyar family threshing millet, one of 
their principal crops. They pound the grain in tree trunk mortars. Beginning on 
page 14, Dr. Netting discusses the Kofyar method of feeding a dense population. 

The American Museum is open to the public without charge every day 
during the year. Your support, through membership and contributions, 
helps make this possible. The Museum is equally in need of support 
for all of its work in the fields of research, education, and exhibition. 



Publicalion Office: The American Museu 
N. Y. 10024. Published monthly, Octobe 
year. In Canada, and all other countrie 



York, N. Y., and at additional offices. Copyright, 1965 by The t 
No part of Ibis periodical may be reproduced without the written cc 
Natuke MACiZlNE, registered U.S. Patent Office. Unsolicited manuscri] 
editorial office will be handled with all possible care, but we cannot 
The opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily i 
You will find Natural History magazine indexed in Reader's Guide to 



1 of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York 
through May: bimonthly June to September. Subscription: 85.00 a 
S5.50 a year. Single copies: S.50. Second class postage paid at 



im of Na 
nt of Natural History. 
and illustrations submit! 
ime responsibility for th 



safety. 
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BOOKS I IN REVIEW 



THE 
MYSTERIOUS 
SENSES 
OF ANIMALS 




Vitus B. Droscher. The mar- 
vels of behavior and psy- 
chology in animals around 
us as revealed by modem 
science. "A highly adroit re- 
porter exploring a rapidly 
expanding field . . . plunges 
the reader into a whirl-wind 
of believe-it-or-not facts . . . 
entertaining." 
~N. Y. Times Book Review 
Illustrated. $5.95 



■»• I \r/ 




I COME 
FROM THE 
STONE 
AGE 



Heinrich Harrer. The re- 
nowned explorer and author 
of Seven Years in Tibet 
presents his daring adven- 
tures during his incredible 
expedition into the interior 
of New Guinea to climb the 
Carstensz Pyramid, an ice- 
capped mountain standing 
almost at the equator — in a 
jungle land of natives as 
primitive as Stone Age man. 
The vivid description and 
superb photographs make 
this an unforgettable experi- 
ence. Illustrated in color and 
black and white. $6.95 

55 - - 



ve. South, N.Y.,N.Y. 10003 



/A gallery of antiquity 



'By Harry Bober 



The Balts. by Marija Gimbutas. $6.95; 
286 pp., illus. Sardinia, by Margaret 
Guido. $6.95; 276 pp., illus. Celtic 
Britain, by Nora K. Chadwick. $6.95; 
238 pp., illus. The Iberians, by Antonio 
Arribas. $6.95; 274 pp., illus. All from 
Frederick A. Praeger. 

THERE is a reassuringly irrational max- 
im that says the whole is often greater 
than the sum of the parts. This seems to 
apply to the Praeger series of "Ancient 
Peoples and Places" and its three dozen 
volumes of an ever growing portrait and 
landscape gallery of antiquity. The occa- 
sional lapses from excellence in the se- 
ries seem not to matter so much in a col- 
lection that bids fair to stand as the most 
comprehensive and substantial popular 
work of its kind on prehistory and arche- 
ology. The master plan and its essen- 
tially effective implementation redound 
to the credit of the general editor. Dr. 
Glyn Daniel. Indeed, it is a marvel that 
he continues to find quahfied authors 
who are also able (or at least willing to 
be coaxed into the attempt) to depict 
their subjects in broad and, hopefully, 
telHng strokes on small canvas. That it 
should not work equally well in every 
case, as we shall see, is understandable, 
but the books do hang together well and 
even complement each other effectively. 
In this new batch of four books, the 
laurels go to Marija Gimbutas for The 
Baits. It is the first and, in fact, the only 
comprehensive book on the subject in 
English, and it covers an enormous time 
span— from prehistory to the thirteenth 
century a.d. It is a brilliant synthesis of 
history, linguistics, literature, archeol- 
ogy, and art, unfolding a world virtually 
unknown to most of us who cannot read 
the Slavic, Baltic, or Scandinavian lan- 
guages. The author writes with authority 
and evocative familiarity of the land, 
the peoples, their history and their 
works. Her gifted style makes the read- 
ing a pleasure that often is exciting be- 
cause of her contagious enthusiasm. A 
vital picture results, warm and alive with 
song and art. Piichly anecdotal and carry- 
ing lightly its burden of scholarly docu- 
mentation, the book finds comfortable 
space for relevant embellishment; with 
such asides as the Bait's love of horses, 
or of fine furs (an eleventh-century text 
is quoted to tell of their longing after 
a marten skin robe "as much as for 
supreme happiness"). Everywhere in 
this Baltic landscape glows the radiant 



solar amber— the northern gold. Among 
the delightful revelations in the book, we 
find that those very Danes who terrified 
the rest of Europe were wont to pray: "0 
mighty God. protect us against the Curo- 
nians [the Baltic 'Vikings']." 

Margaret Guido's Sardinia scores an- 
other success for the series. Here the 
author surveys an island culture that was 
as compact and monolithic as that of the 
Baits was fluid and dynamic. The effec- 
tiveness of this book lies in its clarity, 
its good sense of order and proportion, 
and its unpretentious command of the 
subject. It covers the range of Sardinian 
archeology from its earliest beginnings 
to the Roman conquest, and enables the 
reader to grasp and hold the picture of 
this megalithic culture that seemed so 
intent on shaping imposing tombs and 
bizarre towers of immense dimensions. 
We are given a landscape of haunted 
ghost towns, cemeteries, and citadels of 
the vanished stone wielders. Even when 
we can "see" the people (in the famous 
bronzes of personages such as chieftains, 
warriors, athletes, and musicians), they 
confront us with mysterious solemnity 
and ritualistic silence. 

Nora Chadwick, author of Celtic 
Britain, may have undertaken a more 
difficult task than the others or, perhaps, 
a more intricate approach. She offers 
us a close look, under powerful magnifi- 
cation, at a concentrated historical area 
of Britain between the end of Roman 
domination in the fifth, to the founda- 
tion of the Saxon kingdoms in the sixth 
and seventh centuries. Details and infor- 
mation are employed with excellent 
scholarly craft and, unique among these 
four books, the author develops and 
argues a distinct thesis: that this was a 
period of freedom in which the essential 
character of Celtic ideals and literature 
took shape. But the story becomes mired 
in esoteric linguistics and tangled in 
the knotwork of philological archeology. 
The ritualistic atomization of intramural 
scholarly modes defeats the book for or- 
dinary purposes. Those willing to work 
at it, however, will find more than one 
flash of analytical insight, such as the 
comment that Welsh poetry was a 
"strange blend of metrical rigidity and 
emotional tension." 

Celtic Britain will remain a valuable 
book from which students and scholars 
will receive profit in return for labor. 
The same can scarcely be said of The 
Iberians, by Antonio Arribas. Here the 



/. < 



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text never lives up to his characterization 
of the people as "energetic and colorful 
. . . with a zest for living." Instead we 
must drag our way through a tedious and 
not very readable agglutination of indif- 
ferently differentiated, useful, and not 
visibly useful information— not so much 
condensed as tabulated in sentence form. 
In part, the blame lies in the very poor 
translation from the author's Spanish 
original; the English is usually awkward 
and often incorrect. But this does not 
account for the essential defect of its 
presentation or the doubts— too numerous 
to enter upon here— that must be raised 
on questions of history and interpreta- 
tion. The author's claim of having offered 
"a detailed mosaic of tiny tesserae" may 
tell us what he intended, but what we 
have is more like a jumbled kaleidoscope 
of tiny pieces that cannot form intelligi- 
bly interesting patterns. 

Considering the professed nature of 
the series, it seems an editorial over- 
sight that technical glossaries are omit- 
ted, unless, of course, it is expected that 
everyone will know, for example, what 
"a crown of feathers forming a polos 
and a stepliane without kestos" looks 
like. Nor does it seem extravagant to 
expect that all authors should provide 
full, accurate, and reasonably uniform 
information on the objects, monuments. 



and places illustrated in each volume. 
The editor might also have helped with 
some of his authors' bibliographies. 
Chadwick's is exceptionally good, yet 
when I read a note reference to 
"F.A.B.W.I.." and checked against the 
key to periodicals, it was not there, so I 
may be forever in the dark as to the full 
name of that publication. This would 
be a niggling criticism if the instance 
were unique. The other bibliographies 
are far, far worse— which would be less 
irritating in a less valuable series. 

Dr. Bober, Professor of Fine Arts at 
New York University Institute of Fine 
Arts, often reviews books on aspects of 
the history of art for this magazine. 



Discovery, by Vilhjalmur Stefansson. 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., S7.50; 411 pp., 
illus. 

To be a polar explorer in the grand 
old days required a singleness of 
purpose and a degree of self-confidence 
that would find scant encouragement in 
the enormous governmental-scientific 
establishments that explore the frontiers 
of knowledge today. With the death of 
Vilhjalmur Stefansson in 1962. the old- 
time expedition leader became extinct. 
This autobiography is, therefore, a valu- 



able contribution to the understanding 
of this historic group. 

Stefansson discovered the last un- 
known lands of Arctic North America in 
1915 and spent the rest of his long life 
popularizing the Arctic. He was an early 
advocate of transpolar flight and of sub- 
marine navigation under the ice. His 
unbounded enthusiasm for the North 
and for the Eskimo diet and way of life 
led him into the errors of an overzealous 
press agent, but he exaggerated less than 
those who thought of the North as a 
lifeless land of perpetual ice and snow. 
His greatest contribution was his con- 
viction that the Arctic was a friendly 
environment where man could survive 
and be healthy and happy. He inspired 
generations of students, many of whom 
have devoted their lives to work in the 
polar regions. 

There is little information about polar 
studies in this autobiography (Stefans- 
son described his experiences in earlier 
books) but there is much about the 
author's troubles in Washington and 
Ottawa, which he clearly found less 
friendly than the Arctic. He is probably 
right when he says that "In the 1920's 
a sort of infighting through character as- 
sassination was practiced by those who 
engaged in the extremely competitive 
vocation of polar exploration. . . . 



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Amiinilsen was ridt alone in altarkin^ 
mij. Others, instead (if ridiculini; me in 
imlilic, used tiie expedient of tryinp to 
kei-|i me out of socially desirable clubs." 
Here is a man whose iiappii-st years were 
S|)cnt in the igloos of tiie Copper Eskimo, 
galled because he could not ;jet into 
"socially desirable clubs" in New York. 
There is no indication that Stefansson 
ever revised any of his ideas in the light 
of other peojile's experience or that he 
recognized the drastic political and eco- 
nomic changes that took place in the 
world after 1915. He consequently came 
'to feel that his contributions were unap- 
preciated and his advice unheeded. 

In the book Stefansson tells how, in 
1912, a dockside reporter "expanded" 
some remarks of his into a tale that he 
had discovered a tribe of blond Eskimos, 
descendants of the Vikings. Not unnat- 
urally the story brought down a storm 
of criticism on Stefansson's head, but 
he was gratified to find when he reached 
New York that his sponsors. The Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History, had not 
taken the tale seriously. Nevertheless, 
the story plagued him for years, and he 
was never able to live it down, although 
he died at 83. The final irony is a posthu- 
mous one: the dust jacket of this book 
lists, among Stefansson's achievements, 
the discovery of "the famed tribe of 
blond Eskimos ... on Victoria Island." 

In sum, this is a valuable book for 
anyone interested in the history of ex- 
ploration, and some of the most instruc- 
tive reading in it is between the lines. 
David Linton 
Polar Photographer-Writer 

The Aztecs, The History of the 
Indies of New Spain, by Fray Diego 
Duran. with translation and notes by 
Doris Heyden and Fernando Horcasitas. 
The Orion Press, $12.50; 381 pp., illus. 

Duran's History is one of the more 
important of the sixteenth-century 
chronicles that record the culture and 
history of the Aztecs of Mexico in pre- 
Spanish times. Our knowledge of the 
Aztecs is obtained from original sources 
of this kind, so the new translation 
should interest many persons who have 
not been able to read it in Spanish. 

Duran was chosen for translation be- 
cause his chronicle, more than any other, 
is a complete, sequential history of the 
Aztecs. It begins with tales of Aztec 
origins in the mythical seven caves of 
Aztlan. follows with their migrations, 
the history of the reign and accomplish- 
ments of each of their kings, and their 
eventual destruction by the Spanish in- 
vaders in 1521. Duran was relatively 
sympathetic to the Aztecs, for he came 
to Mexico as a child and grew up in 
Texcoco where he associated with per- 
sons who lived there before the Span- 
iards arrived; he also learned Nahuatl, 



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the language of the Aztecs. In his ac- 
count he often displays his Spanish 
inheritance by inveighing against the 
cruelties of human sacrifice. At the same 
time, he notes in some revealing state- 
ments that certain cruel actions of the 
Aztecs against subject people were 
nearly as bad as those the Spaniards 
might have perpetrated! 

This is not a scholar's translation of 
Duran. The paragraphing and spelling 
have been altered and many repetitious 
passages have been omitted to make it 
a most readable text. Portions of the 
original that deal with ceremonial rites 
and the calendar have also been omitted. 
The excellent introduction and a sec- 
tion of very complete notes at the end 
of the book clarify difficult or question- 
able portions of the text and are most 
valuable. Pertinent pages from several 
of the pictorial codices and a few of 
the drawings from the atlas that ac- 
companied Duran's text are scattered 
throughout this attractive book. 

Despite the akerations and omissions, 
the flavor of the original chronicle is 
maintained. By reading the remarkable 
story of the rise and fall of the Aztec 
nation, an insight may be gained into 
the problems faced by the historian and 
the anthropologist in attempting to 
understand a strange and quickly extin- 
guished civilization. 

Gordon F. Ekholm 
The American Museum 

Sharks and Survival, edited by P. W. 
Gilbert. D. C. Heath & Co., $9.90; 578 
pj}., illus. 

SCIENTISTS, swimmers, skin and scuba 
divers, and yachtsmen will find 
Sharks and Survival a must— a modern 
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The book resulted from a conference 
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pants emphasized the meagerness of 
biological data on sharks. One outcome 
of the conference was a recognition of 
the urgent need to expand fundamental 
research on sharks in order to under- 
stand and eventually to solve the prob- 
lem of shark attack. 

This book is a compendium of twenty- 
two chapters individually prepared by 
many of the conference participants. Its 
pages are replete with authentic records 
of the how and where of attacks, descrip- 
tions of potentially dangerous sharks, 
clearly dangerous sharks, and the effec- 
tiveness of present shark repellents. For 
those who want to explore the biological 
capacities of sharks, there are excellent 
comprehensive surveys of available data 
on the brain and spinal cord and on the 
visual, olfactory, and auditory systems. 
The anatomy of the systems and experi- 



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If you are 
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you need 
Book. The autho 
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iiiciils on llic'ir fundions arc included 

III i-vuliiulcd. 

Oilier uiilliors conlriljiitc llicir per- 

iial oliservations of, and experiments 
willi, shark behavior, both in the open 

;u and under laboratory conditions— 
wliii;h, ill the case of large sharks, are 
enormous pens set on the edge of the 
sea. The chapters are well documented 

ilh reference material, and the illus- 
trations are abundant and clear. 

Evi;lyn Shaw 
Tin: American Musnum 

Bluo MiGHATioN, by Donald R. Gridln. 
The Naiaral History Press, $4.50; 180 
pp., illus. 

THIS little volume has all the ingredi- 
ents that characterize a successful 
book: a fascinating subject of timely 
interest and popular appeal and a text 
that is authoritative, yet engagingly writ- 
ten and easily understood. It can be read 
in one or two sittings, although 1 found 
myself returning to certain sections to 
savor details of experimentation by the 
author and his colleagues. 

Dr. Griffin gives some consideration to 
the general aspects of migratory be- 
havior, including its biological advan- 
tages, its energetics, and its extent in 
birds and other animals. There are also 
brief discussions of the role played by 
birdbanding and by radar. But over two- 
thirds of the book consists of the author's 
penetrating analysis of the experimental 
studies of homing and navigation in 
birds-in which he rejects some theories, 
cautions against unwarranted interpreta- 
tion of certain experiments, clarifies the 
problems still unsolved, and suggests 
possible avenues for further investiga- 
tion. In addition to being a well-executed 
summary of progress in this fascinating 
but complicated area of research. Dr. 
Griffin's account also reveals somethiiig 
of the ways of those who are engaged in 
scientific labors, and of the personal 
phases of scientific discovery. 

Wesley E. Lanyon 
The American Museum 

Hungry Nations, by William and Paul 
Paddock. Little, Brown and Co., $6.50; 
344 pp. 

FIDEL Castro is not a notably sympa- 
thetic character, yet a few months 
ago he issued a ukase that must have 
evoked responsive chuckles among those 
who have worked in "underdeveloped" 
countries around the globe: "I want," 
he said, "no more asphalt agronomists 
[agronomos asfaltados]," vividly conjur- 
ing up an image of the foreign graduate 
of a college in the United States who 
returns to his native land and a white- 
collar job— and never soils his boots. 

The two authors of Hungry Nations 
are not asjaltados. WiUiam Paddock, 



|)resenlly with the National Academy of 
Sciences, is a plant pathologist with wide 
ex|)cricnce, especially in the tropics. His 
brother, Paul, is a retired, rare species 
of foreign service officer who obviously 
wandered far and often from the ameni- 
ties of the cocktail circuit. Between them 
they have produced a highly informed, 
well-documented book that is one of the 
best, if not the best, yet written on the 
subject of foreign aid. 

They are linguists who have taken the 
trouble to get to know the people of the 
underdeveloped countries. They also 
(writing as a joint "I") know a great 
deal about climate, soils, grasslands, 
forests, hydrologic regimes, and the dif- 
ficult topographies that divide nations 
and continents, and write about them in 
a readable, journalistic style. 

The over-all thesis of Hungry Nations 
is summed up in this statement: "A 
country is poor and hungry for the same 
reasons that a poor man is hungry. The 
poor man is hungry because he has no 
capital in the bank and a poor nation is 
hungry because it has no resources in 
the ground. ... In most hungry nations 
of the world the only resource that can 
be developed economically is agricul- 
ture." The authors have no illusions as 
to ease of agricultural development ; they 
see it as a slow process— now often politi- 
cally shortchanged— based on research 
that must be done locally. This is not a 
new conclusion, but it represents a mi- 
nority view that has been disregarded 
for years. They roundly debunk the 
Peace Corps ballyhoo and even have the 
courage to point out what a liability pub- 
lic health programs may be! 

The Paddocks recognize the dangers 
inherent in rapid population growth, but 
seem not to give sufficient urgency to a 
frontal attack on the problem. Perhaps 
events have been moving so swiftly they 
do not know of the effectiveness and sim- 
plicity of some of the new contracep- 
tives. They note-but only in passing— 
that conservation needs are growing at 
the same exponential rate as population. 
There are a few small inaccuracies: 
the authors state that corn "is no longer 
in deficit supply" in Mexico, whereas 
last winter the Mexican government was 
negotiating for some of our surplus. The 
Servicio, a bilateral program between 
the United States and various Latin 
American nations, was one of foreign 
aid's most useful devices (strangely scut- 
tled by the Alliance for Progress), but 
it was not originated in "the late '40's." 
It was founded during the war, when 
Nelson Rockefeller was Co-ordinator of 
Inter-American Affairs. There are some 
inconsistencies that competent editing 
should have resolved. But these blem- 
ishes are relatively minor. 

The Paddocks' analysis of the self- 
defeating structure of our foreign aid 
programs is acute. And they advance 



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suggestions for reorganizing foreign aid 
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BIRD books have evolved from regional 
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^"gorgeous material" comprising the 
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■ 'l^^%tJ •"ii^"' '"*^:,;.i. 







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"•CSffc 






Heritage of 
Survival 

Kofyar terraces preserve soil and water 

By Robert M. Netting 




'm^ J"^^^: 






Sl(o*5.Ht 




PEOPLE who live in mountainous 
country tend to be hardy and inde- 
pendent. Their cultures are frequently 
the isolated and conservative back- 
waters of more fruitful lowland civili- 
zations. To the outsider, hill folk often 
seem clannish and suspicious, prefer- 
ring with unaccountable pride their 
impoverished fields to greener and 
more accessible pastures elsewhere. 
On the slopes of the Jos Plateau in the 
Northern Province of Nigeria, there 
are peoples with a similar heritage of 
resistance to conquest and a rugged 
insistence on cultural individuality. 
But their tiny territories, instead of 
being depressed areas, support some 
of the most intensive and ingenious 
agriculture south of the Sahara. These 
people have been condescendingly 
; called "hill pagans" by the Moslem 



Hausa-Fulani, the dominant ethnic 
group of the northern region, and by 
the former British administration. But 
in fact, these groups display creativity 
of a high order in their adaptation to 
a restrictive environment. 

THE Jos Plateau rises precipitously 
from the plain and contrasts 
sharply with the surrounding savanna 
country and the monotonous palm 
bush area farther to the south. An 
escarpment rises 1,500 to 2,000 feet 
along the southern edge of the boot- 
shaped plateau, and its slopes are 
punctuated with volcanic cones and 
craters, swift, clear streams, and scat- 
tered patches of deep-green oil palms. 
At the top, cool, rolling grasslands re- 
mind American travelers of the Great 
Plains in the United States. 



It was the unique geography of the 
area that led Europeans to the plateau 
near the turn of the century, first to 
mine the alluvial tin, which exists 
there in important quantities, and 
later to take advantage of the pleasant 
climate for vacations from adminis- 
trative and business duties in other 
parts of Nigeria. The special qualities 
of the terrain and certain of the nat- 
ural resources had long before been 
perceived and used by peoples who 
had settled the plateau and developed 
ways of life that are in some respects 
unique in tropical Africa. Within 
seventy-five miles of the great mining 
dredges and the lively commercial city 
of Jos are some thirty population 
groupings (many of them still poorly 
defined), speaking languages of two 
major linguistic families and main- 

15 



taining a striking range of costume, 
religious practice, technology, and 
social organization. 

Especially in the broken terrain on 
the edge of the plateau, tribal areas 
and communities are small and var- 
ied. Long ridges stretch south like 
buttresses from the main body of the 
plateau, and each has its own cultural 
group. Just as Appalachian moun- 
taineers in isolated coves developed 
local differences in song and crafts, 
the plateau hill folk, over a much 
longer period, have remained in self- 
sufficient pockets and have gradually 
diverged from each other. Preserved 
from conquest and accompanying cul- 
tural change by their rocky uplands, 
and kept apart from each other by 
natural barriers and mutual hostility, 
the hill dwellers form enclaves of from 
3,500 to 80,000. Of these, the largest 
and best-known groups are the Birom, 
Angas, and Sura. They were never 
incorporated by the Hausa-Fulani 
kingdoms, as they expanded into areas 
north, east, and west of the plateau 
during the nineteenth century. The 
rocky hills also shielded their inhabi- 
tants from mounted Moslem slave 
raiders who systematically harried 
other pagan tribes. 

MY own anthropological field ex- 
perience in this area was mostly 
with a group that may be called, for 
the sake of convenience, the Kofyar. 
For the most part, they acknowledge 
no such general title themselves, hav- 
ing no traditional political unit larger 
than a village or village area (such as 
Mirriam, Dimmuk, Kwong, Kwalla. 
and Doka), and no paramount chief 
or tribal organization. They do have 
strong similarities in dialect and cus- 
tom, however, and share a myth of 
origin from an ancestor, Kofyar. This 
man, it is said, survived a primordial 
cataclysm by taking shelter in a cave 
with his sister. Offspring of these two 
repopulated the area and migrated 
from the original hill village, which is 
still known as Kofyar (or Koffiyer). 
For governmental and judicial pur- 
poses, several of the constituent village 
areas have been officially united as the 
Koffiyer Federation and the rest have 
been invited to join. Yet to this day, 
individuals will identify themselves' 
not as Kofyar, but only as natives of a 
particular village. 

_ More than 50,000 of these people 
live in a geographically demarcated 
territory of about 200 square miles-a 

i6 




Crops are planted on the 
ridges between the basins, 
where they will not flood, 
and basins hold rain even 
when it falls torrentially. 



Yams and sweet potatoes 
are among the root crops to 
be planted on the ridges, 
here being hoed. Women 
bring ashes as a fertilizer. 





CoiiN in pIunl(-() at start of 
ruinn, wJiich lanl from April 
ifirouKii'JUl Septi;iiilii;r. and 
may total five feet. The 
baHitiH permit slow seepage. 



WoMKN traiispluiit millet 
on the hasin-lintin^ ridges. 
Kofyar farm on Milmislence 
level, hut their methods 
keep peojjle famine-free. 




line of hills and an immediately adja- 
cent hand of plains at the foot of the 
escarpment some TO miles southeast of 
Jos. Although groups such as the 
Goemai or Ankwe and the Sura are 
Mithin an hour's walk of the nearest 
Kofyar villages, and interchange is 
frequent, the Kofyar language, dress, 
house type, and agricultural practices 
differ markedly from those of people 
in neighboring communities. 

Tin; local dexelopment of Kofyar 
farming techniques are particu- 
larly interesting. With the publication 
of recent books on the shifting culti- 
vation of the Azande in the Congo, 
the alluvial gardens of the Rhodesian 
Tonga, and the Sonjo method of irri- 
gation in Tanganyika, we are just be- 
ginning to realize the skill and ingenu- 
ity with which Africans have adapted 
indigenous agriculture to various en- 
vironments. The most widespread 
method of growing crops south of the 
Sahara is shifting, or swidden. agri- 
culture, in which a field is farmed until 
its yields decline. It is then allowed 
to remain fallow until fertility has 
been naturally restored. This requires 
a considerable land area per person, 
however, and may lead to overcultiva- 
tion in the event of rapid population 
increase. In striking contrast to this, 
the Kofyar practice intensive agricul- 
ture, supporting a dense population on 
permanent farms that maintain heavy 
production from very limited areas. 

When I first entered the Kofyar 
area in November of 1960, it was al- 
most impossible to see the thatched 
huts of individual family homesteads 
because of the thick growth of grain 
sorghum [Sorghum vulgare) that sur- 
rounded them. I later discovered that 
a crop of early maturing millet ( Pen- 
nisetum typhoideum) had already 
been harvested from the fields and 
that cowpeas. okra, and pumpkins 
were interplanted with the sorghum. 
Homesteads were not clustered in nu- 
cleated villages, but were dispersed, 
each family living in the center of its 
field. The average size of a field was 
just over an acre. These intensively 
cultivated plots furnish the bulk of 
their owners' food year after year for 
generations. The Kofyar are almost 
without exception subsistence farmers, 
yet they maintain a famine-free popu- 
lation approaching 1,200 persons per 
square mile in some areas. They do 
this without irrigation or domestic 
animal power, and with tools no more 

17 






^^"2^*- 




In plains villages, ridges are built 
at end of wet season to retain rains. 



NIGER 



\W 



complex than the iron-bladed Sudanic 
hoe, the ax, and the sickle. 

The Kofyar environment provides 
certain advantages and also imposes 
severe limitations. Rain falls in quan- 
tity during six months of the year, 
from April through September, when 
it totals forty to sixty inches. Kofyar 
country includes part of the escarp- 
ment that intercepts rain-bearing 
winds from the south, thus insuring a 
more dependable supply of moisture 
than the high plateau lands farther 




Over head of worker is an "increase 
arch" that insures successful harvest. 



Intense cultivation includes early 
maturing millet crops, right, and corn. 



north. The rain water is absolutely 
necessary for agriculture, of course, 
but it can also be a dangerous force, 
swiftly eroding exposed hillsides and 
turning low places into swamps. Hill 
soils may not be deep, but they are 
well supplied with minerals from rock 
decomposition. Thus, although fields 
are initially productive, two or three 
years of repeated grain crops are 
enough to sap much of their vigor. 

The most conspicuous achievement 
of the Kofyar is their successful con- 




8(!rvation of water and soil. Wherever 
practical, tiie hillsides are terraced 
with rough stone walls one to six feet 
high, which anchor the level patches 
of soil. Terraces are higher on the in- 
tensive farms around the homesteads, 
where it is an advantage to have wider 
plane surfaces and deeper soils, but 
even bush fields outside the village, 
used only on a shifting basis for small 
crops such as peanuts, are terraced. 

Although some of their neighbors 
also terrace on a smaller scale, the 
Kofyar are unique in performing a 
process called basin listing. They hoe 
the earth into rectangular ridges and 
leave a hoUowed-out depression in the 
middle. They plant their crops on the 
ridges, where they will not be inun- 
dated, and the basins retain the rain 
water, even when it falls in a violent 
deluge. The system has the twin bene- 
fits of holding rain water so that it 
sinks gradually into the soil for use 
by the growing plants, and of prevent- 
ing destruction caused by rapid runoff 
and erosion. Thus steep, treeless hill- 
sides are preserved as a productive 
resource. The Kofyar recognize that 
leaching and washing of topsoil lead 
rapidly to infertility, and when f 
asked them why a particular field was 
exhausted, their reply was frequently 
am mang, "water carried it off." Pro- 
fessional agricultural engineers have 



told me that Kofyar methods of soil 
conservation could not be imjjroved. 
The obvious investment of labor in 
terracing is impressive. Farmers keep 
up their old fields, but there is little 
new construction of terraces today. In 
the past, building was done, not by 
organized groups, but by individuals 
who raised single walls and then pulled 
earth down to form a level bench. 

ONE old man who had literally 
carved his farm from the hill 
often berated his children for their 
laziness and compared his achieve- 
ment to the puny efforts of the modern 
generation. Terraces are still mended 
by volunteer groups who are rewarded 
with beer by the field owner. Almost 
all farmers continue to follow the 
basin-listing |)attern, and even on the 
plains the wallle-like ridges are erected 
toward the end of the wet sp;:son to 
retain the last rains. The Kofyar are 
equally adept at dealing with water- 
logged areas. There they make rows 
of high mounds at right angles to the 
slope and separated by channels to 
carry off the excess moisture. Every 
technique used is adjusted to the 
terrain. A single field may be ter- 
raced and basin-listed on the steeper 
slopes, basin-listed on relatively level 
stretches, and ditched on the poorly 
drained bottom areas. 




Workers are rewarded with beer that 
is made from millet after the harvest 



is in. Traditionally, these people are 
aware of the need for crop rotation. 



In order to support continuous in- 
tensive agriculture, the Kofyar must 
both conserve soil and water and re- 
store some of the nutrients that their 
crops take from the soil. Ferlili/ing the 
ground by systematic application of 
manure is practiced very little in tra- 
ditional African systems of agricul- 
ture. The Kofyar meet the problem by 
careful accumulation and ajiplication 
of organic material. Each household 
has a round stone-walled bit, or corral, 
ten to hfteen feet in diameter, situated 
near the entrance to the homestead. All 
the goats belonging to family members 
are staked there throughout the grow- 
ing season. Women and children fetch 
water, fresh green grass, and lealy 
branches for them daily. Substantial 
quantities of uneaten fodder mixed 
with goat dung accumulate in the en- 
closure and are remo\ed and distrib- 
uted about the field by a group of 
co-operating neighbors just before the 
rains come. They also clean out the 
huts where the goats are penned at 
night. Successive cultivations of the 
maturing crop work the compost into 
the soil. The Kofyar also take advan- 
tage of the recent arrival in the area 
of Fulani nomads by paying them to 
herd their cattle on bush fields where 
the fertility is low. 

While the homestead farm (mar 
koepang) is heavily fertilized to make 
annual crops of large grains possible, 
the Kofyar also cultivate extensive 
areas beyond the periphery of the vil- 
lage. They farm these bush fields imar 
goon ) on a shifting basis to produce 
subsidiary foods, and although they 
do not spread compost on bush lands, 
they use certain other fertilizing 
agents selectively. For instance, every 
bit of wood ash is saved from house- 
hold cooking fires and stored in spe- 
cially built huts. Women carry the ash 
to the field in baskets and apply a 
handful at a time to individual plants 
of peanut and sw eat potato. Secondary 
growth and weeds are also piled and 
burned in fields to furnish ash beds. 

THE Kofyar follow still another 
practice in the case of acha {Digi- 
taria exilis) , a grass with tiny seeds 
that may have been domesticated in 
the western Sudan. All shrubs and 
grasses grow ing in a field are uprooted 
and piled in rows to be covered with 
small ridges of earth. The acha is then 
sown broadcast. 

In addition to green manuring and 
the use of ash in the bush fields, the 



19 



Kofyar practice a regular crop rota- 
tion. They recognize that acha, alter- 
nated with peanuts, keeps the ground 
in good condition longer. Bush fields 
can be kept in production for six to 
nine years before fallowing. With a 
single crop, the soil, they say, becomes 
quickly worn out and white (bes 
piya) . They also take pains to adapt 
their planting to particular microenvi- 
ronments, growing coco yams as a 
staple in damp sections of the village, 
and sorghum in drier areas that have 
more direct sunlight. Use of early and 
late millets is also closely related to 
rainfall. Different varieties of sorghum 
are used in red volcanic soil and in the 
more common brown earth. 

QUESTIONS as to the origin of Kof- 
yar agricultural practices are not 
easily answered. Although many Afri- 
can farming groups spread household 
refuse on small garden patches, few 
approach the systematic manuring of 
the Kofyar people. The Chokfem 
branch of the Sura, who live in an 
environment almost identical with that 
of the hill Kofyar and who speak a 
closely related language, merely stake 
their goats out individually along 
paths and in uncultivated tracts. Ter- 
racing, often of a rudimentary sort, 
occurs at various places on the Jos 
Plateau and among Chadic-speaking 
groups in the hills of Adamawa and 
Sardauna provinces. In tools and crop 
varieties, the Kofyar resemble the 
pagan peoples found throughout the 
western Sudan, but the manuring, 
basin listing, and crop rotation pat- 
terns appear to be indigenous. The 
practices are not traceable to colonial 
influence, since Europeans did not 
enter the area until 1909, and effective 
control of the hill villages came only 
after the military operations in 1930. 
In the absence of historical records 
and archeological evidence, we may 
surmise that the Kofyar independently 
developed many of the features of 
their agricultural system. 

Kofyar agriculture is by no means 
static and resistant to change. New 
varieties of coco yams and European- 
introduced strains of peanuts are gain- 
ing wide acceptance. Marshy lands at 
the base of the escarpment have been 
diked and put into wet rice production 
within the last twenty years. Just 
before I left the area, a number of 
villagers approached me to request 
seeds of the tomatoes in my garden. 

The most important development, 



however, has been the rapid expansion 
of Kofyar farming. The cessation of 
warfare and slave raiding, combined 
with the opening of markets and roads 
to urban centers, made growing of 
surplus crops both practical and profit- 
able. The Kofyar were able to leave 
the protection of their hills and break 
vacant land to the south. Migration 
began about 1930 and served origi- 
nally to reduce population pressure in 
some villages that lacked sufficient 
land. Within the last fifteen years, an 
increasing proportion of farmers have 
concentrated on cash crops. The new 
pattern consists in taking up unoccu- 
pied land around Namu or Kurgwi, 
some thirty miles away, while keeping 
the traditional homesteads in produc- 
tion. Men and their families commute 
between the two areas. This is possible 
because crops planted on the pioneer 
farms mature at different times from 
those at home. During the normally 
slack period of the dry season, many 
Kofyar make "heaps" for the profit- 
able yams that thrive on the lowlands. 
These mounds, or hillocks of earth, 
1 1/2 to 2 feet high and roughly conical, 
surround the growing tubers. Sor- 
ghum, millet, and cowpeas are also 
grown for market by using only the 
techniques of shifting agriculture. The 
new land must often be cleared of 
trees, but it is fertile enough to sup- 
port several years of cultivation before 
fallowing. It is level and easily worked, 
so that methods of ridging, terracing, 
or manuring are not needed. The 
Kofyar have miles of idle land waiting 
for use, and as practical farmers they 
see no reason for the increased labor 
and slower profits involved in more 
stable exploitation. Their cash crop- 
ping has been established voluntarily 
without official encouragement. They 
are doing what they know best in a 
way that allows continuity of family 
and village life, plus access to the 
modern money economy with its con- 
comitants of cloth, bicycles, kerosene 
lanterns, and school fees. 

WHEN I asked them if they would 
leave the hills permanently, the 
Kofyar replied that they would stay 
with the graves of their forefathers. A 
few families from those villages where 
land is in short supply have found it 
advantageous to shift residence to the 
lowlands. There are limits to the num- 
bers that can be supported even by 
Kofyar agriculture, and young men 
who would normally take up a vacant 



homestead have no place to go. With 
continued population expansion, this 
alternative may be increasingly 
chosen, but at present the majority of 
migrants maintain two farms, practic- 
ing intensive agriculture in the home 
village and shifting cash cropping on' 
the plains. The compromise allows 
them to enjoy the best of both worlds. 
Middleman functions are being taken 
over by local entrepreneurs, and one 
of the plains chiefs has invested in a 
truck that goes regularly to the Jos 
market. The Kofyar response to the 
opportunities of a modern cash econ- 
omy is proving as effective as their 
initial adaptation to the physical re- 
quirements of hill agriculture. By 
varying their techniques of exploita- 
tion, they have been able to maintain 
a dense, stable population while enjoy- 
ing natural protection from their 
enemies and, more recently, realiz- 
ing the benefits of market relations 
in the larger Nigerian business society. 





Grain sor(;imim, towering 
over load rarrier, ut left, 
iiiilicateH, hy its height, 
iIk; fertility of the soil. 



Hill tebraces, which allow 
high food production fniiii 
limited areas, deinoiistrate 
the ingenuity of Kofyurs. 



Goat dung is important to 
hill people for fertilizing __ 
crops. Herds are corralled i?^. 
near homestead entrance. 





' .t ' 



7 




1^ ■ 









Day Length and Food 



Photoperiods cue 
the flying squirrel 

By Illar Muul 

ANIMALS born during the spring or 
^ summer have no actual concep- 
tion of the coming winter season. In- 
stead they are genetically equipped to 
prepare for it through physiological 
adjustments that have their beginnings 
in neural responses to various environ- 
mental cues. Such cues may be tem- 
perature, light intensity, photoperiod 
(or day length), barometric pressure, 
lunar cycles, sun spots, or one of a 
host of others, that are less well known. 
Exhaustive and thorough studies have 
linked many natural phenomena, such 
as bird migration, seasonal reproduc- 
tion in birds, molting in mammals, 
regulation of activity cycles, fat deposi- 
tion preceding hibernation, and others, 
to one or another of these cues. 

Among the many cues listed, photo- 
period and its effects have been most 
intensively studied, because on an an- 
nual basis and from year to year it is 
one of the most reliable cues. This 
would explain why so many animals 
have evolved physiological depend- 
ence on photoperiod. Other cues, such 
as light intensity and temperature, 
may vary daily, seasonally, and annu- 
ally without a precise pattern. They 
may be affected by changes in cloud 
cover and other climatic factors. 

The use of environmental cues not 
only brings physiological processes 
into synchrony with environmental 
events, but also allows the animals to 
anticipate change. This is especially 
important for processes that require 
some time for preparation, such as 
prehibernation and premigratory fat 
deposition. These processes must be 
initiated weeks or even months before 
hibernation or migration can begin, 
and are started in the favorable part of 
the year during which there is no di- 
rect hint of the oncoming winter sea- 
son. A decreasing photoperiod in itself 
does not predict the rigors of winter, 
but those animals whose physiological 

22 







aches 




Control cnorp, left, was exposed to 
normal liplit ami teniperalure outside. 



Food storage activity in the flying 
squirrel is intensified in the autumn. 



processes were keyed, during their evo- 
lution, to this subtle but reliable 
change in environment, prevail today. 
Hibernation and migration are the 
ways in which animals can deal with 
■winter. They avoid the problem of low 
temperatures by seeking a protective 
shelter, burrow, nest, or a more favor- 
able climate; in hibernators. the body 
temperature is lowered to reduce the 
heat gradient between themselves and 
the environment and thus decrease the 
expenditures of living. 

For those animals that remain active 
through the winter, a severalfold in- 
crease in the expenditure of energy is 
often necessary to compensate for the 
body heat lost to the environment. This 
additional energy comes from fats 
stored within the body or through in- 
creased food consumption. In many 
species, increased food demands are 
met by stored food supplies accumu- 
lated during periods of abundance. 

Food-storing behavior, although 
found in a wide variety of animal 
groups, is most prevalent among the 
rodents. My interest in this behavior 
was sparked during a general study of 
the smallest of our New World squir- 
rels—the flying squirrel, Glaucomys 
volans. Although they may store a cer- 
tain amount of food all through the 



year— as many as twenty nuts a night 
per individual— this activity is greatly 
intensified during the autumn, coincid- 
ing with the ripening of the mast crops, 
at which time the animals may gather 
as many as three hundred nuts nightly. 
The main question, then, was "What 
makes the storing activity increase?" 

IN the northern states, hickory nuts 
and acorns are the main items 
found in food caches. The former, 
however, seem to be favored by flying 
squirrels. In good crop years, hickory 
nuts comprise more than 90 per cent 
of the food cache: during poor hickory 
years, the bulk of the stored food is 
acorns. This food is not only used dur- 
ing the winter but also through the 
spring and summer until the next crop 
ripens. In summer, the squirrels also 
eat other vegetable matter and insects. 
In winter, their diet is supplemented 
with dormant insects, buds, bark, and 
fungal growth. During the period of 
food caching, exploratory behavior, 
which results in the discovery of stor- 
able food items, is greatly increased. 
Nuts and acorns that have dropped to 
the ground are apparently found 
among the leaf litter by their odor. 
Considerable numbers are also cut 
from the trees. 

23 







Unlike the red squirrel, Tamiasci 
urns hudsonicus, and the chipmunk 
(notably Tamias striatus) , flying 
squirrels make no single cache; in- 
stead they store the food in various 
places on the ground and in the trees. 
On the ground no excessive digging is 
done. While holding the nut with its 
teeth, the squirrel merely parts the 
leaves with its forelegs, pushes the nut 
between its hind legs, and, with tail 
erect, wedges it into place with a few 
blows of the snout. The nut is then 
covered with leaves and the squirrel 
goes on to find another. Much of the 
food is carried up into trees and stored 
in various cavities, cracks, unfinished 
woodpecker holes, and in the forks of 
branches. In such storage sites, the 
nuts are pounded firmly into place 
with the bared incisors. The sound of 
this pounding can be heard clearly 
during autumn nights. 

SINCE the flying squirrels often ag- 
gregate during the cold months in 
numbers of twenty-two or more indi- 
viduals in a nest, the storing effort 
becomes a group project, resulting in 
common storepiles distributed among 
the various places that the members 
frequent. The squirrels then share the 
stores during the winter and after the 
aggregations break up in the spring. 

This much of the food-storing be- 
havior can be observed in nature; 
answers to more specific questions had 
to be arrived at experimentally under 
controlled environmental conditions. 
Under natural conditions, the intensity 
of storing begins to increase in mid- 
September, reaches a peak in Novem- 
ber, and drops back again to the basal 
level (fewer than twenty nuts a night 
per individual) by mid-January. Dur- 
ing the peak period, an individual 
squirrel in captivity may store as many 
as 270 nuts in one night. This is a 
good "profit," for during this time it 
costs the squirrel only about seven 
nuts for each night's food under 
natural conditions; even fewer are 
eaten in captivity. Of course, weather, 
availability of food, and other factors 
influence the specific number stored 
on any one night by squirrels in their 
natural environment, but the general 



Flying squirrels store nuts both in 
ground and in trees. In this sequence 
animal manipulates nut with its paws, 
pushes leaves apart with forelegs, and, 
tail erect, wedges the nut into place. 



Irerul is the same as in the laboratory. 

Initially, my aim was to determine; 
the environmental cue that trigf^crs the 
characteristic autumn period of inten- 
sive food storing. The most obvious 
candidate was food availability, liut 
when hickory nuts were offered to the 
squirrels during the summer, the num- 
ber stored remained at the basal level 
of apjjroximalely twenty nuts per 
sejuirrel in a night. 

Temperature and photoperiod both 
decrease in autumn, so that either 
could serve as a cue for storing. To 
lest the effect of these two cues, I 
placed four experimental groups of ten 
animals each under various tempera- 
ture and photoperiodic conditions to 
subject them to different combinations 
of the two factors. These will subse- 
quently be referred to as the control 
group, and Groups I, If, and 111. The 
animals were kept in male— female 
pairs, and each pair was provided with 
a nest box and a live-compartmented 
storage box. Sunflower seeds were al- 
ways available for food, and vitamins 
were dissolved in the drinking water. 
Nuts were placed in a pile on the cage 
floor and those stored were removed 
from the cage and counted the next 
day. Initially, fifty nuts were given to 
each pair, but the number was in- 
creased as soon as the squirrels began 
to remove most of them. 

The control group was kept out 
of doors from September through 
January, and exposed to normal 
temperatures and photoperiods; they 
should therefore have responded in a 
way parallel to that of animals in 
nature. This proved to be the case, but 
the storing performance of this group 
reached a peak later than is seen in 
nature. The explanation for this dif- 
ference probably can be found in the 
availability of food. In nature, the 
storable food material is used up, 
while the storing drive, as reflected by 
the outdoor group, still persists. Under 
natural conditions this assures that the 
squirrels would react accordingly if 
new food supplies became available. 

Group I was subjected to seasonal 
photoperiods in the laboratory from 
September through March, but the 
temperature was held constant. Thus 
the animals had the benefit of natural 
day length, but lacked the temperature 
cue. The performance of Group I was 
very similar to that of the control 
group, but its storage peak was higher 
(graphs at right). From these results, 
one can see that photoperiod is suffi- 



cient to trigger the storing response 
independenl of seasonal temperatures. 

Group II had the benefit of seasonal 
temperatures, but was given a long 
photojjeriod of fifteen hours of light, 
which is equivalent to that of summer. 
Although the seasonal temperature 
changes evoked some increase in the 
intensity of storing, peaks such as were 
seen in the first two groups were not 
reached until March, when the photo- 
period to which this group had been 
exposed was reduced by three hours. 
The performance of this group further 
demonstrated the importance of photo- 
period. In March, temperatures are 
usually on the increase, yet a shorten- 
ing in the relative day length still 
evoked an increase in storing. It 
should be noted here that according to 
calendar time this increase in storing 
took jjlace when the performance of 
the other groups was decreasing. 

Group III was initially maintained 
under constant temperature and a 
photoperiod of fifteen hours. The stor- 
ing performance during this time was 
the lowest of the four groups. During 
mid-December the photoperiod was re- 
duced by t«o hours, and within a week 
the group performance increased to 
approximately the same level as that of 
the control group and Group 1, both of 
which were under natural photo- 
periods. No further decrease was 
necessary to maintain the performance 
at this level until mid-February, at 
which time storing by the normal pho- 
toperiod groups was also decreasing. 

DURING the second year of study, a 
group of squirrels was subjected 
to a controlled photoperiod in mid- 
October equivalent to that which the 
animals would usually encounter in 
the middle of November. The intensity 
of storing increased more rapidly than 
normal and reached a level equivalent 
to that of the middle of November 
under natural conditions (graphs page 
26 ) . This means that nightly a pair of 
squirrels stored about eighty more 
nuts than did pairs under natural 
photoperiod. Subsequent decreases in 
photoperiod brought about an even 
more accelerated performance. By the 
beginning of November the squirrels 
were subjected to photoperiods char- 
acteristic of late December, and began 
to store at their peak performance. 

Immediately after, the photoperiod 
regime was changed to fifteen hours 
light and nine hours dark, which is 
equivalent to midsummer. In some in- 



CONTROL GROUP 



HOTOPEPIOOS 



12 






i^b 



^ n Rji iffl Qi n 



BKOUP 1 

SEASONAL PHOTOPERIODS 
CONTROLLED CONSTANT TEMPERATURE 




IS EO Ell D E3 



GROUP 2 

SEASONAL TEMPERATURES 

CONTROLLED PHOTOPERIODS (15 HOURS OF 

LIGHT REDUCED TO 12 HOURS IN MARCH*) 




^ jj] j^ ^ 53 



CONTROLLED CONSTANT TEMPERATURE 
_CONTROLLED PHOTOPERIODS (15 HOURS OF 
^T REDUCED TO 13 HOURS IN 
i-DECEMBE R'l 





DND YEAR GROUP 



dividuals the storing intensity dropped 
down to basal levels; in others the 
decrease was not as marked. The gen- 
eral trend during the subsequent weeks 
was a decrease in storing, although it 
was still increasing in the group ex- 
posed to natural photoperiods. 

The next test was conducted with 
squirrels which, in the spring, had 
been placed under photoperiodic con- 
ditions equivalent to those of October. 
By controlling the room lights with an 
astronomical timer, day length was de- 
creased by increments of about seven 
minutes a day, as would normally oc- 
cur during the fall season. By the mid- 
dle of July the photoperiod was 
equivalent to that in mid-January. A 
, comparison of the storing perform- 
ance of this experimental group and 
one under natural photoperiod con- 
ditions at that time (July) showed 
roughly a 10 to 1 difference in favor of 
the "January group" {graph top right). 
Such manipulations of the light- 
dark cycle demonstrated further the 
dependence of the flying squirrel on 
photoperiod as a cue for storing. This 



NATURAL PHOTOPERIOD 

iSTORING IWCREAScS IN 
NORMAL y, INTER DAY LENGTHS) 




CONTROLLED PHOTOPERIODS 

TO WHICH group(a)was exposed 



^ OEC 







® 



dependence assures that intensive ex- 
ploratory behavior is synchronized 
with the ripening of the mast crop, 
and relieves the animal from unfruit- 
ful exploratory and "searching" ac- 
tivity during the remainder of the year. 
It would be energetically wasteful to 
engage in this kind of activity during 
times when food suitable for storing is 
not available; it could also interfere 
with other activities, such as reproduc- 
tion and nest building, that are neces- 
sary for the survival of the species. 
The delay in intensive storing activity 
until a specific time also prevents pre- 
mature harvesting of the mast crop. 
Hickory nuts are nearly full-size by 
July, but do not ripen until fall, so vis- 
ual cues would probably be ineffective. 

EARLY in the experiments on food 
storing, I stumbled on another 
phenomenon that probably plays an 
important part in the storing process. 
Because I had only the help of my fif- 
teen-year-old brother-in-law in gather- 
ing the hickory nuts that were used in 
the experiments (these amounted to 




NATURAL PHOTOPERIODS 

TO WHICH GROUP (b)was exposed 



many bushels), I tried to use some 
over again after the squirrels had once 
stored them. In each case, however, 
the storing performance decreased 
markedly. Given a choice between 
"new" nuts and those which had been 
stored previously, the new ones were 
taken at a ratio of about 4:1 (graph, 
opposite page ) . This suggested that the 
nuts were somehow marked during the 
storing process, either physically or 
perhaps by an odor marker from the 
mouth or feet. 

There are modified sebaceous 
glands on the infolded lips of some 
rodents, described by Dr. W. B. Quay, 
and some rodents reportedly possess 
modified sweat glands on the soles of 
their feet. If such glands are present in 
the flying squirrel, either could serve 
as a source for the marker because 
both the forefeet and the mouth come 
in contact with the nut. 

By washing both new and previ- 
ously stored nuts with hot water and 
detergent, the apparent discriminatory 
ability was reduced, but the animals 
still preferred the new nuts at a ratio 
of about 2:1. I also washed nuts in 
carbon tetrachloride, rinsed them with 
water, and dried them. These nuts 
did not seem to be as attractive to the 
squirrels as were fresh nuts, but the 
animals could not distinguish between 
previously stored and new nuts that 
had been treated in this way. The 
marker obviously could be washed off, 
so it appeared at this point that an 
odor was involved. The marker was 
not washed off completely in water, 
but because detergents and carbon 
tetrachloride dissolve oils, the possi- 



Laboratory animals were subjected to 
artificial conditions of light and heat. 



EPTANCE OF 
ND NEW NUTS 



ACCEPTANCE OF 
WASHED NUTS 



ilily of SOUK' kinil of oil marker arose. 
Working fi'iiii lliis premise, it re- 
laiiiitil to lie found where this sulj- 
tance had its origiii-lhe lips or the 
eet. Sonic nuts were presented to the 
quirrels on wire trays placed on top 
if their cages. To touch them, the 
quirrels had to reach through two 
ayers of wire. In this way, only the 
eet came into contact with the nut as 
I squirrel grasped it and attempted 
o pull it into the cage. After a nut had 
)een sufliciently handled by a squir- 
■el, 1 removed and marked it. When 
'orty had been processed in this man- 
ler, they were presented to the squir- 
■els with an equal number of new nuts, 
rhe response to the two types of nuts 
was the same— neither was preferred 
Dver the other. Although this seems to 
narrow down the source of the marker 
to some substance in the mouth, a 
great deal of work still must be done 
to isolate it. 

THE biological significance of the 
mechanism concerned here can 
only be surmised. Perhaps it is a way 
of assuring that the animals gather 
new nuts rather than regathering 
either those already stored at a pre- 
vious time or those stored by other 
individuals. As described earlier, 
many of the stored food items are in 
plain view in the trees the animals 
frequent. A squirrel that is disposed 
to gather nuts as a result of photo- 
periodic changes could do so most 
easily by picking up those that have 
already been husked and placed con- 
veniently in the trees. But because of 
the "marker," the squirrel is inhibited 
from doing this, and gathers new ones 
instead. As a result, an increase in the 
winter caches is assured. 

Photoperiod and odor are two of 
the cues to which the animal responds, 
as indicated by these experiments; 
there are many others, of course. Such 
cues are continually orienting the ani- 
mal, resulting in evolved reactions 
both on the behavioral and physiologi- 
cal level. Such reactions assure the 
survival of the species by placing the 
animal in a favorable relationship 
with its environment. Reactions that 
fail to do this result in the death of 
the animal and, on a broader scale, 
lead to the replacement or extinction 
of the species in that environment. 








1- 


^^^^^^^^9 


l^ 


ih^^^^^hI 


°- 

1.0 

Z 20 
/ 

10 


^pl 




^ 



UNSTOREO "NEW NUTS 
PREVIOUSLY STORED NUTS 



\ 



At peak periods, captive animals may 
store more than 300 nuts in one night. 




Green Algae DiYid^i 

to Multiply 




Mature plant 



By WiNTON Patnode 

FRESH-WATER green algae can reproduce vegeta- 
lively by cell division and growth. Micrasterias to- 
ma is a desmid, one of the numerous family of algae 
that inhabit ponds, lakes, and soil all over the world, 
exhibiting a great variety of beautiful and intricate 
forms. The photographs on these pages show living 
plants as they undergo vegetative reproduction. 

Reproduction by cell division is recognized as basic 
to the growth of all living things. The roots of potatoes 
or irises, cut in pieces and planted, grow new tops. A 
leaf cut from an African violet and placed on the surface 
of moist soil sends down roots and produces a new plant. 
The strawberry aboveground and the bunchberry 



Late stage of division 



Early stage of division 







"^^^ "y*« 




independent, half-grown plant 

(Corniis canadensis) underground send out long run- 
ners to make new and independent plants. Many plants 
reproduce vegetatively by cell division and differen- 
tiation to an even greater extent than by sexual propa- 
gation through seeds or spores. Modern techniques in 
color photomicrography, using one-celled algae as sub- 
jects, allow one to see this process as it could formerly 
be seen only by observation through the microscope. 

The Micrasterias is a tiny one-celled plant (top lejl). 
about a hundredth of an inch in diameter. It has no 
roots or stem or flower, but superficially it resembles 
a leaf. It grows unattached in untold millions m ponds, 
swamps, and lakes, drifting with winds and currents, a 
part of the microscopic aquatic life known as plankton 
(from the Greek word for wanderer) . Each plant holds 
within its porous skin all of the aggregations of mole- 
cules necessary to its life, growth, and reproduction. 
Some of these aggregations, or organelles, can be seen 
in the photographs. The specimens that are shown here 
were collected in the Cascade Range of Oregon, but 
their distribution is almost worldwide. 

In common with many of the desmids, this one has 

a prominent constriction at its middle, called a sinus, 

which divides the plant into two halves, or semicells, 

usually identical and mirror images of each other. The 

tissue joining the semicells, called the isthmus, contams 

the nucleus of the cell, which in turn contains the chro- 

■; mosomes and other bodies that regulate reproduction 

i and inheritance. The isthmus and the nucleus located in 

; it appear as a light spot in the center of the picture of 

S the mature plant. 

. Cell division begins with the parting of the nucleus 
' into two new nuclei, each of which then initiates the 
■ growth of a complete, new, identical semicell and as- 
: sumes the management of its old semicell. The pic- 



.•--%k. 



lure of the early stage of division 
{holtorn left) shows the two new 
semicells beginning to grow and to 
push the old semicells apart. The 
next stage (bottom right) shows 
growth proceeding. The old semi- 
cells are pushed farther apart; the 
new semicells now begin to show 
green chlorophyll-containing 
chloroplasts. The two planU, each 
capable of independent existence, 
may remain joined for some time, 
until they are broken apart by agi- 
tation of the water or by the jerky 
motions they are capable of mak- 
ing. The fourth picture shows the 
half-grown, independent plant, 
which will gradually mature, live, 
reproduce itself, and die or be eaten. 
Algae have aptly been called 
"grasses of the waters," for aquatic 
animals graze on them. The desmids 
are bite-size for aquatic worms, tiny 
fish, insect larvae, and other ani- 
mals. Like other green planU, algae 
use sunlight to convert minerals, 
water, and carbon dioxide (CO-..) 
to carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. 
Thev are rich in protein and have 
high nutritive value. 
Ahae absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen as 
part of the photosvnthetic process. This oxygen is impor- 
tant in reaerating potable water supplies, supplement- 
ing turbulence. It also suppresses activities of anaerobic 
bacteria that lead to septic or foul conditions. Removal 
of carbon dioxide from water by algae may also sub- 
stantiallv reduce carbonate hardness. An overabund- 
ance of'alnae, however, decays, clogs filters, supports 
undesirable bacterial growth, and sometimes adds un- 
pleasant odors and taste to the water. 

Alaae have long interested biologists. In the past 
century forms, growth habits, occurrences, and classi- 
fication have been studied intensively. Research contin- 
ues on molecular organization and on biochemical proc- 
esses that control growth, reproduction, and heredity. 
Looking to the future, many scientists believe that 
for extended trips into space man will take along algae 
oardens to supply food and oxygen and to absorb wastes. 
Man needs food, water, and oxygen, and expels carbon 
dioxide and other metabolic end products. By maintain- 
ing a man-plant balance in the capsule, some problems 
of^tockini>- supplies and absorbing wastes may^ be re- 
duced. With solar energy continuously available, the 
normal life processes of algae may make such interde- 
pendence feasible. This is because some species of algae 
live in close association with fungi and bacteria, which 
suggests sophisticated biological systems that might be 
used in waste reclamation. 

In sunlight, algae expel oxygen and absorb carbon 
dioxide-not in the same proportions needed and dis- 
carded by man, but near enough to allow reducing the 
load of oxygen and CO., absorbents. The food potential 
of al-ae, especially marine varieties, is still unrealized. 
Apologists and other scientists are working on the idea, 
and their findings may be a key to future food supplies. 



29 



Mysteiy of a Millipede 

Hydrogen cyanide gas is made by insect, new studies shovi 



IN the entire annals of human crime, 
perhaps no poison has achieved a 
more deservedly notorious reputation 
than hydrogen cyanide. Known also as 
prussic acid, or simply as cyanide, and 
endowed with a characteristic odor of 
"bitter almonds," it is quickly fatal in 
small quantities. Its toxicity is not re- 
stricted to man. In fact, hydrogen cy- 
anide is as nearly universal a poison 
as one can find. This is because it ex- 
erts its toxic action by interfering with 
certain basic respiratory phenomena 
upon which most living cells depend 
for survival. 

A most surprising fact is that there 
actually exist animals capable of pro- 
ducing hydrogen cyanide. Years ago, 
naturalists found that certain milli- 
pedes possess an unmistakable odor of 
bitter almonds, and they were quick to 



By T. Eisner and H. E. Eisner 

note that a container with such milli- 
pedes could serve effectively as a "kill- 
ing jar" in which insects and other 
small animals would not long survive. 
In our laboratories at Cornell Uni- 
versity, the two of us, together with 
Rosalind Alsop, Fotis Kafatos, Pro- 
fessor Jerrold Meinwald, and the late 
Dr. Jeffrey J. Hurst, have recently had 
the opportunity to study one of these 
millipedes in some detail. The species 
involved, Apheloria corrugata, is occa- 
sionally very abundant in the environs 
of Ithaca, N. Y., where it can be found 
from spring to fall in deciduous woods, 
crawling among leaf litter or hiding 
under rocks. It is a beautiful, dark- 
brown animal, variously adorned with 
yellow and pink markings, and is 
about two inches long. 

We were curious about several 



things. First, does Apheloria reall] 
produce hydrogen cyanide? No pre 
vious work had been done with this 
particular species, and some of the ear 
lier claims based on other millipedes 
were open to question, since they were 
not backed by rigorous chemical proof, 
Second, is the emission of hydrogen 
cyanide a continuous process, or is the 
gas released only when the millipede 
is under attack by predators? The vul- 
nerability of millipedes to their ene- 
mies had never been studied carefully, 
and it seemed obvious that one should 
test the defensive effectiveness of the 
poison by exposing Apheloria to ants, 
amphibians, birds, and any other such 
predators as might share its environ- 
ment. But perhaps the greatest chal- 
lenge was the possibility of discover- 
ing the exact mechanism whereby the 




^m^ ^^ 







Millipede, Apheloria corrugata, may 
remain coiled in a tight spiral, above, 
after it has discharged a cyanic gas. 



Living beneath logs and dead leaves, 
millipedes may be found in deciduous 
woods. This one is about 2 inches long. 




millipede produced its formidable poi- 
son. The (.hemi'-al bai-ib of this meth- 
aniBm was a complete mystery. 

'Ihc answer to the first question was 
(|uick to come. Groups of Apheloria 
were placed by hand into lidded jars, 
and a variety of analytical procedures 
were then used to test for whatever 
fjases had accumulated in the con- 
tainers. There could be no doubt: 
hydrogen cyanide was indeed being 
jjroduced, and the millipedes were ap- 
parently not affected by the fumes. It 
also became clear that the millipedes 
released their jjoison only if they had 
been annoyed beforehand. If they were 
allowed to crawl into the jars on their 
own, without being touched in the 
process, no detectable amounts of hy- 
drogen cyanide were released. It was 
also noticed that the emission of hy- 
drogen cyanide does not come to an 
abrupt halt the moment the disturb- 
ance ceases. Once a millipede had been 
handled, it would continue to release 
its poison for minutes thereafter, even 
if left completely to itself. The rate of 
the release was highest at first, and 
then gradually declined. Whatever the 
mechanism of discharge, it seemed 
clear that the animal did not store its 
poison in some sort of anatomical 
"bottle," which was being "uncorked" 
momentarily whenever the animal 
"felt annoyed." Instead, it appeared 
that the release of hydrogen cyanide 
was the result of a chemical reaction, 
triggered by the disturbance, and 
forced to run a normal course once it 
had been initiated. 

THUS, ive reasoned that the milli- 
pede might be doing something 
similar to what a chemist does when 
he pours acid on a bicarbonate salt. 
Carbon dioxide is instantly generated, 
and continues to evolve as a gas 
until the salt has been expended. In 
the millipede, there also need be no 
more than two compounds involved in 
the reaction. One of them could be a 
molecule holding cyanide in some sort 
of stable combination (that is, a cy- 
anogenic molecule I . and the other an 
enzyme capable of catalyzing the de- 
composition of the first. The two com- 
pounds might be stored in separate 
adjacent compartments, ready to be 
mixed at the moment of disturbance. 
This was our hypothesis. The obvious 
thing to do next was to examine the 
anatomical apparatus responsible for 
cyanide production. 

Previous workers had shown that 

31 




IiJi+HCK 



(Benzaldehydi 
& Hydrogen 
cyanide) 



Mid-body segments reveal the opening 
of the gland and droplets of secretion. 





Reservoir and vestibule of the gland 
are joined by a narrow duct, but the 

32 



contents are divided by a springlike 
valve that keeps duct tightly closed. 



the poison is the product of special 
glands. A millipede does not possess 
just one such gland, but a whole bat- 
tery of them. They are distributed in 
pairs, one pair per each of most body 
segments, and their openings are 
clearly visible as tiny pores on the 
flattened dorsolateral lobes that pro- 
ject from the body above the legs. 
When a millipede is irritated, droplets 
of liquid are seen to ooze from the 
pores, and from these droplets hydro- 
gen cyanide emanates as a gas. 

After carefully dissecting the indi- 
vidual glands, we were able to study 
their anatomy in detail. What we 
found delighted us, because it con- 
formed precisely to expectations : each 
gland was indeed a two-compart- 
mented organ. The larger of the two 
compartments, ivhich we called the 
reservoir, is a thin-walled sac, ordi- 
narily filled to capacity with a liquid 
secretion. The smaller compartment— 
we termed this the vestibule— is also 
liquid-filled and is interposed between 
the reservoir and the gland opening. 
Reservoir and vestibule are joined by 
a narrow duct, but their contents are 
ordinarily held apart because of a 
springlike valve that keeps the duct 
tightly occluded at its junction with 
the vestibule. Associated with this 
valve is a special muscle, whose func- 
tion is obviously to clear the duct by 
opening the valve. 

In order to envision how the gland 



DiAcnAM, below, shows llie (?luii«l» of 
111 Aitlu'loria. These are <Iit,tril)iile<l in 
[)iiiiH, one pair for eai-h hody seninent. 
Gland openiiiKK look like small pores. 
Cheniislry of cyanonenic niechaniBni 
is seen in diuBruninialic rendering, laft. 




0.001 ml. of fluid. However, after ex- 
lisin;.' the individual (.ompartrnents 
ihroufih careful dissection and drain- 
ing,' their contents on filter paper, a 
variety of "spot tests" were made that 
yielded valuable information. For in- 
stance, we added to the droplets of 
secretion minute amounts of chemical 
indicators sensitive to cyanide, and ob- 
served (with a microscope) the result- 
ing color reactions that developed on 
the fdter paper. This showed that 
neither the contents of the reservoir, 
nor those of the vestibule, ordinarily 
release hydrogen cyanide. But if the 
compartments were drained together 



effects its discharge, one need only 
imagine the simultaneous occurrence 
of two events: compression of the res- 
ervoir, and contraction of the muscle 
that inserts on the valve. The result 
is obvious. The secretion in the reser- 
voir, channeled through the vestibule 
and mixed with its contents, is forced 
to the outside. 

OUR hypothesis could now be taken 
one step further. The reservoir, 
being the larger of the two compart- 
ments, might logically be expected to 
be the source of the undissociated cy- 
anogenic compound; the vestibule, in 
turn, could supply the enzyme that 
catalyzes the dissociation. Tlie droplet 
that emerges from the gland at the 
instant of discharge would thus inevi- 
tably be a cyanide-liberating mixture. 
We already had circumstantial evi- 
dence that reservoir and vestibule pro- 
duce different substances. The secre- 
tory cells associated with the two 
compartments are of very different 
structure, and it seemed inconceivable 
that they might be engaged in similar 
synthetic efforts. The desirable thing 
would have been to study the contents 
of the two compartments by direct 
chemical analysis, but this would have 
been a laborious task. The compart- 
ments are, after all, very small. Even 
the "large" reservoir measures only 
about 0.7 mm. in its longest dimen- 
sion, and it usually holds less than 



on the paper, mixing' their contents, 
cyanogenesis began at once. 

Other tests were made in which 
special enzymes were used that are 
known to promote the dissociation of 
certain types of cyanide-containing 
molecules. Added to the droplets of 
secretion, these enzymes caused libera- 
tion of hydrogen cyanide from the 
contents of the reservoir, but not from 
those of the vestibule. This and other 
similar tests proved conclusively that 
the reservoir is the source of the undis- 
sociated cyanogenic precursor, while 
the vestibule supplies the factor (pre- 
sumably an enzyme) that triggers cy- 




MuscLE-OPERATED valve can be clearly 
seen in this highly magnified picture 



of the vestibule. When the duct opens, 
chemicals combine to form poison gas. 

33 




'^^ 



Millipede, which has not emitted gas, 
is attacked by a colony of ants, above 




Noxious fluid oozes from the pores 
of this millipede, Narceous gordanus. 



anogenesis. The hypothesis seemed to 
be confirmed once again. 

Our next attempt was to identify the 
cyanogenic compound in the reser- 
voir. We are not a particularly patient 
lot, and the prospects of dissecting 
hundreds of reservoirs for chemical 
analysis appealed to no one. We de- 
cided instead to concentrate our ef- 
forts on the discharged secretion, on 
the assumption that the basic frame- 
work of the cyanogenic molecule 
would remain as an intact residue even 
after cyanide liberation had run its 
course. We had to collect massive 
amounts of secretion, but "milking" 
millipedes is no unpleasant task. Capil- 
lary tubes are simply pressed against 



the gland openings, and the millipede 
responds in a co-operative fashion by 
shooting its secretion into the tubes. 
The analysis revealed the presence 
of a compound, benzaldehyde, which 
indeed has the ability to bind cyanide. 
The combination, mandelonitrile, ap- 
peared to be the molecule we were 
after. To clinch matters, additional 
analyses were made on discharged 
secretion that was only minutes old. 
Enough undissociated mandelonitrile 
was still present in this sample to per- 
mit its positive identification. This is 
as far as we took our chemical work, 
and the story is summarized in the ac- 



Secretion with the odor of camphor is 
produced, below, by a Polyzonium sp. 




loiiipaiiyinj; diajiiani. (^yaiiitk; pro- 
duction in Aphfloria is cvidi'iitly a 
iriosl clej^aiil nicchanism. Ilydi (j;;cii 
cyanide would he very dillicult to store 
as such. It is hij^hly toxic, and awk- 
ward to "hottle" because of its high 
vapor pressure. Mandelonitrile per- 
mits the animal to store its poison in a 
stable form, withheld until its dissocia- 
tion is triggered by the discharge. 

Apheloria can exercise remarkable 
control over the operation of its de- 
fenses. When it is disturbed, it does 
not usually discharge from all glands 
at once, but only from those closest 
to the region of the body subjected 
to disturbance. Thus, when a single leg 
is stimulated, say by pinching it gently 
with forceps, only the gland nearest 
that leg will eject secretion. Similarly, 
when two or three legs are pinched 
simultaneously, then only the two or 
three glands next to these legs are 
brought into action. Only when the 
entire body of the millipede is handled 
persistently and roughly are all glands 
discharged synchronously. The animal 
is evidently adapted to cope not only 
with large predators, which can prob- 
ably be repelled only by a multiple 
dose of secretion, but also with smaller 
predators such as ants, in response to 
which it might be superfluous and 
wasteful to discharge from more than 
a few glands at a time. But the real 
effectiveness of the glands did not be- 
come apparent until we exposed milli- 
pedes to actual predators. 

We usually have in our laboratories 
captive colonies of ants, which we use 
for a variety of experimental purposes. 



Phenol is secreted by this Abacion 
magnum, a millipede about 7 cm. long. 



I lie colonies arc housed in glass cages, 
but the ants have access to large 
wooden platforms thai serve as their 
foraging arenas. It was on these plat- 
forms that we staged the "battles" be- 
tween ants and millipedes. No sooner 
was a millipede released in the arena, 
than the ants rushed upon it, biting its 
legs with their mandibles, and other- 
wise assailing it from all quarters. The 
millipede made no effort to flee. Quite 
to the contrary, it usually came to an 
abrupt halt, tyjjically with its front 
end coiled vcnlrally beneath the body. 
Next a dramatic thing happened. The 
entire ant swarm suddenly dispersed, 
the indi\ idual ants fleeing aimlessly in 
all directions. During their escape 
they were seen to drag their mouth- 
parts against the substrate, in an obvi- 
ous attempt to cleanse themselves. 
Each had evidently received a "dose" 
of poison, and the millipede— its back 
now glistening with the droplets of 
secretion that had oozed from its 
glands— was free to make its escape. 
For minutes thereafter, it remained in- 
vulnerable to further attack. Ants at- 
tempting to approach it would at once 
turn and flee, in obvious avoidance of 
the poisonous fumes. Even as long as 
twenty minutes after discharge, the 
ants would still be repelled by direct 
contact with the millipede. 

THIS prolonged invulnerability was 
puzzling at first, since by the end 
of the twenty minutes the discharged 
mandelonitrile should have completed 
its dissociation and hydrogen cyanide 
liberation come to an end. However, 
it could be shown that the residual 
benzaldehyde is also obnoxious to ants 



and, since it evaporates rather slowh. 
remains on the millipede as a persii?!- 
ent repellent that outlasts the initial 
cyanogenic phase of the discharge. 
Thus, the millipede is endowed, as jl 
were, with two lines of defense. At 
first, it relies primarily on the action 
of hydrogen cyanide, which keeps anty 
at a distance, and later it depends on 
benzaldehyde, which repels them on 
contact. Twenty minutes is a consider- 
able period of time, obviously long 
enough for the millipede to make 
its escape. Prolonged invulnerability 
could be of particular importance 
where predators such as ants are in- 
volved, as they are likely to attack in 
groups rather than singly. The alter- 
native—short-range invulnerability— 
could place the millipede in the predic- 
ament of being forced to deplete its 
entire secretory supply in a quick se- 
quence of discharges, and it might 
never survive the first attack by an ant 
colony. This is of particular impor- 
tance, as it takes several days for a 
totally depleted gland to refdi. 

-Actually, Apheloria does not always 
escape after a discharge. When the 
animal is handled, it often coils its 
entire body into a tight spiral, and 
it may remain in this condition for 
some time after discharging (thirty 
seconds is not unusual), even if left 
to itself and no longer molested. It is 
as if the animal, in "anticipation" of 
further disturbance, was seeking shel- 
ter within the repellent cloud of its 
own poisonous fumes. If a coiled milli- 
pede is poked at intervals, it may re- 
main coiled indefinitely. This behavior 
has obvious survival value for an ani- 
mal that lives in cramped habitats— 









g-tiw »»^s» »- 



^..•'•-■^j-^-*.- 






■■ysm-M:- 







under rocks, logs, in leaf litter— where 
escape might be difficult, but where the 
vapors of the secretion are likely to 
accumulate rather than dissipate. 

Additional tests were made in which 
individual Apheloria were exposed to 
only a few ants at a time. This served 
to confirm what we already suspected 
from having irritated the millipedes 
manually: a localized traumatic stimu- 
lus elicits only a localized response 
from a few appropriate glands. When- 
ever an individual ant was observed to 
bite a millipede's leg, the ensuing dis- 
charge was invariably restricted to the 
gland or glands nearest that leg. 

Apheloria is also protected against 
amphibians. Toads to which the milli- 
pedes were offered promptly pursued 
them and struck at them in typical 
fashion with their sticky tongues. But 
the millipedes were usually not swal- 
lowed. In what often amounted to a 
most grotesque gesture, the toad would 
spit out the millipede, as at right, and 
then, in obvious discomfort, would 
sometimes be left "pawing" its tongue 
with the front feet. 

OTHER predators, which included 
carabid beetles, blue jays, arma- 
dillos, opossums, and skunks, were 
also tested. All of them showed some 
"dislike" for the millipedes. Their dis- 
crimination was not always absolute, 
but usually, if offered a choice between 
Apheloria and more palatable prey, 
their preference was for the latter. (If 
offered only a millipede, they usually 
rejected it, although sometimes they 
ate a portion of it.) All the evidence 
seemed to point to the very consider- 
able effectiveness of Apheloria s de- 
fenses. Still, we know from having 
found dead millipedes in nature with 
injuries that were clearly predator- 
inflicted, that some of them do suc- 
cumb to attack. We never discovered 
the predators involved, although we 
suspect that in a number of cases they 
were rodents. 

Millipedes are a very diverse group, 
and not all of them produce hydrogen 
cyanide. However, the overwhelming 
majority do have glands, situated in 
pairs along their bodies as in Aphe- 
loria, and similarly serving for de- 
fense. Their secretions have been the 
subject of some research, both in our 
laboratories and elsewhere, and it is 
becoming increasingly apparent that 



Toad violently rejects one millipede 
that it has just struck with its tongue. 



the active principles they contain are 
of very different kinds. There are, for 
instance, certain millipedes that pro- 
duce benzoquinones, a most toxic 
group of compounds, with vapors that 
are highly irritating to the exposed 
surfaces of the face, and to the eyes 
in particular. These quinones have the 
peculiar ability of tanning human 
skin, and many a collector of milli- 
pedes is aware of the purple color his 
fingers are likely to assume after a 
day's hunt. Other millipedes produce 
p-cresol, a phenolic compound with 



strong odor that is powerfully repel- 
lent to predators. Still others produce 
a secretion with an odor unmistakably 
reminiscent of camphor. We are cur- 
rently studying this secretion, but have 
yet to identify its constituents (we do 
know that camphor is not present). 
Finally, there are some millipedes that 
apparently have no glands. We re- 
cently received some of these from 
South Africa. Interestingly, they coil 
up tightly when disturbed, in much the 
same fashion as do the familiar sow 
bugs and the armadillos. They differ 



36 




from millipedes such as Aphdoria in 
that not a single ap|)en(hige is exposed 
when ihey are coiled; lliey arc virtu- 
ally invuliierahle lo ants, which can 
iiiid no hold for their mandibles. This 
siuif^ coiling is obviously a defensive 
behavior, and makes up in part for the 
lack of glands. 

There is a point woith meiilioning 
concerning those millipedes that pro- 
duce non-cyanogenic secretions. Their 
glands resemble those of Aphdoria in 
that they have a reservoir, a duct that 
drains it, and a terminal valve oper- 



ated by a single muscle. But they have 
no trace of a vestibule. This second 
compartment is absent apparently be- 
cause the compounds discharged by 
these glands (quinones, phenols, etc.) 
are stored as such in the reservoirs, 
and do not require chemical activation 
al the moment of ejection. 

There is still much to be learned 
alx^ut the defenses of millipedes. Per- 
haps some day, when we know more 
about them, it will be possii)le to re- 
construct the <dn iously elaborate evo- 
lutionary history that led to the diver- 



sibcation of tfie glands and tlieir 
secretions. .Millipedes are an all-too- 
often neglected group of animals, and 
what we do know about tlieir biology 
is pitifully meager. E\en Aphdoria 
has left us with several critical ques- 
tions unanswered. Why is it that this 
animal is apparently completely in- 
sensitive to cyanide? After a dis- 
charge it is literally immersed in its 
poisonous fumes. How does it cope 
with the cyanide that must inevitably 
seep into its body through the respira- 
tory system. As yet, we do not know. 




.^ .JfB^ 




SKY 
REPORTER 

Andromeda galaxy dominates 
our view of distant universe 

By Thomas D. Nicholson 

IN our discussion last month, we saw that our Galaxy, 
the Milky Way, is truly an island of stars in the uni- 
verse, surrounded by empty, starless space. But across that 
space, at distances measured in millions of light-years, 
there are other islands like our own, other galaxies of 
varying sizes, shapes, and distances. They surround our 
Galaxy in every direction in the universe and for as far as 
Ave can see into that universe. 

There are hundreds of millions of these exterior galaxies, 
and each has its own population of billions of stars. Al- 
though all are immense and brilliant objects, shining with 
the combined brightness of their individual stars, they 
are so distant from us that only a few can be seen without 
the aid of a telescope. 

One of these few is dimly visible as a faint, oval haze 
in the direction of the constellation Andromeda. In late 
March it is visible low in the northeastern sky just before 
dawn, while in the early evenings of the autumn it is seen 
high— almost overhead— in the sky. Because we see it in 
the same direction as we see the stars of Andromeda, we 
call the object the Great Galaxy in Andromeda. However, 
it is not really among the stars that make up that con- 
stellation. We see it through and beyond those stars and 
through the starless space that surrounds them. 

It is this object— the Great Galaxy in Andromeda— that 
The American Museum-Hayden Planetarium astronomers 
have chosen as the Seventh Wonder of the Universe. It is 
not the largest galaxy we know, nor is it the nearest. But 
it is the nearest of those giant galaxies that are almost 
equal in brightness and mass to our own, and it is the only 
exterior galaxy in northern skies visible to unaided eyes. 
It is also the most impressive object of its kind that astrono- 
mers have photographed from earth. And the Great Galaxy 
in Andromeda is of tremendous historical significance in 
astronomy, for it was the first such object to be definitely 
identified as being outside of the Milky Way. 

Until the early 1920's, there was no clear evidence 
whether the faint, oval object seen among the stars of 
Andromeda (and other similar ones observed telescopically 
in other parts of the sky) was a very distant object among 
the stars of our Galaxy or w'hether it was beyond the Milky 
Way. Until then, such objects were still classed as nebulae 
—a term referring to any indistinct, extended region of 
brightness seen among the stars. However, many astrono- 
mers suspected that these bodies were made of stars, not of 
gas and dust clouds. In their spectra, they exhibited the 
same kind of absorption lines as star clusters, and also 
showed emission features similar to those of gaseous nebu- 
lae. Novae, explosive stars that increase quickly in bright- 

38 




Great Galaxy in Andromeda, above, is close in size to the 
Milky Way. Two small, bright masses are satellite galaxies. 



Small bright foreground stars, right, are in constellatioj 
Andromeda. Nebulous patches beyond are arms of galaxj 



Center region of the galaxy, seen below, shows the narrow 
lanes of dark gas extending from the arms to the nucleus. 






ness, were often ubsened in them. And, subsequent to 
1918, when the 100-ineh Hooker telescope went into opera- 
tion on Mount Wilson, California, a few— principally the 
object seen in Andromeda— were at least partly resolved 
into what looked like individual stars. Since many were 
observed to have a spiral structure, they were called spiral 
nebulae to distinguish them from other, clearly gaseous 
nebulae that were seen among the stars of the Milky Way. 

THE debate on the nature of the spiral nebulae was finally 
resolved by Edwin P. Hubble, of the Mount Wilson 
Observatory. Over a number of years of observation with 
the 100-inch telescope, Hubble was able to take photo- 
o-raphs of the spiral nebula in Andromeda, and he observed 
what appeared to be clear, starlike condensations in the 
outer parts of the spiral structure. Then, in photographs 
taken in 1923 and 1924, Hubble found in several of these 
starlike spots changes of brightness that matched the light 
variations in certain classes of stars observed in the Milky 
Way. He proceeded to establish without question that 
these were Cepheid-type variable stars, and that their light 
period (the interval in which they repeated their fluctua- 
tions of brightness) established their absolute magnitudes, 
as it did for similar stars within the MUky Way. Absolute 
magnitude is a measure of the true brightness of a star, 
but" its brightness as observed from the earth-called ap- 
parent magnitude-may be considerably less because of 
the dimming effect of distance. When Hubble measured 
the apparent magnitudes of the variable stars in the spiral 
nebula, he was able to determine the distance to the stars 
and thus to the object in which they were located. 

39 



Dr. Nicholson is Assistant Chairman, Astronomer, and a 
lecturer at The American Museum-Hayden Planetarium. 



Galaxies clustered in Hercules appear in many positions. 
Elongated bright streaks are spiral galaxies seen edge-on. 

In 1924, Hubble derived a distance of 900,000 light- 
years for the spiral nebula in Andromeda. As we saw in 
the February "Sky Reporter," the Milky Way extends 
no more than about 70,000 light-years from us in any 
direction. The distance derived by Hubble showed that 
the spiral nebula was located far outside of the Milky Way, 
and that it was actually a separate island of stars in the 
vastness of the distant universe. At the distance he esti- 
mated, however, the spiral in Andromeda would have 
been about 30,000 light-years in diameter, considerably 
smaller than the Milky Way. It appeared, at least for a 
time, that if the spiral object in the direction of Andromeda 
were indeed another "island" universe, then ours must 
be a "continent" universe. 

THE apparent difference between the spiral nebula in 
Andromeda and our own Galaxy was resolved in time, 
partly because estimates of the size of our Galaxy were 
revised downward from Shapley's early work and partly 
because the distance to the spiral nebula in Andromeda 
has been revised upward several times since Hubble's 
first estimate in 1924. Each revision of distance propor- 
tionately increased the size of the object that we observed 
until, with the revisions in the extragalactic distance scale 
calculated by Walter Baade in 1952, the size of the object 
in Andromeda became comparable with the size of the 
Milky Way itself. This removed the last vestige of doubt 
in the minds of astronomers; the system of stars that they 
observed in Andromeda was a galaxy like our own, com- 
parable in every way. It was no longer appropriate to 
refer to it as a spiral nebula, although in tribute to tradi- 
tion this designation is still sometimes used. The nebula had 

40 



become a full-fledged galaxy, and as such it has since been 
described properly in the literature-the Great Galaxy 
in Andromeda. 

The other spirals also eventually were known as other 
galaxies, although the term galaxy is not restricted to ob- 
jects that exhibit a spiral form. Many galaxies are irregular 
in form, with no evidence of similar structure at all, and 
many others are spherical or elliptical in appearance. Even 
the spirals themselves vary widely in structure, from those 
with only two loosely curving arms of stars to others with 
multiple arms so tightly wound that it is difficult to distin- 
guish them. The term galaxy does not refer to any object 
of any specific size or shape or structure, but rather to an 
island of stars in the universe, separated from the other 
islands of stars by vast stretches of starless space. So far 
as we have yet determined, the galaxies are the basic 
building blocks of the universe. It is into galaxies that stars, 
gas, dust, and planets-if planets are present in galaxies 
other than our own-are organized. The distances between 
galaxies are so great as to be almost incomprehensible. 

WHEN we began our series last August on The Seven 
Wonders of the Universe, we said that the objects 
were chosen so that, among other things, they would repre- 
sent the architecture of the universe, so far as we presently 
know it. Now, seven months later, it may be interesting to 
see how well we have done. 

We started with the face of the moon, about a quarter 
of a million miles from the world we live on. Then we 
looked at the rings of Saturn, located in the solar system, 
about 1,000 million miles from the earth. Next we selected 
a field of stars and interstellar gas-the Orion region- 
where the stars are separated by distances of 25,000,000 
million miles or more. In Orion, we found evidence of the 
birth of stars, and then, in the Crab Nebula, we saw the 
events that accompany the death of a star. The Fifth Won- 
der was the Globular Cluster in Hercules, and we saw how 
the system of globular clusters identified our position in 
the galaxy in which we live, the Milky Way. This was the 
Sixth Wonder, the island of stars in the universe that we 
call our Galaxy. And finally we have looked beyond our 
island of stars and the space around it and found another 
island similar to ours. 

This Seventh Wonder, the Great Galaxy in Andromeda, 
has shown us something of the fundamental structure of 
the universe, where other galaxies, similar to ours, are 
separated by distances of 10,000,000,000,000 million miles. 
In closing the series, we might consider what we could 
choose as the Eighth Wonder, if we should search for it. 
Is the universe we now observe only a part of an even 
larger cosmos? Some astronomers have speculated about 
the possible existence of a metagalaxy, as this larger struc- 
ture might be called. There are objects of a nature that 
we still do not understand in the universe, such as the 
objects we call quasars— not clearly stars or galaxies, but 
seeming to possess some of the properties of each. We do 
not yet know, but neither should we assume that our 
present knowledge of the universe represents the end of the 
search. If there is one thing that the astronomy of past 
centuries has taught us, it is that there is much more to learn. 



tf^/; ; 



. »oMiw v»n 






lUCNirUDE SCALf 
>^.-0.1 and brighter 
^ to H0.9 
<> +1.0to+1.9 

* +2.0 to +2.9 
•f +3.0 to +3.9 

• +4.0 and fainter 






""•^ A\ 






■'*:*;;-;•*-*■ 



'* ;•- + / 






March 3, 4:56 A.M., EST 
March 10, 12:52 P.M., EST 
h 17, 6:24 A.M., EST 
h 24, 8:37 P.M., EST 



TIMETABLE 

March 1 11:00 P.M. 
March 15 10:00 P.M. 
March 31 9:00 P.M. 



March 7-8: Jupiter and the moon reverse positions in the 
evening sl<y on these nights. On the 7th, the moon is to the 
right (west) of Jupiter; they are in conjunction at 10:00 a.m., 
EST, on the 8th, and on the evening of the 8th, the moon 
appears to the left (east) of Jupiter. 

IVlarch 9: IVlars is at opposition this morning, in line with 
earth and sun, but in the opposite direction from the sun. 

March 11: Mars is nearest earth at 8:00 p.m., EST, at a 
distance of about 62,100,000 miles. This is about the greatest 
distance that earth and Mars are separated when they are 
at opposition. 

March 16: An occultation of the moon and Mars occurs 
today, but only in Arctic regions, including portions of Alaska. 
For the rest of the world it appears as a close conjunction 
about noon, EST, with Mars slightly south of the moon. In the 
evening. Mars will be the bright red object to the right (west) 
of the nearly full moon. 

March 20: The sun arrives at the vernal equinox at 3:05 
P.M., EST, and spring commences in the Northern Hemisphere, 



while autumn begins throughout the Southern Hemisphere. 

March 21: For several nights before and after this date, 
observers may see Mercury as a bright object (magnitude 
near zero) in the western sky after sundown. Mercury reaches 
greatest easterly elongation from the sun this evening. This 
is a favorable elongation, since the planet does not set until an 
hour and three-quarters after sunset. 

March 30: Saturn may be seen as a morning star just before 
sunrise in the eastern sky. Saturn and the moon are in conjunc- 
tion at 8:00 a.m., EST. Look for Saturn above and to the left of 
the crescent moon in the east just about dawn this morning. 

Jupiter and Mars dominate the evening sky this month. 
Jupiter appears in the southwest as darkness comes on, and 
it sets before midnight. In Taurus, it has a magnitude of about 
—1.8. Mars is in the sky all night during March. It rises about 
sunset and appears as a reddish star of about magnitude 
—1.0, and is in the south about midnight, setting at dawn. 
Mercury may be seen for about a week as an evening star, 
and Saturn, at month's end, is observable as a morning star. 



X 



APPENDAGE 




ANTHERIDIA 



Laboulbenia texana Thaxter 



•»i fc 



~) 



\ 



/ 



Carabids {Brachnius spp.) from both 
Americas are infested by this fungus. 






Study in Specificity 

Minute fungi parasitize living artliropods 



By Richard K. Benjamin 

THE order Laboulboniales is a well- 
tlefiiied, yet exliemely diversified, 
group of minute parasitic fungi that 
develops only on the integument of liv- 
ing arthropods— mostly true insects 
and miles. All mcndjers of the order 
are relatively small and inconspicuous. 
Some consist simply of a few definitely 
arranged cells bearing one or more re- 
productive structures, and in only a 
few species do individuals exceed a 
length of one millimeter. Most species 
of Laboulbeniales are restricted to a 
single host species or a few closely re- 
lated species. Some are able to grow 
only on a very limited area of the host 
body, and several are known to infect 
only the male or female of the host, 
never both. In number of species, this 
group of fungi eventually may prove 
to be the largest in existence, yet it is 
well known only to a few professional 
mycologists. Surprisingly, these fungi 
rarely have attracted the serious at- 
tention of entomologists. The latter, 
however, have been largely responsi- 
ble for the collection of much of the 
material upon which our understand- 
ing of these remarkable organisms is 
based. None of these fungi is known to 
do any serious damage to its host, and 
they apparently play no part in con- 
trolling insects in nature. 

Laboulbenia rougetii Montagne & 
Robin, the first species of the order to 
be described, was correctly placed 
among the pyrenomycetous fungi by 
the Frenchmen Jean Montagne and 
Charles Robin in 1853 when they 
jointly published its description. The 
name, like those of many plants and 
animals, is commemorative and hon- 
ors two contemporary French ento- 
mologists, Alex Laboulbene and Au- 
gusta Rouget. In the 1840's these men 
were known to have observed similar 
fungi growing on insects. Both, how- 
ever, viewed the organisms only as 
possible plant parasites of uncertain 
relationships and they did not name 
or attempt to classify any of the forms 
they encountered. Indeed, there were 



some biologists during this era who 
believed these objects were nothing 
more than abnormal excrescences of 
the insects themselves. 

During the following three decades 
several additional species were de- 
scribed, and the first serious taxo- 
nomic studies were carried out by J. 
Peyritsch, a German, in the early 
1870's. In 1873, Peyritsch formally 
characterized the Laboulbeniaceae, 
one of the three families of the order 
generally recognized at the present 
time. In 1890, there a|)peared the first 
of a long series of studies by the great 
Harvard mycologist R. Thaxter. Dur- 
ing the next forty years, Thaxter pub- 
lished numerous papers and five mag- 
nificently illustrated monographs in 
which he described 95 of the 113 
genera recognized by the writer, and 
some 1,250 of the approximately 1,500 
species now known. 

As members of the class Ascomy- 
^ cetes, all true Laboulbeniales re- 
produce by spores formed in special 
saclike structures called asci. These 
are borne within usually elongate, 
flask-shaped structures, termed peri- 
thecia, that have a single apical open- 
ing through which the ascospores 
emerge when mature. In many species 
the opening, or ostiole. of the perithe- 
cium is subtended by one or more out- 
growths, or "trigger organs," thought 
to play a role in spore discharge when 
contact is made with a new host. Al- 
though there is an almost unending 
diversity of form among the fruiting 
bodies in the various genera, there is 
a remarkable uniformity in the struc- 
ture of the ascospore. Typically, it is 
elongate, somewhat acicular (needle- 
like), and two-celled. Four or eight 
ascospores, depending on the species, 
are formed in each ascus. 

Spore transmission in these fungi 
apparently is brought about mostly by 
direct contact of an infected host with 
another host. With regard to its sub- 
sequent development on the host, the 
ascospore, prior to discharge, is ori- 
ented in the perithecium with its usu- 



Ceratomyces ansatus Thaxter 




APPENDAGE 



RECEPTACLE 



Many cells in each row of wall cells 
in perithecium characterize this genus. 

43. 



ANTHERIDIA 




APPENDAGE 



BASAL CELLS 
STALK-CELL 




APPENDAGE! 



■■% 



PERITHECIUM 



■RECEPTACLE 



Laboulbenia flagellata Peyritscfi 





/ 

FOOT 



Immature individual, above, and mature, right, represent 
one in about 400 species in the large genus Laboulbenia. 



Laboulbenia flagellata Peyritsch 



Genus has wide host range and has been found on members 
of six orders of true insects and on one family of mites. 




ally longer basal cell uppermost. Thus, 
when spore transmission is effected the 
basal cell actually contacts the host 
first. Also, the spore is surrounded by 
a thin, gelatinous sheath that probably 
protects it following discharge and 
assists in affixing it to the host. 

SPORE germination, which in some 
instances may begin within the 
perithecium, consists simply of the for- 
mation by the basal cell of a sucker- 
like, often blackened organelle— the 
foot. When favorably situated on a 
susceptible host, the foot produces a 
tiny rhizoidal process, a rootlike fila- 
ment called the haustorium, that per- 
forates the cuticular layers of the host 
insect's integument. With rare excep- 
tions the haustorium appears to pene- 
trate no farther than the living cells of 
the epidermal layer immediately below 
the cuticle. In a few species that grow 
on soft-bodied insects such as flies, a 
simple or branched rhizoid may in- 
vade deeper tissues of the host. 

Following spore germination, the 
fungus body, or thallus, develops. In 
the Laboulbeniales this is unlike that 



ML. 



Laboulbenia ecitonis Blum 



Brazilian ant, two species of mites 
found on that ant, plus a beetle that 
lives in the ant's nest are all hosts 
to Laboulbenia ecitonis Blum, left. 



PEHITHKCIUM- 



APPENDAGEv 




J 



ASCOSPORES 



■TRIGGER ORGAN 



RECEPTACLE 



\M. 



Zodiomyces vortice//ar/u^B|xter 



Elongate "buffer organs" apparently serve to hold body 
of fungus erect on surface of water scavenger beetle hosts. 




PERITHECIUM 



. STALK-CELL 



Dio/comyces spin/gerus Thaxter 



RECEPTACLE 



AscosPORES leave the female individual (magnified X350). 
The "trigger organ" probably aids in discharge of spores. 



found in the majority of ascomycetes 
or in higher fungi in general. In most 
fungi— even in specialized parasites— 
the vegetative portion of the thallus 
typically consists of a mass of inter- 
woven, threadlike filaments (hyphae) 
called the mycelium. This mycelium 
usually ramifies more or less exten- 
sively throughout the substratum prior 
to the formation of the more conspicu- 
ous spore-bearing structures. In the 
Laboulbeniales, however, after the 
ascospore becomes established on the 
host, the original two cells of the spore 
undergo divisions that often follow 
one another so precisely that develop- 
ment of the fungus may be traced cell 
by cell. This leads to the formation of 
a cellular body termed the receptacle. 
The latter varies greatly in complexity 
from genus to genus. In many genera, 
such as Autophagomyces and Stigma- 
tomyces, it consists of only two cells. 
The lower cell forms the foot that at- 
taches the fungus to the host, and the 
upper cell gives rise to a lateral, 
stalked perithecium and a simple ter- 
minal appendage consisting of several 
superimposed cells bearing one or 
several male sexual organs. In other 
genera the receptacle may consist of 
many cells. Zodiomyces has a more or 
less massive receptacle made up of 
hundreds of cells that form a terminal, 
cuplike depression within which a 



large number of reproductive organs 
and sterile filamentous appendages are 
produced. On the other hand, the re- 
ceptacle of Filariomyces is an elongate 
filament consisting of an indefinite 
number of superimposed cells. se\eral 
of which bear male or female repro- 
ductive structures. 

Many, but not all, species of Laboul- 
beniales exhibit an apparently well- 
developed sexual mechanism. This 
involves tiny male cells, called sperma- 
tia, that are transferred passively to a 
receptive structure, the trichogyne, 
which terminates the female sexual 
organ. The female organ usually is 
produced by a cell of the receptacle, 
whereas the male cells most frequently 
are formed from certain specialized 
cells, called antheridia, which are 
borne on the appendages (page 46). 
However, in a few instances the an- 
theridia, like the female organs, may 
arise from cells of the receptacle. 

THE characteristics of the male 
structures, or antheridia, are cur- 
rently used to distinguish families 
within the order. In the Ceratomyce- 
taceae. presumably the most primitive 
family of Laboulbeniales, the anther- 
idia are simply special cells of the 
appendages. These form tiny, bacte- 
rium-like branchlets that are readily 
detached and function as spermatia. 



(Because they arise on the ouLside of 
the antheridia, they are said to be exo- 
genous. In contrast, the spermatia of 
the other two families are termed en- 
dogenous because they are formed in- 
side the antheridia. I Antheridia of 
the Laboulbeniaceae are unicellular 
and more or less flask-shaped. Each 
produces a succession of spermatia 
that are extruded directly to the out- 
side through a single opening. Finally, 
in the Pevritschiellaceae the antheridia 
are termed compound because they 
consist of a cluster of few to many 
antheridial cells united in such a way 
that thev discharge their spermatia 
into a common chamber. The sperma- 
tia then pass to the outside through a 
single opening. Many Laboulbeniales 
have no known male structures, and 
inclusion of these forms in the above 
families must be based on other as- 
pects of their morpholog),'. Although 
the transfer of spermatia to tricho- 
gynes has been observed in many 
species, the actual process of fertiliza- 
tion by means of such cells has not 
been demonstrated in these fungi. 

In all members of the order, so far 
as is known at present, the mature fe- 
male sexual structure consists of three 
parts: a terminal trichogyne (from 
Gr. tricho- = hair -|- -gyne = a fe- 
male) ; a median trichophoric cell 
(from Gr. tricho- = hair + -phorus 

45 




Like species of many genera of Laboulbeniales, that on 
insect wing, above, develops on a definite area of the host. 



This species is found on left wing of flies of the genus 
llythea. A related species occurs only on the right wing. 



SPERMATIA 




Synandromyces psammoechi Thaxter Ceratomycetaceae (Drepanomyces) 



Peyritschiellaceae (Dichomyces) 



Female SEXUAL organ as represented by one species, has Three male structures bear spermatia (A) on appendage 

highly developed tnchogyne and receptive prominences. cells; (B) in simple antheridia; (C) in compound antheridia. 

46 



= l)earing) ; and a basal carpogenic 
cell (UomCr. carpo- [carpus] = fruit 
-|- -genes = born, produceflj. The 
tricliogyne may be a single cell or a 
simple or branched structure com- 
posed of several cells. Us function is 
to intercept the male cells, or sperma- 
tia. The trichophoric cell is nothing 
more than a cell that supports the 
liicliogyne and through which, pre- 
sumably, the male nucleus migrates on 
its way from the trichogyne to the 
carpogenic cell. The latter eventually 
forms one, two, four, or more ascoge- 
nous cells, depending on the species. 
Each ascogenous cell contains two 
nuclei, as do the ascus-producing cells 
of most ascomycetes, and gives rise to 
a succession of asci by a budding 
process coupled with conjugate nu- 
clear division. 

A mature perithecium in species rep- 
resenting the majority of the genera 
of Laboulbeniales consists of exactly 
.37 cells. The elongate portion of the 
perithecium enclosing the asci is made 
up of two layers of 16 cells each. In 
turn, the cells of each layer are dis- 
posed in four longitudinal rows of 
four cells each. The body of the peri- 
thecium proper is subtended by five 
cells. Three circle its base, and the 
other two are superposed below these. 
The upper of the latter two cells is 
termed the secondary stalk cell and 
the lower is the stalk cell. Stalk cells 
may be relatively short or greatly 
elongated. In a few genera there may 
be five, seven, or an indeterminate 
number of cells in each row of the 
inner and outer rows of wall cells. As 
asci mature, the lower cells of the 
inner rows of wall cells usually be- 
come disorganized and disappear. 

IN some 16 genera of the order 
Laboulbeniales all known species 
are dioecious, or unisexual. In these 
the male and female sexual structures 
are borne on separate individuals. 
Often the individual bearing the male 
structure is only a little larger than 
the spore from which it develops. It 
may consist simply of a few super- 
posed cells terminating in a single 
antheridium, as in Dioicomyces of the 
family Laboulbeniaceae, or it may be 
considerably larger and bear numer- 
ous antheridia, as in Dimeromyces of 
the family Peyritschiellaceae. There 
are no known dioecious members 
among the third family— Ceratomyce- 
taceae. All other genera of Laboul- 
beniales in which male sexual struc- 



lurifs are known usually are bisexual. 
Doth the male and female organs are 
formed on the same individual; this 
condition is termed monoecious. 

Curiously, only animals belonging 
to the ph)luin Arthropoda are known 
to be parasitized by Laboulbeniales. 
Most of the described fungus species 
have been found on the true insects. 
A few, especially species of liickia and 
Dimeromyces, have been discovered 
on mites, and a single species, Trofilo- 
myces manjredli, has been reported on 
a millipede. Among insects, beetles 
(Coleoptera) have been most produc- 
tive of species and genera, but the 
fungi also have been found on rep- 
resentatives of eight other orders: 
Blattaria {cockroaches!; Dermaptera 
(earwigs); Diptera (flies); Hemip- 
tera (bugs); Hymenoptera (on ants 
only); Isoptera (termites): Mallo- 
phaga (biting lice); and Orthoptera 
I on crickets only ) . 

Among obligate parasites, both 
])lant and animal, there usually is a 
more or less well-developed host speci- 
ficity. The degree of specificity un- 
doubtedly is a function of the evolu- 
tionary age of the parasites in ques- 
tion. That is, the ancestors of those 
species that exhibit a high degree 
of host specificity had a long history 
of close association with their particu- 
lar host groups. This has led to such 
marked specialization on the part of 
many parasites that they may be limit- 



STERILE ^_ „ 

APPENOAGEv IH'Av 



PERITHECIUM 




RECEPTACLE 



Rove beetles are only known hosts of 
this genus containing about 30 species. 

ed to a single host species or at most 
to a few closely related ones. The selec- 
tive processes leading to extreme host 
specificity also lead to marked toler- 
ance bv the host to its parasites. Thus, 
in highlv specialized parasites, such as 
the Laboulbeniales. the tendency in- 
herent in many less successful para- 
sites to harm the host— that is. to be 
pathogenic— has all but disappeared. 
On the basis of present evidence, it 




\\a\vX\^^/^' 



Herpomyces tr/cuspidatus Thaxter 



Cockroaches are the hosts for this 
genus of 25 species, all dioecious. In 



species above, each perithecium has 
hornlike appendages below opening. 

47 




r^ 



Various parts of worker ant body are 
parashizedby Laboulheniaformicarujn. 

appears that most species of Laboul- 
beniales are closely restricted to single 
host species or to closely related spe- 
cies or genera. A few, like Laboul- 
benia vulgaris, may be able to infest 
a rather wide variety of related hosts, 
and this species, found throughout the 
world, has been reported on at least 
17 genera representing the tribes Tre- 
chini and Bembidiini of the Carabidae 
(ground beetles). Laboulbenia oris- 
tata, on the other hand, has an equally 
wide geographical distribution, but is 
found only on species of Paederus, a 
genus of rove beetles (Staphylinidae). 
Some genera, like Dimeromyces and 
Laboulbenia with about 85 and 400 
described species respectively, have a 
very wide host range and their repre- 
sentatives have been found not only 
on mites but on many families in sev- 
eral orders of insects as well. 

Other genera have very narrow host 
ranges. Coreomyces, with about 20 
species, is found only on members of 
the Corixidae, the well-known water 
boatmen, a family of aquatic bugs. 
Dichomyces, a rather large genus of 
about 30 species, is known only on 
rove beetles. Herpomyces, with 25 spe- 
cies, is found only on cockroaches, but 
its hosts include nine families of the 
order Blattaria. Outstanding examples 
of host specificity within a genus are 
found in Ilytheomyces ( 15 known spe- 
cies), which is restricted to a single 
genus of flies, Ilythea (family Ephyd- 
ridae), and Tetligomyces (15 de- 
scribed species) known only on mole 
crickets. Gryllotalpa spp. 

Insects often are parasitized exter- 
nally by other animals, and especially 
by mites. The mites, in turn, can be 

48 



parasitized by fungi. There are a few 
known instances in which a single spe- 
cies of Laboulbeniales has been found 
infesting widely unrelated hosts; in 
these cases, however, the dissimilar 
arthropods are intimately associated 
within their environment. For in- 
stance, beetles of the family Passalidae 
and their mite parasites are known to 
harbor the same species of Rickia, a 
genus of Laboulbeniales very common 
on mites associated with this group of 
insects. Laboulbenia ecitonis, one of 
the few species of the order that occur 
on Hymenoptera, was found in Brazil 
growing not only on an ant, Eciton 
quadriglume, but also on two genera 
of mites that were parasitizing the ant. 
The fungus also was parasitic on a 
beetle of the family Histeridae that 
was living in the ant's nest. These ex- 
ceptional cases of apparent lack of 
host specificity may indicate, not an 
absence of such specificity, but rather 
the possible evolution of a similar 
body chemistry in unrelated arthro- 
pods, resulting from a long period of 
intimate association. 

A given species of Laboulbeniales 
may be restricted not only to a single 
kind of insect but also to a definite 
location on the host integument. Many 
examples of such position specificity 
are known in the order. Both Ilytheo- 
myces manubriolatus and /. lingulatus 
may parasitize the same individual 
host-a species of fly of the genus 
Ilythea. The first grows only on the 
upper surface of the posterior basal 
region of the left wing; the second 
species always occupies a nearly cor- 
responding position on the right wing. 
A single individual of Tropisternus 
lateralis, a water beetle of the family 
Hydrophilidae, may be infested with 
as many as six species of Ceratomyces, 
each of which grows on one certain 
limited region of the exoskeleton. 

Even more interesting is the phe- 
nomenon of sex-of-host specificity, 
wherein the fungus may be limited not 
only to a given position on the animal 
body but also to one or the other sex 
of insect. Several years ago I had an 
opportunity to study a large series of 
specimens of an African water beetle, 
Orectogyrus specularis, which was in- 
fected with species of the fungus Chi- 
tonomyces. Many years earlier Profes- 
sor Thaxter had described 16 species 
of this genus, taken from representa- 
tives of the same collection of beetles. 
My preliminary studies indicated that 
only one of the 16 species was common 



.'i OUTER wall: 
CELLS d 



SPERMATiA 

1 ANTHERlDiUM 



A 



» ASCI 






BASAL CELLS 




K ANTHERIDIAL APPENDAGE 

Structure of immature perithecium in 
this section is at X500 magnification. 

to both males and females. One hun- 
dred specimens of each sex that were 
heavily infested by this parasite vf&re 
selected for further study. The identity 
of each species of fungus and its posi- 
tion of growth on the integument were 
carefully determined. It was found 
that of the remaining 15 species, nine 
were limited to female insects and six 
to males. There were no exceptions, 
and the position of growth of each 
species was so precise that its identity 
could be predicted in advance by not- 
ing its location on the host body! 

In another study of six species of 
Laboulbenia parasitizing a ground 
beetle {Bembidion picipes) , three 
species were found to be sex specific 
and three were not. Of the latter, 
however, one— Laboulbenia odobena— 
grew only on the outer anterior mar- 
gin of the right elytron (the anterior 
wing) of females and on the lower 
distal surface of the femur of the right 
anterior leg of males. 

EXPERIMENTAL studies offering ex- 
planations of the above specificity 
phenomena still are needed. In the 
case of Laboulbenia odobena on Bem- 
bidion picipes, location of the para- 
site appears to be correlated with the 
position assumed by the insects at the 
time of mating. Many species of 
Laboulbeniales probably are found on 
particular parts of the host integument 
as a result of direct transmission asso- 
ciated with certain behavior patterns 
of the insects involved. Among a num- J 
ber of the species that usually exhibit I 
rather marked position specificity, it 
is not uncommon to find isolated in- 
dividuals—normal in all aspects of 



D/meroniyces sp 



APPFNDAGCS 



PERITHECIIJM 




FEMALE 
RECEPTACLE 



-FEMALE FOOT 



Unnamed species of Dimeroinyces has 
separate male and female individuals. 

their morphology— growing randomly 
on their hosts. Specificity of other spe- 
cies undoubtedly is correlated with 
histochemical differences of the insect 
body. Herpomyces slylopygae nor- 
mally matures only on the antennae 
and less commonly on the mouthparts 
of its cockroach host, Blatta oiienlalis. 
Spores of this species often are depos- 
ited abundantly on other parts of the 
insect's body, but they rarely develop. 
The Laboulbeniales offer many chal- 
lenges to the biologist. Although a 
great many species and genera have 
been described, most of those actually 
existing probably are yet unknown. 
Relatively few of the nearly three- 
fourths of a million described species 
of insects have been examined for 
these parasites, and it has been esti- 
mated that only one-fifth— perhaps 
only one-tenth— of the insects actually 
living on earth have been discovered. 
Detailed developmental studies have 
been made on only a few of the known 
species of these fungi. Comparative 
morphological studies are essential to 
a better understanding of the possible 
interrelationships of organisms such 
as these for which a fossil record is 
lacking. Closely related insects often 
have closely related parasites. Thus, 
knowledge of the host range of the 
Laboulbeniales may, in the future, pro- 
vide an aid in elucidating problems of 
insect interrelationships. Finally, the 
various types of specificity encoun- 
tered in the Laboulbeniales should pre- 
sent numerous challenges to students 
of insect behavior as well as to the 
many physiologists and biochemists 
who are increasingly interested in the 
reasons underlying such phenomena. 



|^€W«i^ 



r 
ANTHERIDIA^'^'"i 




Simple, filamentous receptacle has perithecia and antheridial appendages, 
many superposed cells bearing stalked Species parasitizes one of the earwigs. 

49 



A King Snake Dines on a 




Exploring the egg, above, snake jUtked it with tongue for 
several minutes. The cloudy eye indicates partial blindness. 







^,^ 



A,_^rtic>^ 



-r* U''" 



Ux 



Its lower jaw employed as a scoop, above, snake holds 
egg with its teeth to compensate for lack of support. 



Head-on view, at right, shows flexibility of lower jaw, 
bones of which are joined in front by elastic ligament. 



50 



Photographs by Robert H. Wright 



The small California king snake {Lampropeltis 
getulus), shown on these pages devouring a spar- 
row egg, demonstrates the ability of many snakes to 
swallow objects that are substantially larger than the 
reptiles' heads. This ability depends, in turn, upon the 
snake's capacity to distend the mouth opening, but it is 
not essentially a matter of the snake being able to open 
its mouth inordinately wide. Rather, as shown by the 
photograph directly below, the lower jaw is primarily 
responsible for increasing the size of the mouth opening. 
The two halves of the jaw are not firmly joined in front. 
Instead, the bones are connected by an elastic ligament 
that allows lateral expansion of the lower jaw. Once a 
snake secures a large object in its mouth, small, movable 
bones in the upper jaw aid in drawing it into the dio-es- 
tive tract. A snake can swallow an egg without breakin<» 
it. Here— perhaps because the snake could not use the 
sides of a nest to help it secure the egg— the teeth in the 
roof of its mouth punctured the egg, allowing its con- 
tents to flow through the snake's nostrils. Depending 
upon the temperature and the amount of yolk it ingests, 
the snake may take hours or even days to digest a meal. 




sparrow Egg 



Naturalists' Notebook 



F/i'-n sIkU was punclurfd,''gg's conlfnts flfiwd llirouph 
nostrils. It look snukt: tivvliK minuH-s lo 





Spread of a Parasite 

Dwarf mistletoe fruits are effective propellants in seed dispersal 



By Frank C. Hawksworth 
and Thomas E. Hinds 

DWARFMISTLETOES, members of the 
mistletoe family Loranthaceae, 
are small, innocent-appearing plants 
that are actually among the most seri- 
ous forest enemies in the West. They 
are parasites that take root in conifer- 
ous trees only— pine, spruce, true fir, 
Douglas fir, hemlock, and larch— and 
kill more trees than any other disease 
in western coniferous forests. They 
also cause considerable loss of valu- 
able timber through reduced growth 
rates of infected trees. A forest pathol- 
ogist with the U.S. Forest Service re- 
cently estimated that the loss caused 
by these parasitic plants in the west- 
ern United States is about one billion 
board feet annually. This is enough 
wood to build 100.000 average homes. 
Each species of dwarfmistletoe is 
restricted to a particular host tree or 
group of closely related hosts. It may 
occasionally grow on other species of 
trees, but so infrequently that it does 
a negligible amount of damage. The 
dwarfmistletoe is leafless, and there- 
fore depends on its host for elaborated 
foods (carbohydrates, sugars, en- 

52 



zymes, vitamins, etc.), as well as for 
water and minerals. Most of the host's 
infected branches develop abnormally 
into "witches'-brooms," which are 
growths of unusual branching habit, 
often with dense foliage, that appro- 
priate food materials at the expense of 
the rest of the tree. Infected branches 
may become several times larger than 
uninfected branches, and they tend to 
persist long after uninfected branches 
are shaded out. The vigor of the tree's 
crown then declines, and premature 
death follows. 

THE family Loranthaceae contains 
some 40 genera and 1,300 species, 
all parasitic to some degree, and is 
most widely distributed in the tropics. 
Dwarfmistletoes (Arceuthobium ) , and 
leafy or Christmas mistletoes (Phora- 
dendron) are the two genera of the 
family that occur in the United States. 
Leafy mistletoes differ from dwarf- 
mistletoes in that they attack hard- 
wood trees principally, although sev- 
eral western species attack juniper and 
cypress. Another major difference is 
the dwarfmistletoe's explosive seed- 
dispersal mechanism. Leafy mistletoes 
depend on birds for spreading seeds. 
About a dozen species of dwarf- 



mistletoes are widespread in western 
North America from Guatemala to 
Alaska. One species occurs on spruce 
in the eastern United States and Can- 
ada from the Great Lakes to the Atlan- 
tic, and a few others are scattered 
throughout the Northern Hemisphere 
in the Old World. Most species have 
shoots only three or four inches high, 
and, when growing on tall trees, they 
are not easily seen from the ground. 
The shoots are variable in color, as are 
the flowers and fruits : some are green, 
while others are orange, reddish, 
brown, or even black. 

As is often the case with parasitic 
organisms, the most specialized dwarf- 
mistletoes are those limited to partic- 
ular hosts. One highly specialized 
western species, for instance, usually 
attacks only Douglas fir and is less 
than one inch high. At the other 
extreme, some of Mexico's "giant" 
dwarfmistletoes, with shoots nearly 
two feet high and over one inch in 
diameter, have correspondingly wide 
host appetites. They grow with seem- 
ingly equal facility on at least eleven 
species of pine. 

A remarkable aspect of the dwarf- 
mistletoe is its seed-dispersal mecha- 
nism. A number of plants have explo- 



IWAIIl'MISTI.KTOE I'l.ANT, left, itlfftrtS 

brunch of ponderoHU pine in Arizona. 



AliNOiiiviAi. iiliAivrilKS, rinhl, caiihcd hy 
paranili!, are calliMl wilchuH'-iirooms. 



Shoots emerge from iree'H i)ark after 
a two- to five-year incuiiation |)erioil. 










. ^'«* 




sive fruits— witch hazel, castor bean, 
and a few species of Fio/a (violets) and 
Phlox, for example— but the dwarf- 
mistletoes' method of seed dispersal is 
one of the most efficient in the whole 
plant kingdom. The process is not ex- 
actly understood, but certain aspects 
of the mechanism can be described. 
Each fruit contains a single, tear- 
shaped seed 2 to 3 mm. long and 
weighing about 2 mg. As the fruit be- 
gins to approach maturity, its stem is 
elongated and recurved so that the 
original apex of the fruit points down- 
ward. {See diagram, page 55.) An 
abscission zone then develops between 



the tip of the stem and the base of the 
fruit, and a layer of cells between the 
seed and the fruit's hull absorbs water 
and creates a high internal pressure. 
( This zone for separation is similar to 
the abscission zone at the bases of 
leaves in other plants facilitating leaf 
fall in the autumn. ) Finally, the fruit 
falls from the stem, the hull contracts 
rapidly, and the seed is squeezed out 
and hurled upward. Its round forward 
end and a pointed base make the seed 
a most efficient projectile. 

To learn more of how dwarfmistle- 
toes spread through the forest, we con- 
ducted studies on the ballistics of seed 



flight by use of high-speed photogra- 
phy. We calculated that the seed's ini- 
tial velocity as it leaves the fruit is 80 
to 90 feet per second, or about 60 miles 
per hour! Of all the methods of ex- 
plosive seed dispersal in plants, the 
dwarfmistletoes have evolved one of 
the very few that controls the vertical 
angle of seed discharge. Most other 
plants with explosive fruits do not 
have this control because they expel 
their seeds after the fruits are shed. 
We used a cotton-lined apparatus 
{page 55) to measure the discharge 
angle of several hundred dwarfmistle- 
toe seeds and found it to average 30 to 

53 




Large fruits, measuring 3x5 mm., near 
the end of a 16- to 18-month maturation. 




Single shoots live from one to five 
years, and new ones continue to emerge. 




Rootlet of a seeu that has been in- 
place two months germinates on twig. 

54 



40 degrees above the horizontal. This 
approaches the 45-degree angle that, 
experts have found, gives the maxi- 
mum horizontal distance with a mortar. 

Dwarfmistletoe seeds may travel 
horizontally for 50 feet, but the aver- 
age distance is 10 to 15 feet. Seeds ex- 
pelled high in the trees on windy days 
may go somewhat farther, usually 
spreading the greatest distance in the 
direction of prevailing winds. Dr. J. 
R. Wier, a pioneer forest pathologist 
in the northwest and one of the first 
to recognize the importance of dwarf- 
mistletoes, recorded an extreme case 
in which dwarfmistletoe seeds from an 
infected larch had been blown by high 
winds to the roof of a cabin nearly a 
quarter of a mile away. 

Seeds are scattered about in all di- 
rections from infected trees. They land 
everywhere— on various parts of trees, 



on understory vegetation, and on the 
ground. Fewer than half of the seeds 
produced lodge on trees, and fewer 
than 5 per cent of those actually take 
root. The ones that do result in infec- 
tion, however, are usually those that 
land on the needles. A viscous, adhe- 
sive coating enables them to stick 
where they land. When moistened by 
rains, this coating lubricates the seeds 
so they can slide down to the twigs. 

GERMINATION must occur at or near 
young twigs to produce infec- 
tion on the host. Many seeds, of 
course, fall from the needles and are 
lost, but enough slide down to the 
twigs to maintain parasitic popula- 
tions. Once on the twig the seed ger- 
minates, and its radicle (rootlet) pene- 
trates the bark of the twig. The young 
dwarfmistletoe plant then undergoes a 




A SEED 

B EMBRYO 

C ENDOSPERM 

visciN etas 




J 



A'- M \ ] I 111 1 111 1 1 fall- fri.iii -!■ Ill ill 
ri;;lil. \i-ciii ti-Aib force seed upward. 




Plant, center, expels seeds into coUon, 
and the discharge angles are measured. 

Photograph, taken at five millionths 
of a second, shows dwarfniistletoe seed 
after expulsion. Note trail of liquid. 



two- to five-year incubation period 
within the host twig before shoots 
emerge from the bark. Flowering be- 
gins one to two years later, when the 
shoots are 1% to 2 inches long, de- 
pending on the species, and the first 
seeds are produced about one year 
after that. Individual shoots are rela- 
tively short-lived (from one to five 
years or so), but new shoots contin- 
ually emerge from the perennial root 
system within the host twigs. 

Control of the dwarfmistletoes is 
a requisite for adequate tree growth 
in many areas in the West. Fortu- 
nately, these parasites can, in many 
cases, be controlled with only slight 
modifications of current timber-cut- 
ting practices. The basic idea behind 
control is to break the chain of infec- 
tion to protect young trees of subse- 
quent generations. If only the trees 




Leafless dwarfmistletoes grow on a tree may bear several hundred plants 
ponderosa pine branch. An individual that depend on the host for nutriment. 

55 



SPREAD OF INFECTION IN PONDEROSA PINE 



15 YEARS 



FEET 60 40 20 20 40 60 FEET 



30 YEARS 






60 40 20 20 40 60 



45 YEARS 




80 60 40 



40 60 80 



60 YEARS 




.-"'^v--.^ 






100 80 60 

75 YEARS 






1^ 
& 




60 80 100 




100 80 60 
90 YEARS 



60 80 100 








120 100 80 DISTANCE FROM OVERSTORY TREE 80 100 120 

I HEALTHY CROWN INFECTED CROWN I 



Parasite progresses at the rate of 
ten to fifteen feet per decade, causing 

56 



timber loss of one billion board feet 
annually in the western United States. 



large enough to be sold are cut, small 
deformed trees are left to spread the 
infection. Control is accomplished 
either by felling or pruning all infected 
residual trees, including those that are 
too small to be utilized commercially. 
The spread of the dwarfmistletoe 
through a stand is relatively slow 
and localized— despite its efficient seed- 
dispersal mechanism— compared with 
the spread rate of most forest tree dis- 
eases. The parasites usually progress 
at a rate of about 10 to 15 feet per 
decade, in contrast to the spores of 
fungus-caused diseases that may be 
wind borne for hundreds of miles. 
Thus an area will, for all practical pur- 
poses, remain healthy for a long time 
after the dwarfmistletoe is eliminated. 

OTHER methods of controlling the 
dwarfmistletoes, such as the use 
of chemicals or biological agents, re- 
main in the experimental stage. Chem- 
icals, when they become available, will 
be particularly applicable in places 
where it is desired to save individual 
trees, such as in recreation or other 
high-value areas. There is less need for 
chemical treatment in a forest man- 
aged chiefly for timber production. In 
most instances, the parasite there can 
be controlled by logging practices. 

In addition, the possibility of bio- 
logical control of the dwarfmistletoe 
by use of fungi or insects is currently 
under investigation at laboratories in 
California, Idaho, and Colorado. Sev- 
eral insects that feed on the dwarf- 
mistletoes (particularly the spittle- 
bug) and a few fungi that attack them 
have been discovered, but their poten- 
tial as dependable biological control 
agents still remains to be determined. 



Infected lodgepole pines in Colorad 
display witches'-brooms and dead top 



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Tour 

From the Caribbean 

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try, the number of forms recorded from 
the Republic of Colombia. Its 1556 spe- 
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corded from the entire South American 
continent!"-From: the birds of Colombia 
AVIANCA, The Colombian Airline, has 
coordinated a tour based on the recent 
and well received book, THE BIRDS OF 
COLOMBIA. The author, Mr. R. Meyer de 
Schauensee, is Curator of Ornithology at 
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For further information on the 
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Please send me by return mail, 
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58 



About the Authors 

Dr. Robert M. Netting, Assistant 
Professor of Anthropology at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, wrote "Heritage 
of Survival." Dr. Netting conducted field 
research in Nigeria from 1960 to 1962 
with the aid of a Ford Foundation Fel- 
lowship and received his Ph.D. from the 
University of Chicago in 1963, writing 
his thesis on Kofyar agriculture. He is 
particularly interested in the problems 
of cultural ecology— the interrelations of 
man and his environment. 

"Day Length and Food Caches" was 
written by Illar Muul who is a research 
assistant at the Museum of Zoology, Uni- 
versity of Michigan. The article is based 
on part of Mr. Muul's doctoral study of 
how climate affects the behavior and dis- 
tribution of the flying squirrel. His re- 
search was financed by a grant from the 
National Science Foundation. 

Dr. Winton Patnode, a scientific re- 
search consultant who lives in Eugene, 
Oregon, collected and photographed the 
algae described in "Green Algae Divide 
to Multiply." Dr. Patnode was an indus- 
trial research chemist for many years 
and is now a specialist in photomicrog- 
raphy. He has combined his skill as a 
photomicrographer with his interest in 
botany to make handsome photographs 
of plant cells and tissues as they are 
seen through the microscope. 

Dr. Thomas Eisner, co-author of the 
article on millipedes, is an Associate 
Professor of Biology at Cornell Univer- 
sity, who is currently on sabbatical leave 
doing research at the Landbouwhoge- 
school Entomology Laboratory in the 
Netherlands. His father and co-author. 
Dr. H. E. Eisner, is a retired chemist 
who now works in his son's research 
laboratory. Dr. Thomas Eisner wrote an 
article on the defense mechanisms of 
the whip scorpion, or vinegaroon, for 
Natural History in June, 1962. 

"Study in Specificity," discussing the 
parasitic fungi Laboulbeniales, was writ- 
ten by Dr. Richard K. Benjamin who 
is a mycologist at the Rancho Santa Ana 
Botanic Garden in Claremont, Califor- 
nia. Dr. Benjamin did his undergraduate 
and graduate work in botany at the Uni- 
versity of Illinois and was a National 
Research Fellow at Harvard University, 
1961-62, where he had the opportunity to 
study the Thaxter collections of Laboul- 
beniales. He is President of the Myco- 
logical Society of America. 

Dr. Frank G. Hawksworth and 
Thomas E. Hinds, authors of "Spread 
of a Parasite," are forest pathologists 
with the U.S. Forest Service, stationed at 
the Rocky Mountain Forest and Range 
Experiment Station, Colorado State Uni- 
versity. For the last fifteen years, they 
have done research on the biology and 
control of dwarfmistletoes in the Cen- 
tral Rocky Mountains and the Southwest. 



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nature 

and 
photography 

a second camera 
may prove valuable 

by David Linton 



ONE of the advantages of owning a 
high-fiuality camera of any well- 
known make is the wide range of acces- 
sories available, enabling one to do 
almost any type of photography. A va- 
riety of lenses can be used with a good 
camera, and adapters will allow the use 
of other lenses not designed for that 
particular piece of equipment. One can 
buy telescope adapters and microscope 
adapters, waterlight housings for using 
the camera under water, and close-up 
attachments for working at closer dis- 
tances than those at which the camera 
normally focuses. For the rangefinder 
type of 35 mm. cameras there are reflex 
focusing devices that make them operate 
like single-lens reflex types. For some 
cameras there are bulk film magazines to 
increase the number of pictures that can 
be taken before reloading, and motor 
drives to advance the film and wind the 
shutter when the camera is unattended. 
In at least one line there is even a radio- 
operated remote-control mechanism that 
will control the camera from a point sev- 
eral miles away. 

The more elaborate accessories may 
cost as much as the camera itself. With- 
out doubt they are tempting pieces of 
hardware, but buying one may not be 
the best way to solve a photographic 
problem. For a specific, limited purpose 
it is often better to buy an inexpensive 
second camera than to adapt a versatile, 
expensive camera for a special use. 

The Camera Trap 

A case in point would be a camera trap 
—a device by which animals take 
their own pictures by tripping an unat- 
tended camera, usually set up at a water 
hole or feeding station. The rapidity and 
convenience of operation that distinguish 
expensive cameras are clearly of no use 
in such a setup. A fast lens is seldom an 
advantage because the exact spot where 




THE BEST TELESCOPES WILL HAVE QUARTZ MIRRORS 



Half Ihe Questar telescopes we now produce have 
mirrors made of quartz. We started using this 
precious material back in 1957 because quartz 
mirrors are the very best obtainable. When we 
take one from a warm room into colder outdoor 
air, quartz resists the thermal shock about 5 
times better than Pyrex low-expansion glass. The 
superiority of quartz lies in this greater stability 
of the crystal. 

The price of fused-quartz disks is awfully high 
because they are terribly difficult to construct. A 
raw disk 61 inches in diameter costs $250,000. 
Since the cost and weight of such disks, like 3- 
dimensional objects generally, increases as the 
cube of a dimension, and not as the square, you 
can readily understand why there are only a few 
hundred telescopes with quartz mirrors in the 
entire world. We ourselves have probably made 
most of them. 

As you may know, we still have to make each 
aspheric set of Questar optics at least 3 times. 




until its resolving power is astonishing, and each 
will support images that do not break down at 
more than 800 diameters. This unusual ability to 
resolve, coupled with small aperture, allows these 
little fellows to pierce indifferent seeing like a 
thin rapier when larger apertures are more se- 
verely damaged by heat waves in the air. 

This is the Questar idea, the Questar secret. 
In the 8 years of research we spent before mar- 
keting our product, we sought and found the 
best size to make it; we looked for the point 
where the greatest number of favorable factors 
came together. That point turned out to be at 
only 3.5 inches aperture instead of the 5 inches 
with which we started. Our portable telescope 
proved to be most efficient when delightfully 
small in size but of transcendent quality. 

This very smallness becomes another favorable 
factor. You yourself may now enjoy the luxury 
of owning a real quartz-mirrored telescope for 
only SlOO extra. 



Questar is the finest and most versatile small 
telescope in the world. Prices begin at $795. 
Send for your copy of the new 40-page booklet 
with 8 pages of color and much general infor- 
mation, with essays on optics, seeing and tele- 
scopic photography. One dollar postpaid in 
U. S., Mexico and Canada. By air to West 
Indies and Central America, S2.30. By air to 
Europe, N. Africa and S. America, $2.50. By 
air to Australia and elsewhere, $3.50. 



BOX 60 NEW HOPE, PENNSYLVANIA 

59 



the subject will be cannot usually be pre- 
dicted. The lens must ordinarily be 
stopped down to insure that the subject 
will be in focus. Obviously, the range- 
finder, reflex, or ground-glass focusing 
system is of no utility if there is no one 
operating the camera; the initial focus- 
ing when the camera is positioned can be 
done with a tape measure. The one fea- 
ture that is really valuable in a camera 
for trap use is a motor drive, but this is 
expensive and available for only a few 
types of cameras. 

Unless it has a motor, a "good" 
camera is wasted in a camera trap be- 
cause its expensive features cannot be 
used. There is, of course, no harm in 
that, but there is a danger that the 
camera will be damaged, and it is silly 
to expose a good camera when, in this 
particular case, a cheap one will do the 
job just as well. There is always a possi- 
bility that some animal— not necessarily 
the intended subject— will decide to in- 
vestigate the sturdiness and edibility of 
the camera. Porcupines are inordinately 
fond of anything that has a salty taste, 
including leather straps and the syn- 
thetic rubber insulation of wires. 
Raccoons are not so likely to chew photo- 
graphic equipment, but they are ex- 
tremely curious, and are dexterous 
enough to untie knots. Even if the ani- 



David Linton's by-line has appeared 
under photographs in all the nation's 
leading magazines. His camera column 
is a regular feature on tliese pages. 



mals leave the camera alone, it is still 
exposed to the weather and possibly to 
the depredations of humans. Wrapping 
the camera in plastic sheeting is not a 
very reliable way of protecting it from 
the rain; dampness will penetrate any- 
way, and an opening must be provided 
for the lens. 

Flora at Close Range 

SUPPOSE that your good camera is a 
rangefinder type and you propose 
to take a series of pictures of individual 
wildflowers: this will require shooting 
at such close range that the rangefinder 
cannot be used. You will need some sort 
of close-up adapter and you must either 
focus by tape measure or equip the 
camera with a reflex focusing scope. A 
fast lens is quite unnecessary, because 
at a wide opening it would not give suf- 
ficient depth of field to get all of the sub- 
ject in focus. For this type of work there 
is a simple camera— essentially a box 
camera, as the focus is fixed— especially 
designed for taking close-ups. It was 
made originally for dental work. A rec- 




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tangular wire frame is mounted on roc 
that project from the front of th 
camera. The whole camera is moved i 
until the subject is in the frame; th 
subject will then be in focus and cer 
tered on the film. The camera is designe 
to be used with flashbulbs, but any othe 
light source (including natural light) o 
sufficient intensity will do. The lightinj 
produced by the flashbulb in its norma 
position on the camera is adequate bu 
unattractive. It can be improved by mov 
ing the flash away from the lens and us 
ing a reflector to throw some light inti 
the shadows. (The problems of lightinj 
close-ups were discussed in "Nature anc 
the Camera," February, 1962.) 

Photomicrography 

To take another example, suppose yoL 
are to take a series of photographs 
through a microscope: the simple tech- 
nique described in this column in May, 
1964, can be used with almost any 
camera, but if there are a number of 
photomicrographs to be made it would 
be better and more convenient to get 
an inexpensive second camera. It would 
not need a lens, because the microscope 
lenses form the image. Many people for- 
get that most cameras on which the 
lenses are removable can be bought 
without a lens, and that the lens is the 




9-lens optical system that zooms 
from 20X to SOX, focuses from 40 ft. 
to infinity. Stalk your subject for 9" 
close-ups with your 9-lens optical sys- 
tem that zooms from 20X to SOX, 
focuses from 40 ft. to infinity. Com- 
plete with 18" tripod, altazimuth head, 
sliding sunshade. IVioderately priced at 
your dealer or write for brochure. 

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most expensive part of a camera. A 
small camera with a simple shutter will 
• be just as ust'fiil for microscope wori< as 
a camera with an elaborate shutter that 
has more and liiglier speeds. The iiif;li 
shutter speeds can seldom be used willi 
a microscope, in any case; short ex- 
posures are produced by using short, 
intense flashes of light. Actually, a 
camera intended exclusively for micro- 
scope work would not even need to have 
a shutter, since the exposure is usually 
controlled by turning the light source 
on and ofl to avoid the vibration pro- 
I'liicd by a mechanical shutter. A 
I iinicra to be used in photomicrography 
(Iocs need a convenient viewing system. 
The best choice is probably a simple 
single-lens reflex camera that has an 
adapter to couple it to the microscope. 
The cost of such a camera (without 
lens) may be considerably less than that 
of the adapter re(|uJrcd for a range- 
finder camera. 

The Camera Under Water 

PICTURE taking under water is another 
example where a second camera may 
be indicated. Underwater housings are 
available for almost any good camera, 
but only the more expensive models have 
controls for changing the focus, and very 
few permit the photographer to see when 
the subject is in focus. (It is impossible 
to see through most viewfinders if you 
are wearing a face mask. ) There is al- 
ways a chance that the housing will 
spring a leak, and there is a greater 
danger that the camera will get wet 
when the housing is opened to change 
the camera settings or to reload. Salty 
spray and damp fingers are not good 
for fine optical equipment. 

Instead of risking damage to an ex- 
pensive camera, it may be more conven- 
ient, safer, and less expensive to use a 
submersible camera. The simplest one is 
a plastic box camera designed for under- 
water use. It sells for about twenty dol- 
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IHoaxes and half-truths 



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'By Robert Silverberg 

THE literature of scientific hoaxing is 
rich and varied, encompassing the ex- 
plosive Piltdown Man fraud, which was 
exposed little more than a decade ago; 
Dr. Cook's controversial claim to the dis- 
covery of the North Pole; the monumen- 
tal "Etruscan" statues that proved so 
embarrassing to The Metropolitan Muse- 
um of Art in recent years; and many 
others. Men of seeming rectitude have 
done their best to confuse, to deceive, 
and to obfuscate. The psychopathology 
of hoaxing is a fascinating study in it- 
self, worthy of investigation. Here we 
can deal only with two hoaxes that had 
broad repercussions. 

The Kammerer Affair 

THE shot that ended Paul Kammerer's 
life in 1926 closed the books on one 
of the most tragic of scientific hoaxes. 
Kammerer, a brilliant young Austrian 
biologist who had been hailed as "the 
modern Darwin" by one enthusiastic 
Cambridge zoologist, was a neo-La- 
marckian who sought to prove the in- 
heritance of acquired characteristics. 
This philosophically minded scientist 
tended to approach his work with the 
results already assumed, always a dubi- 
ous practice in the laboratory: "If ac- 
quired characteristics cannot be passed 
on . . . then no true organic progress is 
possible," he wrote in his celebrated 
book. The Inheritance of Acquired Char- 
acteristics, published in 1924. "Man lives 
and suffers in vain. Whatever he might 
have acquired in the course of a lifetime 
dies with him." 

Kammerer carried on research at the 
Institute for Experimental Biology of 
the University of Vienna, studying toads, 
salamanders, and other amphibians for 
twenty-three years, searching for the 
proof that would confute Darwin. 

His first experimental subject was the 
olm (Proteus anguinus) , a large Euro- 
pean cave salamander with vestigial 
eyes that are visible in the larvae but 
hidden in the adult. Like most cave- 
dwellers, olms are pale in color. Kam- 
merer discovered that the animals tended 
to darken when exposed to light and, 
having darkened his olms in an illumi- 
nated aquarium, he returned them to a 
lightless environment where they mated 
and produced dark-skinned offspring. It 
seemed clear proof of the inheritance of 
acquired characteristics, but Darwinian- 
minded colleagues did not agree. The 
renowned biologist and hereditist Au- 



gust Weismann observed that the skin ol 
the olm is translucent. Light passing 
through the skin in the course of Kam- 
merer's experiments might well have 
reached the gametic cells, inducing, 
dark-skinned mutation. So Kammerer's 
results could be explained in terms of 
orthodox genetic theory, rather than of 
inheritance of acquired characteristics. 
Unable to answer Weismann's objec- 
tions satisfactorily, Kammerer turned to 
other experimental animals. He first se- 
lected the fire salamander (Salamandra 
salamandra) , a plump creature four or 
five inches long, deep black in color, with 
large, glossy yellow spots. Kammerer 
postulated that the fire salamander 
would tend to change its color to make 
itself less conspicuous against the back- 
ground of its environment, and that 
color change would be inheritable. 

He raised one group of fire salaman- 
ders in a terrarium whose topsoil was 
black and another on yellowish soil. 
Gradually, so he reported, the salaman- 
ders raised on black soil were losing 
their yellow spots. In the other terrar- 
ium, each generation of salamanders 
had larger yellow spots than its prede- 
cessor, so that eventually, Kammerer 
then postulated, there would be only all- 
yellow and all-black fire salamanders in 
the laboratory. Other biologists were 
baffled and distressed by Kammerer's 
results, which ran counter to established 
genetic belief. Such changes, in the ab- 
sence of predators, could scarcely be at- 
tributed to selection. Yet so great was 
the prestige of the Institute for Experi- 
mental Biology, and that of Kammerer 
himself, that his statements were re- 
ceived seriously. 

Disappearing Spots 

THE biologist's achievements with the 
midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans) 
were even more spectacular. The mating 
of many toads takes place in water. Dur- 
ing the mating season, pads on the 
males' inner toes become black and 
swollen. These nuptial pads supposedly 
assist the male in maintaining its grip 
on the female. 

The midwife toad mates on land, how- 
ever, and has no nuptial pads. Kam- 
merer built a terrarium designed to per- 
suade midwife toads to mate in water. 
According to Kammerer, the offspring 
of these toads also preferred to mate in 
water, and he declared that at least one 
male offspring exhibited nuptial pads. 



K(^|iulahle s(;i(!ntiHts were awed by Karri- 
nn-KT's rciiorted results, hut the majority 
were skeptical. 

I'ivc years hud elapsed between Kain- 
nii'ier's first annouiieement of his expi'ri- 
nu^iital findings on tlie salamanders and 
midwife toads and tlie aiipearanee of 
The liihcrUance oj Acqaircd Charuricr- 
isUcs. During this time, he had refuseij 
to allow other scienlisis to examine his 
sjiecimens. Not until 1926, after steady 
prodding, did Kaninicrer yield; Dr. G. 
Kingsley Noble of The American Mu- 
seum of Natural History and Dr. Hans 
Przihram of the University of Vienna, 
director of the institute where Kam- 
merer had done his research, were al- 
lowed to inspect the famous amphibians. 
Soon after, on August 7, 1926, a pair of 
independent reports— one by Noble and 
one by Przihram— appeared in the Eng- 
lish scientific publication. Nature. They 
agreed that Kammerer's results were 
fraudulent. Noble had examined the so- 
called nuptial pads of the midwife toad 
and had found they lacked the epidermal 
spines that should have been present. In 
his report he noted, "The left wrist of the 
specimen had been lacerated. A slight 
pushing aside of the muscles revealed 
that the ventral wrist muscles and part 
of the palmar muscles were surrounded 
by a black coloring matter on all sides. 
This substance was in such abundance 
that it readily washed out in the dissect- 
ing dish water which filled the spaces be- 
tween the exposed muscles." The black 
spots marking the pads were, in fact, 
nothing but spots of India ink that had 
been injected into the forefeet of the pre- 
served midwife toad. 

An Unanswered Question 

CONFRONTED with this expose, Kam- 
merer insisted that someone must 
have tampered with his specimens. Only 
two other men held keys to Kammerer's 
laboratory. One was Dr. Przibram, a 
close friend; the other was a biologist 
named Megusar, who had disliked Kam- 
merer and often had quarreled with him. 
Had Megusar altered the specimens? 
There was no answer; Megusar had died 
several months before. 

On September 22, 1926, Kammerer 
wrote a long, rambling letter to the 
Moscow Academy of Science, which had 
supported his findings. "I found the 
statements of Dr. Noble completely veri- 
fied," he admitted, revealing that his 
■'black" salamanders were also frauds 
since they had had their yellow spots 
covered by ink. "There is no doubt," 
Kammerer said, that "almost my whole 
life work has become dubious. ... I did 
not participate in this fraud. . . . More- 
over, I find it is impossible to survive 
the destruction of my life work. I hope to 
find tomorrow sufficient courage and 
fortitude to end my wretched life." 



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Kammerer found that courage the next 
day. His suicide was a severe blow to 
neo-Lamarckian biologists. In Russia, 
then favorable to Lamarckian theories, 
Kammerer was regarded as a martyr of 
science, victimized by scheming enemies. 
The Russians went so far as to produce 
a melodramatic motion picture about the 
case, exonerating Kammerer completely 
and depicting a villainous bishop and a 
wealthy German nobleman as the ones 
responsible for the hoax. 

Many of Kammerer's Austrian friends 
also were unable to believe that he was 
capable of so transparent a hoax. A few 
argued that academic hostility had led 
someone, perhaps Megusar, to commit 
the fraud. Others, however, felt that 
Kammerer was self-deluding. Among 
these was Dr. Richard B. Goldschmidt. 
a friend of Kammerer's, who wrote in 
Science, March 4, 1949, "I do not believe 
that Kammerer was an intentional 
forger. He was a very high-strung, 
decadent but brilliant man. ... He con- 
ceived the idea that he could prove the 
inheritance of acquired characteristics 
and became so obsessed with this idea 
that he 'improved' upon his records. . . . 
In later years he probably became so 
absorbed with the necessity of proving 
his claims that he started inventing re- 
sults or 'doctoring' them. Though the 
actual results of all this amounted to 
falsification, I am not certain that he 
realized it and intended it." 

Koch's Mighty Monsters 

THE apparent inability of Paul Kam- 
merer to distinguish between fact 
and wishful fantasy cost him life and 
reputation. "Dr." Albert Koch, on the 
other hand, lived to an old age, robbed 
of credit for what was possibly an im- 
portant archeological discovery because 
his name was smirched by hoaxing. 

The self-styled doctor, who had left 
his native Germany for the United States 
about 1835, was a fossil-peddler by 
trade. With St. Louis as his headquar- 
ters, he roamed much of the southern 
United States digging up bones, exhibit- 
ing them, and selling them to museums. 
Koch's greatest coup came in 1845, 
when he went on tour with the "Hydrar- 
chus," a magnificent fossil sea serpent 
114 feet long, whose mounted skeleton 
weighed 7,500 pounds. Koch claimed to 
have found his Hydrarchus in Alabama, 
and hordes of curiosity seekers paid 
twenty-five cents apiece to view the awe- 
some remains. Sea serpents had been a 
subject of public fascination for over a 
century; now, at last, one was on open 
exhibit. Hydrarchus was a majestic 
sight, a vast expanse of bleached bones, 
looking like a huge snake with small, 
paddle-like limbs. Visitors were thrilled. 
Only certain unromantic scientists raised 
doubts about the serpent's authenticity. 



Mr.Silverberc examines many hoaxes 
in his latest book. Scientists and 
Scoundrels, which is being published 
in March by Thomas Y. Crowell Co. 



Koch's sea serpent, they said, was 
nothing but a shameless fraud, and in- 
sisted that Hydrarchus had been as- 
sembled from the bones of at least five 
separate animals. Koch, they added, had 
cunningly magnified his monster by add- 
ing extra ribs and vertebrae. "These 
remains never belonged to one and the 
same animal,'" declared Jeffries Wyman, 
Professor of Anatomy at Harvard. Nor 
was Hydrarchus even a true serpent. 
"The anatomical characteristics of the 
teeth," Wyman wrote in the Boston 
Journal of Natural History in 1845, "in- 
dicate that they are not those of a reptile 
but of a warm-blooded mammal." 

It was not the first time Koch had 
bamboozled the pubhc; in 1840, he had 
unearthed a large mastodon skeleton in 
Missouri. He mounted it dramatically, 
interpolating the bones of other masto- 
dons to create a truly jumbo specimen, 
and— the final flourish— attached the 
enormous tusks in such a way that they 
curved upward from the head like gigan- 
tic horns. He hauled this bizarre creature 
all over the country; by October, 1841, it 
was in Philadelphia, and the paleontolo- 
gist Richard Harlan viewed it and 
praised "the perseverance of the enter- 
prising proprietor, Mr. Albert Koch," 
while noting the errors of articulation 
and charitably hoping that "no doubt" 
Koch's later research "would enable him 
to rectify these errors." 

Koch brought his mastodon to London 
a few months later. Its authenticity was 
challenged by Richard Owen, the well- 
known anatomist and paleontologist of 
the Royal College of Surgeons, but the 
public was enthusiastic, and more than 
a year passed before the vogue died and 
Koch moved to Dublin and then to Ber- 
lin. On his way back, in May, 1844, he 
sold the creature to the British Museum 
for a considerable sum; it was promptly 
stripped of its extra bones and the tusks 
were put where they belonged. The de- 
horned mastodon is still being exhibited. 
It resides in the Fossil Mammal Gallery 
of the British Museum. 

Having won fame and some fortune 
with his mastodon, Koch next excavated 
and assembled his Hydrarchus. The raw 
material for the sea serpent was a sea- 
going mammal of a type Owen had found 
in fossil form in 1835-Zeuglodon, or 
Basilosaurus. In life, the animal had 
been almost sixty feet long and eight 
feet thick, with an enormous tail ending 
in great flukes like those of a whale, and 
tiny, paddle-like flippers. This would 
seem to be impressive enough, but Koch 
improved on the model. 



64 



J'lofeHsor Wymun Hliowed lliat Kocl] 
liud strung togcllicr verlelirac from at 
least five ZLMiglodons to form llydrarelius. 
Ho also pointed out tliat some of the 
"hones" in Hydrarehus' flij)|)ers were 
actually the fossilized shells of a mol- 
hisk, apparently one of the penus 
Nauiilus. Koch was thoroughly discred- 
ited in this country and in England, hiil 
he scored a public triumph when he 
took Hydrarehus to Germany in 1846, 
and unloaded the beast to the Hoyal 
Museum in Berlin for a fine price. The 
following year, Koch had a new Hydrar- 
ehus on tour, taking it on an elaborate 
odyssey that lasted until 1853. A few 
years later, he sellled down permanently 
in St. Louis and lived in semiretirement 
until his death in 1866, regarded locally 
as an important scientist and elsewhere 
as a charlatan. 

A Valid Discovery 

ALL this would he of lilllc impiirlance 
1 to the history of science but for the 
fact that before his sea serpent exploits 
Koch apparently had made one discovery 
of the first rank. In October, 1838. a 
farmer digging a well in Gasconade 
County, Missouri, uncovered some large 
bones, a stone knife, and an Indian ax. 
Koch hurried to the site and obtained 
permission to excavate. In an account 
published anonymously in the January 
12, 1839, issue of The Presbyterian, a 
Philadelphia weekly, Koch told how. be- 
low layers of clay and sand, he came 
upon charred bones, axes, spear points, 
and ashes— indicating that long ago some 
great beast had been slain and roasted 
by Indians. "The fire appeared to have 
been the largest on the head and neck 
of the animal," he wrote, "as the ashes 
and coals were much deeper here than 
in the rest of the body." 

It was a find of major significance, 
demonstrating man's antiquity in the 
New World. The very fact that Koch first 
published his findings anonymously 
would seem to indicate that he regarded 
his discovery in a different light from his 
other "scientific" activities. For the bones 
were those of a long-extinct creature, a 
mastodon or perhaps a giant ground 
sloth— unmistakably hunted and de- 
voured by contemporaneous human 
beings. Many theorists held that man 
had come to the Americas no earlier 
than the time of Christ; here was proof 
that he had arrived thousands of years 
earlier, when mastodons still roamed in 
the region that is now Missouri. 

In 1841, Koch once again described 
his 1838 find, this time taking public 
credit for it. In a pamphlet headed Evi- 
dence of Human Existence Contempo- 
rary with Fossil Animals, he described 
his excavation in detail, giving a clear 
and respectably scientific account of his 



work, adding a new detail: "There was 
cndieddcd immediately under the femur, 
or hind leg bone of this animal, an arrow- 
head of rose colored flint, resembling 
those used by the American Indians, but 
of larger size." Other arrowheads lay 
nearby. "These arrowheads." he eon- 
c liided, "arc indisputably the work of 
human hands." 

Honesty Is Questioned 

KOI Ms flamboyant exploits with his 
inflated fossils were to mark him as 
untrustworthy. Scientists read his pam- 
phlet and spoke of his want of accuracy 
and lively imagination. To the end of his 
life. Koch defended the authenticity of 
his Gasconade County site, to no avail. 
The overwhelming strength of authority 
held that man was a newcomer to the 
New World, and that no human beings 
had ever hunted mastodons in North 
America. And so it remained until 1926. 
when J. D. Figgins of tin- Denver Mu- 
seum of Natural History found weapon 
points in situ with fossil bison remains 
near Folsom. New Mexico, and conclu- 
sively showed that man's presence in the 
Americas could be dated back at least 
ten thousand years from the present. 

The Folsom discovery was a land- 
mark in American archeology; yet, hut 
for Koch's tainted reputation, it might 
rate no more than a footnote today as 
confirmation of his 1838 excavation. Un- 
scrupulous as he was in concocting the 
Hydrarehus. Koch quite probably was 
sincere in reporting the Gasconade 
County material. His reports on the find 
are sober, serious, and detailed. But 
thanks to his fondness for cash and 
public acclaim he is remembered today, 
not as a pioneer figure in American 
archeology, but as the man who built a 
sea serpent and a mastodon with horns. 

Hoaxes are reprehensible, but they 
have their uses. They teach us by their 
frequency and cleverness to test, to 
weigh, to examine. "He that knows noth- 
ing doubts nothing." George Herbert 
wrote in 1640. We do not win our knowl- 
edge cheaply, and the hoaxers at least 
serve to prod us to scrutinize every as- 
sertion closely. 



This list details the photographer, artist, 
or other source of illustrations, by page. 



KCORDIHQS of XUHDS in THC rORC'jTS, 
SUMPS and FIELDS of HCH CNUMiO. 



COVER-Robert M. Netting 
14-21-Robert M. Netting 
except 18-map, AMNH 
after Netting 
22-27-lllar iWuul except 
graphs, AMNH after Muul 
28-29-Winton Patnode 
30-37-Thomas and H. E. 
Eisner except 32-33-top, 
AIVINH after Thomas and 
H. E. Eisner 



38-40-IVIount Wilson and 

Palomar Observatories 

41-AMNH 

42-49-Richard K. Benjamin 

50-51-Robert H. Wright 

52-53-Weldon F. Heald 

except 53-right, Franl( C. 

Hawl^sworth 

54-57-Franl( C. Hawltsworth 

except 56— AIVINH after 

Frank C. Hawksworth 




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Droll Yankees Inc., Providence, R.I. 
Dear Mr. Kiiham: 

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"- - And you can use these comments 
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freshly green and the wildf lowers are 
blooming profusely in every glade. I es- 
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companion. He' s a pro who doesn't sound 

Like one !" , 

from - 

Dr. OUIN SEWaLL PETTINGIIX, Jr. 
Director, Laboratory of Ornithology 
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 



"Dear Mr. Kilham, 

I have enjoyed listening to Droit 
Yankees latest production The Swamp in 
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described as 'the two clearest notes 
this side of Heaven' ". _ 

England. 
Dgiie of 



of Bird Vol 



Price of the records, shipped postpaid: 
I i THE BFIOOK, 7 inch hi-fi, S 1.25 

1 1 SONGS OF THE FOREST, 12" W S 5.00 
1 % THE 3^AMP IH JUNE, 12" LP S 5.00 
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65 



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Suggeste(d 
Additional Reading 

HERITAGE OF SURVIVAL 

Land and People in Nigeria. K. M. 

Buchanan and J. C. Puch. University 

of London Press, London. 1955. 
Shifting Cultivation in Africa. Pierre 

DeSchlippe. Routledge and Kegan 

Paul, London, 1956. 

DAY LENGTH AND FOOD CACHES 

Lives of Game Animals, Vol. IV. E. T. 
Seton. Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1929. 

Notes on the Life History of the 
Small Eastern Flying Squirrel. 
D. E. Sollberger. Journal of Mammal- 
ogy, Vol. 21, pages 282-293, 1940. 

GREEN ALGAE 
DIVIDE TO MULTIPLY 

The Fresh-water Algae of the United 
States. Gilbert M. Smith. McGraw- 
Hill Book Co.. N. Y., 1950 

Algae, the Grass of Many Waters. 
Lewis H. Tiffany. C. C. Thomas, 
Springfield, 1958. 

MYSTERY OF A MILLIPEDE 

Cyanogenic Glandular Apparatus of 
a Millipede. T. Eisner, H. E. Eisner, 
J. J. Hurst, F. C. Kafatos, and J. Mein- 
wald. Science, Vol. 139, pages 1218- 
1220, 1963. 

Defense Mechanisms of Arthropods; 
The Structure, Function, and Phe- 
nolic Secretions of the Glands of 
A Chordeumoid Millipede and a 
Carabid Beetle. T. Eisner, J. J. Hurst, 
and J. Meinwald. Psyche, A Journal 
of Entomology, Vol. 70, pages 94-116, 
1963. 

Chemical Defenses of Arthropods. 
L. M. Roth and T. Eisner, Annual 
Review of Entomology, Vol. 7, pages 
107-136, 1962. 

STUDY IN SPECIFICITY 

Contributions Towards a Monograph 
of the Laboulbeniaceae. Roland 
Thaxter. Memoirs of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 
12, pages 187-429,1896; Vol. 13, pages 
217-469, 1908; Vol. 14, pages 309-426, 
1924; Vol. 15, pages 427-580, 1926; 
Vol. 16, pages 1-435, 1931. 

Sex of Host Specificity and Position 
Specificity of Certain Species of 
Laboulbenia on Bembidion Picipes. 
Richard K. Benjamin and Leland 
Shanor. American Journal of Botany, 
Vol. 39, pages 125-131, 1952. 

SPREAD OF A PARASITE 

The Mistletoes: A Literature Re- 
view. L. S. Gill and F. G. Hawksworth. 
U.S. Department of Agriculture Tech- 
nical Bulletin No. 1242, 1961. 

Dwarfmistletoe of Ponderosa Pine in 
the Southwest. F. G. Hawksworth. 
U.S. Department of Agriculture Tech- 
nical Bulletin No. 1246, 1961. 




THE HEARTWARMING GIFT 

Give yourself, your family, friends (and Hum- 
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"HBB". (See real photo). Bees or other birds 
can't reach the honey-water. It's dripless, rust- 
less, so easy to clean! Money back guarantee and 
instructions. Sorry no COD's. $2.95 plus 24(! 
postage. In Calif, add 12«' tax. Design by Erwin 
Brown. HUMMINGBIRD HEAVEN, Dept. N, 
6818 APPERSON STREET, TUJUNGA, 
CALIFORNIA. 



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66 



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ACHIEVER 



If you called this General Motors development engineer "moon-struck," he'd 
probably agree with you. For he's a member of the team whose objective is 
to put a man on the moon by 1970. 

Together with several hundred other engineers, scientists and technicians, he 
is contributing to the development, fabrication, assembly, integration and 
testing of the guidance and navigation system for the Apollo spacecraft. His 
mind is literally on the moon — and how to get three men there and back safely. 
Educationally, he is highly qualified, but fast-changing technology requires 
his constant study. If he does not have two degrees already, chances are 
that he is working on a second right now under GM's tuition refund plan. 
Throughout General Motors there are hundreds of professionals like him 
working on projects relating to our nation's space and defense programs. Like 
their counterparts who are developing commercial products, they are dedicated 
General Motors people. 

GENERAL MOTORS IS PEOPLE... 



Making Better Things For You 




April 1965 • 500 



ral History 



il'kir. 



■M". Vti»: 




TOMORROW-LAND 



High spot of the New York World's Fair reopening this Spring — 
CM Futurama! 

You can look over GM's exciting "idea" cars — Firebird IV with television, 
stereo, game table, refrigerator; CM-X with jet aircraft cockpit and con- 
trols—fascinating design and engineering innovations right out of 
tomorrow. 

You'll take a ride that is wrapped in wonders . . . through the metropolis 
of the future, over Antarctic wastes, into tropical jungles, along the ocean 
floor. 

You can count on the people of General Motors again to provide the most 
popular show at the Fair— the Futurama. 

General Motors Is People... 

making better things for you 




This is your private, twin-engined Piper Aztec. 

It will take you on the kind of African safari that up to now 

has only been available to the very, very rich. 



You arc scudding over the plains of Serengcll 
in your red and silver Piper. There arc 6 peo- 
ple in your plane. You, the 4 other members 
of your party and your personal pilot. Below 
you, column after column of migrating wilde- 
beest scurry and scatter as you skim over Iheni 
at 180 mph. You are on the 17lh day of your 
22-day BOAC Wings Safari. 

This totally new kind of safari is based on one 
very simple idea. That it's easier to see more of 
Africa if you I1y from one interesting spot to 
the next. This way you can travel where land 



vehicles can't. Cover huge distances quickly. 
Sec things from the air that couldn't possibly 
be seen any other way. 

Where do we lake you? To the remote Sam- 
buru tribal center of Maralal to watch leopards 
on the kill. To rarely-visited Lake Rudolf to 
fish for giant 100 lb. perch. To the nearly-for- 
gotten island of Lamu, where huge-sailed Arab 
dhows still crowd the harbor. You take a 2-day 
break at the Mnarani Club on the Indian Ocean 
to swim and sail and water-ski. Spend 3 days at 
the incredibly lu.\urious Mount Kenya Safari 



Club. And a night at the world-famous Trcclops 
Hotel. You leapfrog deserts, plains, scrub, and 
coral-bottomed ocean. Stare down into the cra- 
ters of extinct volcanos. In short, you see it all. 
What docs it cost to go on a trip like this? 
Less, perhaps, than you might think. S 1 .W I for 
everything. ( Round-trip fare from New York, 
meals, accommodations, the lot. Wc even pay 
for your visas!) Like the sound of this new 
kind of African safari'.' Sec your Travel Agent 
or clip the coupon and we'll send you an in- 
teresting brochure. 



Or would you rather go on a safari that's a little more 

down to earth? 




Your Land Rover hums its way along the 
road from Amboseli, through Masai villages, to 
Ngorongoro. Above you loom ice-capped Mt. 
Kilimanjaro and Mt. Meru, and, in front, the 
wall of the extinct Ngorongoro volcano. You're 
going to stay the night in a lodge perched right 
on the rim of the crater. From its windows you 
can look' 1000 ft. down onto the strange, 12- 
mile-wide crater floor. You'll drive down there 
tomorrow to spend the day among its teeming 
thousands of wildebeest, zebra, eland, and ga- 
zelle. Lion. Hippo. Jackal. You've had 13 days 
like this on BOAC's 'Value Safari. You still 
have 5 more to go. 

What's the difference between this and our 
airborne safari? Just that you keep your feet on 
the ground. Naturally, you can't cover as much 
distance, but we've arranged your route so you 

Only 10 people can go on each Wings Safari. 



see the best of Uganda. Kenya, and Tangan- 
yika. You visit thundering Murchison Falls 
with its herds of elephants. Fort Portal and the 
Mountains of the Moon. The pygmies of Ituri. 
The Kazinga Channel, where you can sneak up 
on elephants and hippo, safe on board a motor 
launch. Spend the night under canvas beneath 
Kilimanjaro. Cruise up the Nile. Sleep in the 
Manyara Hotel, perched 4,100 ft. up on '.he 
Rift Wall. 

What does an 18 



All overfhe world BOAC 
takes good care of you 



B-OM 



BRITISH OVERSEAS AIRW.WS CORPORATION 
Dcpt. A.253 530 Fifth Avenue 
New York. N. Y. 10036 

Please send me your big. beautiful 16-page brochures 
about Africa. I think I'd like to take the Wings 
Safari Q The Value Safari Q (Check one. Or both.) 



day trip like this cost? 
$1,482' for every- 
thing. ( Extensions are 
available to 22 or 44 
days.) Now do you 
see why we call it the 
Value Safari? 
20 on the 'Value Safaris. See your Travel Agent or clip the coupon and you're on your way. 






























PRESIDENT 

Alexander M. White 

DIRECTOR 

James A. Oliver 

ASSISTANT DIRECTORS 

Walter F. Meister, Joseph M. Chamberlain 

MANAGING EDITOR 

Robert E. Williamson 

EXECUTIVE EDITOR 

Helene Jordan 

SENIOR EDITOR 

John S. Erwin 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

Harry Atkins, Beth Stokes 

COPY EDITORS 

Florence Klodin. Francesca von Hartz 

REVIEWS 

Carol Breslin 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

Lee Boltin 

PRODUCTION 

Thomas Page 
Mairgreg Ross, Asst. 

CONTRIRUTIONS 

Ernestine Weindorf 



CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul M. Tilden, Thomas D. Nicholson 
David Linton, Julian D. Corrington 



EDITORIAL ADVISERS 

Gerard Piel Gordon F. Ekholm 

Gordon Reekie Donn E. Rosen 

T. C. Schneirla Richard K. Winslow 

Richard G. Van Gelder 



ADVERTISING 

Frank L. De Franco, Director 
Ogden Lowell, Sales, Nancy Reice, Asst. 



PROMOTION MANAGER 

Anne Keating 



Natural History 

Incorporating Nature Magazine 

THE JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



Vol. LXXIV APRIL 1965 No. 4 

ARTICLES 

FOSSIL LAKES FROM THE EOCENE 

Bobb Schaeffer and Marlyn Mangus 10 

A WEED IS WHERE YOU FIND IT Photographs by E. Javorskj 22 

THE THRESHING SLEDGE Jacques Bordaz 26 

NESTING OF THE WOOD STORK 

Georse Heinzman and Dorotha Heinzman 30 



CIRCULATION MANAGER 

Joseph Saulina 



MIRAGES 

THE CROSS AND ORB IN EGYPT 

FIGURINES OF THE CARAJA 

DEPARTMENTS 

BOOKS IN REVIEW 

SKY REPORTER 

ABOUT THE AUTHORS 

SCIENCE IN ACTION: 
WINTER BARK. SLOW FIRE 

NATURE AND THE MICROSCOPE 

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL READING 



David Linton 36 

John D. Cooney 40 

Photographs by Kurt Severin 54 



Richard G. Van Gelder 4 

Thomas D. Nicholson 50 

56 

Dudley C. Lunt 57 

Julian D. Corrington 61 

68 




COVER: Set in a grove of date palms, St. Antony's Monastery is the first and 
oldest monastic building in the world. It was begun in the third century, in 
Middle Egypt, near the Red Sea. The church is typical of later Coptic religious 
buildings, with multiple domes lighted by small windows, a style derived from 
the Byzantine basilicas of Constantine and Justinian. Pagan reliefs adorning 
earlier temples are sometimes found under the plastered walls of Coptic churches. 
St. Antony, together with St. Paul, a hermit, was an originator of monastic life. 
Dr. John D. Cooney"s article begins on page 40. Photograph is by George Holton. 

The American Museum is open to the public without charge every day 
during the year. Your support, through membership and contributions, 
helps make this possible. The Museum is equally in need of support 
for all of its work in the fields of research, education, and exhibition. 



Publication Office: The American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 
N. Y. 10024. Published monthly. October through May: bimonthly June to Septembe 
year. In Canada, and all other countries: S5.5D a year. Single copies: S.50. Seconi 
New York, N. Y., and at additional offices. Copyright, 1965 by The American Muse 
No part of this periodical may be reproduced without the written consent of Nati 
registered U.S. Patent Office. Unsol 



editorial office will be handled with all possibl. 

The opinions expressed by authors are their own and d 

You will find Natural History magazine indeied 



, bu 



7!Hh Street, New York 
■. Subscription: S5.00 ■ 
1 class postage paid at 
am of Natural History. 
iRAL HiSTOKT. The tiUe 
itted 



me reaponaibility for their Bafetj. 
ret The American Museum's policy. 
'iodical Literature in your librazy. 



alo^dln taoase, Itb. 

520 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 10 



^ 




THE <LEOPATRA LOOK I 



urpijsts: 
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Jewelry 



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treasure; a tasteful complement to casual or 
formal attire, 

24 inch Necklace of ancient beads S15.50 f.t.i. 
Sterling Silver drop bead earrings ,, S 5.75 f.t.i. 
Complete Set: Necklace & Earrings . S19. 75 f.t.i. 
FREE: Elegant display case with Necklaces & 
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BRONZE AGE 
ARROWHEADS ... * 

Excavated from famous archaeological 
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LURISTAN !) Bronze Arrows date from 
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SELECT Arrowhead 3"-5" $6.50 

Average Arrowhead 2"-3" $4.50 

FREE: Plastic display stand for arrow 

•SEE-"The Illustrated London News", 

May 5, 1962, P. 699-701 




I's 18th 



Exorrc COINS 

. . . from the ' 
gaming dens of Si: 
and 19th Centuries : used 
as a means of exchange, 
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porcelain coins reflec 
simple beauty 



Orii 



Now 
rafted 



t the 
these 



nake 



-HER JEWEIRY- 



CHAIN & 

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elry. In 
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Collection of 6 dif- 
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-HIS JEWELRY- 



ANTIQUITY GIFTS 



TEMPLE BUDDHAS . . . 

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Secured from abandoned vegeta- 
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BOOKS I IN REVIEW 



Dedicated to mammals 



I By Richard G, Van Gelder 



Mammals of the World, by Ernest P. 
Walker. The Johns Hopkins Press, Vols. 
I and II, .$25.00; 1,568 pp., illus. Vol. Ill 
(bibliography), $12.50; 700 pp. The 
Management of Wild Mammals in 
Captivity, by Lee S. Crandall. The Uni- 
versity of Chicago Press, $13.50; 761 pp., 
illus. The Wild Life of India, by E. P. 
Gee. E. P. Button & Co., $5.95; 192 pp., 
illus. Dangerous to Man, by Roger A. 
Caras. Chilton Books, $10.00; 433 pp., 
illus. Cats of the World, by Armand 
Denis. Houghton Mifflin Co., $5.95; 144 
pp., illus. 

IT is surprising that man. with all his 
scientific and technological sophisti- 
cation, blindly refuses to recognize that 
he is an animal and a part of nature, and 
that he is just as subject to ecological 
principles as any other living creature. 
Instead, man chooses to view himself as 
the nucleus of a biological universe, with 
all other living things equated as either 
good or bad for man, or disregarded. It 
is perhaps unfortunate that the activi- 
ties of only a small proportion of living 
things are directly related to man; the 
majority of fauna and flora is thus con- 
sidered useless and therefore suitable for 
destruction should it be in the path of 
man's works. It is not strange, then, 
that the introduction to Ernest Walker's 
Mammals of the World reads, "To the 
mammals, great and small, who contrib- 
ute so much to the welfare and happiness 
of man, another mammal, but receive so 
little in return, except blame, abuse, and 
extermination." 

Considering the number of species of 
animals living today, the mammals com- 
prise a comparatively small group- 
about one third of one per cent of the 
total known to science. The four thou- 
sand or so species of living mammals are, 
however, of considerable importance in 
the world's ecology because they are 
relatively large animals, because they 
are widespread, and because they often 
exist in sufficient numbers to cause not- 
able and direct effects on their environ- 
ment. And it is for these reasons that 
they are so markedly persecuted. 

Mammals of the World provides ac- 
counts of every one of the 1,044 genera 
of modern mammals. Encompassed in 
these genera are the 4.287 species that 
are currently recognized. Nowhere else 
can a layman or scientist so readily be- 
come aware of how little he knows of the 
mammals. How many of the 2,032 species 
of rodents, the 796 species of bats, or 



247 species of carnivores can you name ? 

The classification of species for many 
kinds of mammals is still the problem of 
the specialist, but although species are 
dealt with in each account, Walker has 
wisely chosen the more practical genus 
—to each of which he usually allots a 
page— as his level for discussion. Com- 
mon names, numbers, and distribution 
of species are followed by measurements, 
colors, and other descriptive material 
Each section concludes with more para- 
graphs of life history information, in- 
cluding food and breeding habits, be- 
havior, and economic importance. 

For almost every genus there is an il- 
lustration, generally a photograph of the 
animal, and for those alone the volumes 
must be lauded. The rarer species, some 
of which are known by only a single 
specimen, are represented by a photo- 
graph of the skull or dentition, or of the 
study skin, and the text usually tells in 
which institution the specimen may be 
found. These photographs range from 
a few poor ones to excellent, with the 
majority in the last category. 

A useful 24-page chart entitled "World 
Distribution of Genera of Recent Mam- 
mals" is included, and the first volume 
contains a 114-page selected bibliog- 
raphy of some 4,500 titles, planned to 
obviate the necessity for most persons 
to purchase the third volume, a bibliog- 
raphy of more than 40,000 titles. Each 
of the first two volumes is identically in- 
dexed for common and scientific names 
only, and the end papers contain con- 
version tables for the metric system. 

There is no question of the usefulness 
of these volumes. Every mammalogist 
must have them, and those who profess 
a broad interest in the fauna of the world 
will want them. Unfortunately, the 
arrangement of the bibliographical vol- 
ume makes its use as a comprehensive 
source most difficult, if not impossible. 
(The selected bibliography in the first 
volume, while somewhat more usable be- 
cause of its brevity, still contains an 
abundance of secondary sources of dubi- 
ous value.) However, the third volume 
is sold separately. Well bound, well il- 
lustrated, on good paper, and highly us- 
able, these compendiums of mammalogy 
are worth their price. 

Some of the genera listed by Walker 
are already extinct. As cognizance of 
the disappearance of wildlife throughout 
the world becomes more widespread, 
various schemes are devised for preserv- 
ing the remnants. One method of saving 




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species is by breeding them in zoologi- 
cal parks. While this concept has many 
undesirable features, it has the advan- 
tage of having worked. The European bi- 
son and Pere David's deer are notable 
examples of animals that would be ex- 
tinct were it not for zoos. The skills nec- 
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captivity are rarely documented. Gen- 
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perience or, better, by word-of-mouth 
transmission from zoo men. With the 
publication of The Management of Wild 
Mammals in Captivity, by Lee S. Cran- 
dall, future animal handlers will be able 
to consult an authoritative, well-docu- 
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Crandall not only draws on a wide 
literature, but on his own fifty years of 
experience at the New York Zoological 
Park (Bronx Zoo). He gives thorough 
coverage to the housing and feeding re- 
quirements of the animals, historical in- 
formation, distribution, breeding habits 
and success of breeding in captivity, rear- 
ing of the young, longevity, causes of 
death, and myriad other subjects. This 
is highly enjoyable reading. Unquestion- 
ably, Mr. Crandall's book will rapidly 
become the primary source of informa- 
tion for those who keep wild mammals 
in captivity. 

More desirable than keeping animals 
in zoological parks is maintaining them 
in their natural domains. Unfortunately, 
there is still great danger of species ex- 
termination in this method. Nevertheless, 
the success of this technique has been 
proved for certain species in various 
parts of the world. 

That India, with a population of al- 
most half a billion, and still a "happy 
hunting grounds" for the big game 
sportsman, should be undertaking major 
conservation programs is most meritori- 
ous. Certainly these should receive an 
impetus from The Wild Life of India, by 
E. P. Gee. Anyone who plans to travel 
to India will do well to have this book 
with him. The author takes the reader 
on a personal tour of many of the best 
of India's wildlife sanctuaries as he 
watches the lions of Gir, chases the wild 
asses of the Rann, or observes the peli- 
cans of Andhra. Gee so obviously loves 
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sanctuaries (with the best dates for visit- 
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glossary bespeak a thoughtfulness on the 
part of the author that will further the 
usefulness of this fine work. 

One of the minor reasons given for the 



killing of certain mammals is that they 
endanger man's livestock or crops. While 
it is now rare to have a campaign against 
a species solely on those grounds, it must 
be remembered that there is eradication 
pressure on wildlife today because ani- 
mals compete with man for food and 
space, or because they provide him with 
some item of commercial value. 

Roger A. Caras' Dangerous to Man is 
subtitled "Wild Animals: A Definitive 
Study of Their Reputed Dangers to 
Man." This book, despite the subtitle, is 
far from definitive and, considering the 
small percentage of human mortality 
resulting directly from wild animals 
throughout the world each year, tends 
to cater to a facet of morbid human curi- 
osity. Although a superficial examination 
seems to indicate a scholarly and au- 
thoritative work, a closer look reveals 
its relationship to the world of advertis- 
ing: set up a straw man in the form of 
lurid newspaper accounts, and shoot it 
down with scientific "facts." 

The scientific standards stated by the 
author in the introduction are often 
disregarded in the following pages. For 
example, anthropomorphism is ma- 
ligned, but we find "fearless" elephants, 
"sullen" gorillas, and "truculent" rhi- 
noceroses. Worse still is a decided an- 
thropocentric interpretation of animal 
behavior; an attack on man by a large 
member of the cat family is viewed in 
the light of abnormal psychology. 

For classification of mammals, Caras 
relies on Ivan Sanderson, with some of 
the following results : an unrecognizable 
table of cat classification on the opening 
page; on facing pages the Asiatic ele- 
phant (one species) is given two differ- 
ent species names; rhesus monkeys re- 
ceive two different generic names. 

In the section on venomous snakes, the 
copperhead— the species that bites more 
persons in the United States than any 
other— is listed or mentioned in five 
places, but discussed only as far as re- 
vealing that the venom "is weaker than 
that of the rattlesnake." A special sec- 
tion on rabies is outdated; if followed, 
it could result in death or paralysis. 

The author's information was derived 
almost entirely from the literature and 
from correspondence with an impressive- 
ly lengthy list of persons throughout the 
world. However, I do not believe that 
an ornithologist, taxidermist, or mam- 
malogist is necessarily qualified as an 
authority on giant clam behavior, or that 
a professional writer qualifies as an au- 
thority on mammal classification or on 
animals of which he has no personal 
knowledge. There is an element in this 
book that is reminiscent of the confi- 
dence game. Let the reader beware. 

For the aelurophiles, Armand Denis' 
Cats of the World will be most welcome. 
For many years there has been no book 
available in English that gives reason- 




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The 

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A PROFILE OF THE 
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by Colin Willock 

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a Illy complete and accurate coverage of 
till- thirty-six living species in the cat 
fu/iiily. While Walker's great work will 
piDvide concise information about the 
genera and considerable information 
about the species, Uenis' book is de- 
signed for more leisurely reading, and 
contains much anecdotal material about 
cats, great and small. The arrangement 
of this work is continental, starling with 
the cats of Africa, This inevitably leads 
to comiilications with the lions, cheetahs, 
leopards, and other cats that live on more 
than one conlinent. and the reader who is 
concerned with a single species may have 
111 look in more than one place for his 
information. North American and South 
American cats are grouped in a single 
chapter and, as in the other chapters, the 
smaller cats, for the most part, have very 
brief accounts. Surprisingly little is 
known of the habits of those felines that 
have not been the sport of hunters or the 
prey of trappers, C<ils of the World is 
illustrated with some superb photo- 
graphs. Unfortunately, the Maurice Wil- 
son drawings of some of the rarer cats 
all look like fugitives from Japanese 
silk screens and are inaccurate in de- 
tail. Photographs of some of these are 
available and would be preferable. 

Dr. Van Celdcr. a frequent contributor 
to these pages, is the Chairman of the 
Museum's Department of Mammalogy. 



a totally new concept 



Europe: A Natural History, by Kai 
Curry-Lindahl, Random House, $20.00; 
299 pp., illus. 

THIS handsome book, the second in 
the series "The Continents We Live 
On." has 264 superb photographs of 
animals, plants, and landscapes. Among 
the latter are some full-page color pic- 
tures that are strikingly beautiful and 
excellently reproduced. Two or three of 
the black-and-white photographs, how- 
ever, show poor judgment on the part of 
the photographer. For instance, there is 
one full-page picture, apparently taken 
from a very low-flying aircraft, of a 
flock of flamingos in the Camargue 
frightened off their nests in great con- 
fusion. The resulting destruction to eggs 
and/or young might well have been seri- 
ous, and it is shocking to find such a 
picture in a book that makes so many 
strong pleas for conservation. 

The most spectacular in a series of 
maps is printed in full color and com- 
mits a glaring error by showing the Cau- 
casus and Transcaucasia (included here 
in Europe) as covered with steppes, 
whereas much of this region is covered 
by luxuriant forest and, in the west, re- 
ceives the greatest amount of rainfall in 
"Europe." Of course, Curry-Lindahl 
knows better and he does not make this 
error in the text. The great wealth of 
other good illustrations, however, more 




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than compensates for these blemishes. 

The text is instructive and reflects the 
author's great experience as an ecologist 
and conservationist. He has traveled 
widely in Europe and his accounts are 
usually based on personal observations. 
He divides Europe into eighteen regions 
and each forms the subject of a separate 
chapter. But these regions are of un- 
equal importance and their descriptions, 
followed by a list of animals and plants, 
tend to become monotonous. Perhaps a 
breakdown based on fewer regions of 
major ecological importance would have 
been more legitimate and comprehensive. 

The text is overbalanced by its profuse 
and brilliant illustration, and I do not 
know if it should be reviewed as a picture 
book or as an introduction to the natural 
history and ecology of Europe. On either 
ground, however, it deserves success. 

Charles Vaurie 
The American Museum 



The Natural Geography of Plants, 
by Henry A. Gleason and Arthur Cron- 
quist. Columbia University Press, $10.00 ; 
420 pp., illus. 

VEGETATION is a complex, dynamic, 
and geographically variable natural 
phenomenon. To understand and enjoy 



this aspect of our environment more 
fully, one must appreciate its complexity 
and variations, recognize its correlations 
with the changing patterns of climate 
and soil, and consider its origins. All of 
us are aware of some of these aspects of 
plant life. Our awareness will be en- 
hanced and expanded by reading The 
Natural Geography of Plants. 

This well-designed, straightforward 
introduction to plant geography was 
written by two outstanding plant scien- 
tists, Henry Gleason and Arthur Cron- 
quist— both members of the curatorial 
staff of The New York Botanical Garden. 
Their text is composed of a progressively 
arranged selection of some ninety impor- 
tant principles of plant geography. Each 
is discussed and illustrated by examples 
that "can be seen in one's own vicinity, 
as one either drives across the country or 
strolls through the woods and fields." 
With the aid of a superb collection of 
photographs of individual plants and of 
vegetation types, the authors have ac- 
complished the enviable feat of present- 
ing a complex subject in a clear and un- 
derstandable manner. 

Professional botanists will find the 
book interesting as a vehicle for the pres- 
entation of Dr. Gleason's concepts of 
the "individualistic approach." The ba- 
sic assumption of the text is that "Every 




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feature of the general distribution of 
plants over the world is due to the com- 
bination, in varying patterns, of the sepa- 
rate individual distributions of all kinds 
of plants." Other hypotheses are not dis- 
cussed and, unfortunately, Gleason's 
ideas are not supported by any concrete 
data, although such data have been accu- 
mulated recently— especially by the late 
John T. Curtis of the University of Wis- 
consin and his students. 

My chief criticism of the book is that 
its authors regularly ignore a basic fact 
that they set forth early in the text— a 
plant has no perception. Yet throughout 
the book they employ innumerable an- 
thropomorphisms, such as "likes to 
grow," "sun-loving plants," "prefers wet 
soil," "lime-loving," "shade-loving," etc. 
Such illogical phrases mar an otherwise 
excellent work. 

Jack McCormick 

Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila. 

Asterisks, by James S. Pickering. Dodd, 
Mead & Co., $4.00; 214 pp., illus. 

SUBTITLED "A Book of Astronomical 
Footnotes," Asterisks is the result of 
a series of ninety-nine one-minute radio 
scripts by Mr. Pickering, Assistant As- 
tronomer at The American Museum- 
Hayden Planetarium. All phases of as- 
tronomy are covered, from white dwarfs 
to red giants, from artificial satellites to 
galaxies, from early astronomical rec- 
ords, such as the supernova of 1054, to 
the recent development of radio astrono- 
my. Astronomical structures range from 
the Tower of Babel to the Mount Palo- 
mar Observatory. 

The few errors I noticed are minor: 
Sputnik I was launched in 1957 (not in 
1956) ; Russell W. Porter died in 1949 
(not in 1947) ; did Galileo really see 
"millions of stars"? I doubt it; and on 
one page, the curvature of a path is in- 
correct. The reproductions and diagrams 
are well chosen, although an enlarged, 
fuzzy image of Mercury remains, as al- 
ways, a disappointment. 

Recent "space" astronomy is kept in 
its place; this book reaffirms that, after 
all, astronomy has been practiced and 
studied since the beginning of man. I ap- 
preciate the author's concern with the 
all-important historical development of 
astronomy, his treatment of such "old- 
fashioned" topics as parallax, proper 
motion, solar motion, and precession. A 
chapter titled "Falling Around" admit- 
tedly is the simplest and most descriptive 
way of presenting the combined effect of 
inertia aiid centripetal acceleration. 

The book remains what the original 
"asterisks" were intended to be: brief, 
concise, and accurate statements of facts. 
Thus restricted, the author has acquitted 
himself well. 

Peter van de Kamp 
Sproul Observatory 




Working under the auspices of (he Smithsonian 
Institute, the late American ornithologist A. C. 
Bent devoted years of his life to preparint^ the 
definitive life studies of the birds of North Amer- 
ica. Bent served as a clearinB house, collecting 
and collating thousands of field observations from 
teams of watchers, adding his own comments 
and those of earlier American naturalists. 
The result is a 20-volume set that covers every- 
thing amateur and professional ornithologists, 
bird watchers, and naturalists should know about 
every American species: feeding, migration, field 
marks, voice, enemies, ranges, eggs, distribution, 
mating habits, much, much more. The entire 
series is now being reprinted in low-cost Dover 
paperbounds. with not a word or photograph cut. 
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285-6. WILD FOWL. 73 ducks, mergansers, swans, 
geese. Total of 592pp. 106 plates. 

2 vols., Paperbd. $5.00 
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con.s, etc. Total of 907pp. Close to 400 photo- 
graphs. 2 vols. Paperbd. $5.00 
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cocks, etc. Total of S60pp. Over 200 photographs. 

2 vols.. Paperbd. $4.70 

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etc. 490pp. 170 photos. Paperbd. $2.75 

1029. GULLS & TERNS. 50 species. 345pp. 149 
photos. Paperbd. $2.75 
10B2. MARSH BIRDS. 54 ibis, herons, egrets, etc. 
490pp. 179 photos. Paperbd. $2.75 

1083. WOODPECKERS. 64 species. 334pp. 74 photos. 

Paperbd. $2.75 

1084. WOOD WARBLERS. 58 species. Total of 734pp. 
125 photos. 2 vols., Paperbd. $5.00 

1085. WAGTAILS, SHRIKES, VIREOS & THEIR ALLIES. 
49 species. 453pp. 72 photos. Avail. Feb. '65. 

Paperbd. $2.75 

1086. THRUSHES, KINGLETS 8. THEIR ALLIES. 58 
species. 453pp. 78 photos. Paperbd. $2.75 

1087. PETRELS & PELICANS & THEIR ALLIES. 69 
species. 343pp. 128 photos. Paperbd. $2.75 

1088. NUTHATCHES, WRENS, THRASHERS & THEIR 
ALLIES. 104 species. 475pp. 142 photos. 

Paperbd. 42.75 

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of 495pp. 112 photos. 2 vols.. Paperbd. $5.00 

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ALLIES. 78 species. 555pp. 70 plates. 

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245pp. 92 photos. Paperbd. $2.75 

1092. CUCKOOS, GOATSUCKERS, HUMMINGBIRDS & 
THEIR ALLIES. 59 species. Total of 506pp. 135 
photos. 2 vols., Paperbd. $5.00 

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• 

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LIFE HISTORIES OF NORTH 
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517. INSECT LIFE & INSECT NATURAL HISTORY. 
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ilem bibliography ! lormcrly, "General Entomol- 
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1139. AN INTRODUCTION TO BIRD LIFE FOR BIRO 
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and theories about the physical phenomena of 
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675-6. AUDUBON & HIS JOURNALS, ed. by Maria 
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187. THE MALAY ARCHIPELAGO, Alfred R. Wallace. 
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1294. ANIMAL GEOGRAPHY, Wilma George. Animal 
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11 ills, vi + 181pp. Paperbd. $1.25 

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945. GUIDE TO SOUTHERN TREES. E. S.. J. Ceor(e 
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395. TREES OF THE EASTERN I CENTRAL U. S. I, 
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277-8. MANUAL OF THE TREES OF N. AMERICA, C. S. 
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Fossil Lakes from the 

Green River Formation discloses its 10-miilion-year history 




lO 



Eocene 



By BOBB SCHAEFFER 

and Marlyn Mangus 

DURING ihe late sumnier of li'.Gi:',, 
Ferdinand Vandiver Hayden, 
JJiiector of the newly established Geo- 
logical and Geographical Survey of the 
Territories, traveled westward along 
the Overland Stage Route from Fort 
Sanders, near Laramie, to Green River, 
Wyoming. He and his party of nine — 
outfitted with a two-horse ambulance, 
four mules, a covered wagon, four rid- 
ing animals, and three tents— were en- 
gaged in a geological reconnaissance 
of the Wyoming Territory, supported 
by a $5,000 grant from Congress. 

Along the Green River between the 
towns of Rock Springs and Green 
River, Hayden observed a distinctive 
sequence of rocks that he described in 
his report of 1869: "A little east [Hay- 
den undoubtedly meant west] of Rock 
Spring station a new group com- 
mences, composed of thinly laminated 
chalky shales, which I have called the 
Green River shales, because they are 
best displayed along Green River. 
They are evidently of purely fresh- 
water origin, and of middle tertiary 
age. The layers are nearly horizontal, 
and, as shown in the valley of Green 
River, present a peculiarly banded ap- 
pearance. When carefully studied these 
shales will form one of the most inter- 
esting groups in the West. The flora is 
already very extensive, and the fauna 
consists of Melanias, Corbulas, and 
vast quanties [sic] of fresh-water 
fishes, preserved in much the same way 
as those in the Solenhofen slates of 
Germany. There are also numerous in- 
sects and other small undetermined 
fossils in the asphaltic slates. One of 
the marked features of this group is 
the great amount of combustible or 
petroleum shales, some portions of 
which burn with great readiness, and 
have been used for fuel in stoves." 

To Hayden goes the credit for first 
describing and naming the lacustrine, 
or lake, deposits now known as the 
Green River Formation. But before 
long other eminent geologists were re- 



''ossiL sting ray has 9-inch disk. It 
nay be related to the living Dasyatis. 




Parachutr Ciif.ek Canyon i- niMr 
Meeker, Colorado. Its Bliurply cut 



porting on the iithology and occur- 
rences of these rocks. In 1876 John 
Wesley Powell described sections of 
the Green River Formation in the foot- 
hills of the Uinta .Mountains in north- 
ern Utah. In 1878 Clarence King and 
C. A. White reported occurrences in 
the Washakie Basin and as far north 
as the Wind River Mountains in the 
Green River Basin. A. C. Peale ob- 
served the same rocks in northwestern 
Colorado. 150 miles south of Hayden's 
type locality. It soon became apparent 
that the Green River Formation covers 
several areas of vast extent: todav the 
total is estimated at 34.000 square 
miles, or roughly the combined sizes 
of Lake Huron and Lake Erie. 

IN Hayden's opinion the Green River 
Formation was of fresh-\vater ori- 
gin. This opinion was shared not only 
by the other geologists working in the 
region at that time but also by the 
vertebrate paleontologists E. D. Cope 
and 0. C. Marsh. An earlier idea that 
the Tertiary sediments of this region 
were marine was essentially corrected 
when it was realized that the inverte- 
brate fossils were fresh-water forms. 
Although most of the Tertiary deposits 
in the West are of flood plain origin, 
the Green River Formation is a no- 
table exception in being lacustrine. It 
originated as limy muds and sands 
laid down in several lake beds during 
the Eocene. These lakes occupied two 
intermontane basins in southwestern 
Wyoming, and another in central Utah 
and northwestern Colorado. 

The story of the Green River lakes 
actually began about seventy million 
years ago, at the close of the Creta- 
ceous Period. At that time a great sea- 
way, which extended across western 



walls 
strata 



.ho<s <'xct-lli'iii ixp 
in Green Ri\cr 1 



North America from Alaska to Mex- 
ico, was gradually diminishing in size 
(by Early Tertiary it had completely 
disappeared), and the thick layers of 
sediments that had been deposited in it 
were being slowly uplifted and folded 
to form mountains. The present Rocky 
Mountains are a result of this interval 
of mountain building, often referred 
to as the Laramide revolution. In 
-North .America the beginning of this 
orogeny marks the end of the Mesozoic 
Era ( Age of Dinosaurs I and the onset 
of the Cenozoic Era (Age of Mam- 
mals!. The Cenozoic itself is divided 
into the Tertiary Period ( lasting about 
sixty-nine million years I and the sub- 
sequent Quaternary Period (lasting 
about one million years I . In turn, the 
Tertiary is divided, mainly on the 
basis of mammalian faunas, into inter- 
vals of varying lengths called epochs. 
The first two epochs of the Tertiary, 
with which we are concerned directly, 
are the Paleocene and the Eocene. To- 
gether they cover an interval of ap- 
proximately twenty-sevenmillion years. 
It must be remembered that while 
the ^vhole western portion of the con- 
tinent was being raised, the mountain 
chains themselves were being elevated 
more rapidly than the surrounding 
country. The Rockies, which eventu- 
ally attained an elevation of 13,000 to 
14,000 feet, were probablv no more 
than 4,000 to 5.000 feet high in the 
Early Tertiary. As these new mountain 
ranges rose they created intermontane 
basins, and new drainage patterns 
were established. Streams from the sur- 
rounding highlands deposited muds 
and sands on the basin floors, forming 
vast alluvial plains. Volcanoes were 
intermittently active and volcanic ash 
was widely distributed. As the sedi- 



II 



ments continued to accumulate, local 
down-warping (lowering of the basin 
floors) occurred, and drainage was ob- 
structed. Ponds began to develop at 
places along the streams, and some 
grew into extensive, shallow lakes. 

The first lake of appreciable size de- 
veloped in the Great Basin of central 
Utah during the Paleocene. This shal- 
low sheet of water, called Lake Flag- 
staff, extended from the present loca- 
tion of Bryce Canyon northward al- 
most to Provo. The vast quantities of 
limy muds and volcanic ash that ac- 
cumulated on the lake floor form the 
Flagstaff Formation, which in places 
is as much as 1,500 feet thick. Tech- 
nically speaking, Lake Flagstaff is a 
precursor of the Green River lakes, but 
is included here because its deposi- 
tional history forms a continuum with 
the first Green River lake in Utah. As 
a result of flood plain deposition or 
local upwarping. Lake Flagstaff was 
gradually reduced in the south. It per- 
sisted in the north, however, and ex- 
panded eastward into the Uinta Basin 
to form Lake Uinta. At this time, by 
now Early Eocene, black clay muds 
began to accumulate in the lake. The 
black shales formed from these earliest 
deposits in Lake Uinta represent the 
basal unit of the Green River Forma- 
tion in the Uinta Basin. 

At the time Lake Uinta was expand- 
ing eastward, two other lakes were 
forming north of the Uinta Mountains 
in Wyoming. One of these. Fossil Lake, 
lay in a long, narrow depression west 
of the present city of Kemmerer. The 
other, Gosiute Lake, occupied the 
Green River and Washakie basins to 
the east. A dome of older Paleozoic 
and Mesozoic rocks— the Rock Springs 
uplift— probably formed an island in 
the center of this lake. The limy muds, 
sands, and volcanic ash deposited in 
the lakes eventually became the shales 
and sandy limestones typical of the 
Green River Formation. 

Throughout their history the lakes 
fluctuated in size and shape, and their 
sediments consequently intertongue 
extensively with the surrounding flood 
plain deposits. Toward the end of the 
Early Eocene, Lake Uinta extended 
eastward some 60 miles into Colorado, 
nearly as far as today's town of 
Meeker. At its western end, however, 
streams were building up extensive 
deltas, which today can be recognized 
by sediments much coarser than the 
usual lake deposits, a situation that 
continued throughout much of Lake 



Llinta's history. During the same time 
Gosiute Lake suffered a period of con- 
traction because of rapid deposition of 
flood plain sediments and perhaps a de- 
crease in rainfall. 

Just before the beginning of Middle 
Eocene time, Gosiute Lake again ex- 
panded around the Rock Springs up- 
lift, this time surpassing its former 
maximum extent. Fossil Lake had dis- 
appeared, but in its general outline 
Lake Uinta remained virtually un- 
changed. Through the Middle Eocene 
Gosiute Lake was once more gradually 
reduced in size by the encroachment of 
flood plain deposits, primarily from 
the west. Large amounts of ash in the 
lake sediments laid down during this 
time indicate that volcanoes were par- 
ticularly active. By the beginning of 
the Late Eocene, Gosiute Lake had ap- 
parently disappeared. Lake Uinta per- 
sisted into the Late Eocene; then it, 
too, gradually shrank and disappeared. 

THE fluctuations in size and shape 
of the Green River lakes through- 
out their history reflect a correspond- 
ing fluctuation in climate and tectonic 
(structural) conditions. The final dis- 
appearance of the lakes probably was 
brought about by a general uplift of 
the region. Rejuvenated streams car- 
ried vast quantities of flood plain ma- 
terial out over the lake beds and buried 
the lacustrine sediments. During the 
some forty million years since this 
event, two other processes have been 
at work. One of these is lithification— 
the conversion of loose sediments into 
indurated rock. Chiefly through ce- 
mentation, reorganization, and com- 
paction, the sediments that were de- 
posited in the lakes were changed into 
sandy limestones and limy shales. The 
other process is really two processes- 
weathering and erosion. After the re- 
juvenated streams had reduced the up- 
land areas, they began to cut down 
through the very sediments they had 
deposited earlier, and eventually into 
the Green River Formation itself. To- 
day the Green River rocks are exposed 
at the surface in many places, and fine 
sections can be seen in numerous val- 
leys and canyons. 

Although the lithology of the Green 
River Formation is not uniform, limy 
shale represents by far the most com- 
mon kind of rock. The shale itself, 
which is actually a kind of marlstone, 
is characteristically made up of very 
thin layers, or laminae, ranging from 
0.014 to 9.8 millimeters in thickness. 




FORMATION DISTRIBUTIO: 

Chart shows temporal and geograp! 
distribution of Flagstaff and Gr« 
River Formations in Colora' 
Utah, and Wyoming. Maps at 
right indicate approximate areas 
the lakes at six different intervals 
time throughout their long histo 




MiCROFOSSiL, magnified X40(), is the 
thallus of Eoglobella longipes, an 
alga. Appendages attach to one cell. 




Eyes of minute, adult insect are at 
Xl20 magnification. Often pairs are 
found attached to the head of insect. 





Fungus is ores may be ascospores or 
conidia. If the latter, they may be 
of a living genus like Didymella. 



In many beds these laminae are alter- 
nately light and dark in color. Various 
explanations have been given to ac- 
count for this, but most geologists 
agree that it was caused by a cyclical 
change related to annual depositional 
rhythms. Thus a single light layer, 
composed chiefly of carbonates, and a 
single dark layer, consisting of amor- 
phous organic matter and lesser 
amounts of carbonate particles to- 
gether represent the total deposition 
for one year. By counting the paired 
laminae for a foot and multiplying this 
figure by the thickness of the forma- 
tion in feet, we can calculate that the 
lakes had a total duration of eight to 
ten million years. 

ONE of the marked features of the 
finely laminated shale is its com- 
bustible quality, which Hayden noted 
in his report of 1869. Even earlier, 
during excavation for the Union Pa- 
cific roadbed west of the town of Green 
River, workmen ignited a bank of shale 
that burned for several days and re- 
putedly provided enough illumination 
for night work. And not far away in 
northwestern Colorado, a settler 
named Mike Callahan used the same 
sort of shale to build a fireplace. The 
first time he made a fire the shale ig- 
nited and his house burned down. 

The combustible element in the 
Green River Formation is a solid, in- 
soluble, organic substance called kero- 
gen. When heated to a sufficiently high 
temperature, kerogen decomposes into 
oil, gas, and a carbonaceous residue. 
As a future source of petroleum, the 
Green River shales have an inesti- 
mable value. The Piceance Creek Basin 
(in northwestern Colorado) alone, for 
example, has a potential reserve of 
some 600 billion barrels. Under pres- 
ent production methods, however, the 
conversion of oil shale into high-grade 
crude oil is not economically feasible 
as long as petroleum can be pumped 
from the ground in sufficient quanti- 
ties to meet our needs. 

Aside from its economic aspect, the 
Green River Formation has long been 
famous for the wide variety of beauti- 
fully preserved fossils it contains. 
Studied in conjunction with the rocks 
themselves, these can provide us with 
an amazingly complete picture of the 
environment of the lakes. 

The climatic conditions, inferred 
primarily from paleobotanical evi- 
dence, have been described in detail 
by Dr. Wilmot H. Bradley of the 





United States Geological Survey, who 
has spent many years studying the 
Green River Formation. The fossil 
plants indicate a generally warm, tem- 
perate climate, but present a dual as- 
pect. Some forms suggest a warm, 
moist lowland, and others a cooler, 
and probably drier, upland, as will be 
discussed later. A flora similar to the 
one represented by the Green River 
fossils can be found in the southern At- 
lantic or Gulf Coast states today— for 
example, in Alabama. Partly on the ba- 




Largest herring in Green River Formation is Diiilomystus Rki.aiivks of \otof:oneus osculus now live in the coastal 

dentatus. Specimen above is approximately 18 inches long. waters of western Pacific. Fossil below is 22 inches long. 




■■>.^:^ 



sis of this analogy, Dr. Bradley has 
calculated the probable rainfall and 
temperatures during the deposition of 
the Green River Formation. He esti- 
mates an average annual rainfall of 30 
to 40 inches, and a mean annual tem- 
perature of 65° F. But because the 
lakes were far from the oceans, the 
temperature throughout the year prob- 
ably varied considerably around this 
mean. It is not unreasonable to assume 
that it approached freezing in the win- 
ter and rose high enough during the 



summer months to create a long, hot 
season. Of course, such a climatic re- 
gime was not uniform throughout the 
history of the lakes. The presence of 
mud cracks and deposits of saline min- 
erals probably reflect periods of de- 
creased rainfall, as well as tectonic 
changes affecting the lake outlets. Al- 
though most of the saline minerals are 
relatively rare, one called trona is 
abundant enough to be of importance 
as a source of sodium carbonate. 
Bradley pictures the Green River 



lakes as broad sheets of water some 
10 to 15 feet deep near the shore and 
perhaps as much as 100 feet deep in 
the middle. Carbonate-secreting algae 
flourished and built up extensive reefs 
across the floors of the shallower parts 
of the lakes. Here, too, lived snails, 
clams, fly maggots, and aquatic insects. 
The fossil remains of these organisms 
suggest that they may have been pre- 
served by rapid burial in place. The 
bottom environment in the deeper 
parts of the lakes was, however, quite 

15 



'^^ 



""" '^'^^ M m ^ ^ '^' -"w^^^^^u ^ j ai^ 



Bass, Priscacara sp., is common in Fossil Lake deposits. 
Specimen shown below is a little over 9 inches in lensth. 



Enlargement of a polished section of Green River shale 
shows dark and light laminae and coprolite-fossil feces. 




1. «. '^ X -V-^^-^Aj^^ 




different from the shallow areas. The 
preservation of varves indicates that 
the water ivas extremely cahn and that 
it was thermally or chemically strati- 
fied, as well. Under such conditions 
the lowest layer of the water would 
become stagnant and lose its oxygen. 
With the exception of anaerobic bac- 
teria, life could not have existed there. 
Microscopic organisms from the up- 
per layers, along with spores, pollen 
grains, and parts of insects, settled to 
the bottom and became part of an or- 
ganic ooze. Leaves frequently re- 

i6 



mained intact long enough to leave 
sharp impressions in the hardening 
sediments. The soft tissues of dead 
fishes that drifted to the bottom de- 
composed, but the skeletons often were 
preserved with no displacement. 

The lake waters were probably al- 
ways rich in dissolved salts such as 
calcium, sodium, and magnesium car- 
bonates that were brought in by 
streams from the adjacent highlands, 
and there were times when the salinity 
became so high that layers of salts 
were precipitated. But when high sa- 



linity was not prevalent, the conditions 
in the lakes must have been at an op- 
timum for supporting an abundance 
of microscopic and macroscopic aquat- 
ic plants. The structureless organic 
matter found throughout the shales 
probably represents decomposed plant 
and animal material that originally 
must have been similar to the algal 
ooze found in some present-day lakes 
in Florida and central Africa. Ooze of 
this sort, which is the result of bacte- 
rial action, was mainly responsible for 
the kerosen. 





sa?'- 



THE fossil fishes for which the Green 
River Formation is particularly 
famous were collected as early as 1856. 
In that year a geologist named John 
Evans obtained a specimen, possibly 
from the Green River Basin, which he 
sent to Dr. Joseph Leidy in Philadel- 
phia. Leidy identified it as a herring, 
which later was called Knightia liii- 
milis. Several years afterward, when 
the Union Pacific Railroad was being 
built through southwestern Wyoming, 
a wide variety of fishes was discov- 
ered during roadbed excavations. Al- 
though fishes have been found in many 
places throughout the Green River 
Formation, the most famous locality is 
around the now-defunct town of Fos- 
sil, west of Kemmerer, Wyoming. For 
nearly a hundred years both profes- 
sional and amateur collectors have 
been obtaining specimens from this 
locality for museums and private col- 
lections all over the world. At the pres- 
ent time an effort is being made to 
have Fossil Butte designated as a na- 
tional monument in order to preserve 
this unique site. 

The fish assemblage in the Green 
River Formation is a curiously mixed 
one in terms of present-day fresh-water 
fish faunas in the Northern Hemi- 
sphere. A sting ray, probably belong- 
ing to the living genus Dasyatis, is 
know n from many delicately preserved 
specimens. Since the sting ray is a 
bottom feeder, it must have lived in 
places where the lake bottom support- 
ed abundant clams and other hard- 
shelled invertebrates. The paddlefish 
(Polyoclon) , with a living relative in 
China, is represented by a few speci- 
mens. It may have been primarily an 
inhabitant of the small rivers that 
drained into the lakes. The living pad- 
dlefish feeds on tiny organisms sus- 



pended in the water, and it is possible 
that the ancient ones were attracted to 
the lakes by an abundance of food. 
Paddlefish were present in Cretaceous 
ponds and streams so the Green River 
ones probably represent survivors 
from the Age of Dinosaurs. Remains 
of the gar Lepisoslcus are locally abun- 
dant in the sediments of Lake Uinta, 
and beautiful specimens are occasion- 
ally found around Fossil. The gar and 
the bowfin, Amia, were active preda- 
tors that lived in the lakes and in sur- 
rounding rivers and streams. Both were 
also present in the Late Cretaceous of 
western North America and still sur- 
vive in many parts of the continent. 

The most abundant and di\ersified 
bony fishes now living, called the tele- 
osts, are represented in the Green River 
by at least nine genera. The most com- 
mon and widespread are two kinds 
of herrings— the previously mentioned 
Knightia, and Diplomystus. They are 
often referred to as double-armored 
herrings because they have a row of 
characteristically modified scales, or 
scutes, along the mid-line of the back 
from the skull to the dorsal fin. Fishes 
of this type exist today in the coastal 
waters of Peru and eastern Australia. 
Although they are primarily marine, 
herrings have invaded fresh water 
many times. Diplomystus is known 
from Cretaceous rocks of Syria and 
Brazil and from the Tertiary of Brazil, 
West Africa, and possibly Europe, 
while Knightia has also been found in 
Tertiarv beds in South America. Her- 
rings usually move about in large 
schools, feeding on plankton. Slabs of 
Green River shale have been found 
covered with hundreds of Knightia 
specimens, indicating mass mortality 
of whole schools. The reason for the 
apparently simultaneous death of large 



Larvae are in the Syrphiilae family, 
which has many genera of dipterous 
flies that live in decaying plants. 



^^ 



Another fly larva is, like the one 
above, show n here 2. It may be that 
of a horsefly, a gadfly, or a deerfly. 




Chaiivs of conidia, in magnification 
of X430. are from fungus that has a 
similarity to the living genus Torula. 

17 





A BIRD, Gallinuloides sp., was once but it is more similar to fowl-like 
thought to be related to gallinules, chachalaca of the tropical Americas. 



numbers of fishes in the Green River 
lakes remains a matter for speculation, 
although we do know today that such 
mortality might be caused by a rapid 
reduction of oxygen or by toxic sub- 
stances produced by blue-green algae. 

ALMOST as widespread, but never 
^ locally as abundant, are speci- 
mens of a fish called Phareodus. It 
belongs to the exclusively fresh-water 
family Osteoglossidae, which is now 
restricted to South America, Africa, 
Australia, Thailand, Sumatra, and 
Borneo. In Eocene times, however, the 
osteoglossids occurred in Europe as 
well as in North America. Phareodus 
seems to be most closely related to the 
living genus Osteoglossum of South 
America. Perhaps the most unexpected 
member of the Green River fish fauna 
is a form called Notogoneus. This ge- 
nus belongs to the family Gonorhyn- 
chidae, which includes one living ge- 




Most complete fossil snake found in 
North America is boa, above, which 



is 38 inches long. Boaius idelmani 
was found in the Fossil Basin area. 



nus, Gonorhynchus, sometimes called 
the sandfish. It lives in coastal waters 
in the western Pacific, but its Tertiary 
relatives inhabited fresh waters in 
Europe and North America. Gono- 
rhynchus and Notogoneus have small, 
ventrally situated mouths, indicating 
bottom feeding. Notogoneus has been 
found only in the deposits around Fos- 
sil and, curiously enough, in the Early 
Tertiary of France. The catfish Ictalu- 
rus existed in all of the Green River 
lakes. Pirate perches, represented by 
small fishes called Erismatopterus, are 
abundantly preserved in the deposits 
of Gosiute Lake. They differ in no sig- 
nificant way from the modern pirate 
perches that occur in the streams of 
eastern North America. 

The true perches (Percidae) have 
probably been widely distributed over 
the Northern Hemisphere since the be- 
ginning of the Tertiary Period (Nat- 
ural History, February, 1964). The 




Skull of crocodile Leidyosuchus is 
13 inches long, and its presence in 



the formation helps to illuminate the 
picture of these vast, ancient lakes. 

19 



Green River representative of this well- 
known family is named Mioplosus. Its 
remains have been found abundantly 
around Fossil, but it probably lived in 
all of the Green River lakes. 

The last member of the fauna is the 
spiny-rayed fish Priscacara. Although 
this genus has been assigned to various 
perchlike families, recent studies in- 
dicate that it belongs to the Serranidae, 
or basses. The basses have been wide- 
ly distributed in marine waters since 
the Late Cretaceous and have probably 
invaded fresh water repeatedly. 

THE Green River fishes are of par- 
ticular interest for two reasons. 
First, they demonstrate that modern 
families and even genera, such as Ic- 
talurus, were in existence by the Early 
Tertiary. This implies that teleosts 
must have become diversified rapidly 
during the Cretaceous, although we 
have little knowledge of where and 
how this radiation took place. Second. 
this fauna indicates that certain fami- 
lies inhabited a wider range of environ- 
ment and had a wider geographical 
distribution than their living relatives. 
As pointed out earlier, the gonorhyn- 
chids are today exclusively marine 
and confined to the western Pacific. 
The osteoglossids now occur only in 
the Southern Hemisphere. The Green 
River lakes undoubtedly had some con- 
nection with the sea. possibly through 
a river system draining either into the 
Gulf of California or the Gulf of Mex- 
ico, and marine forms could have 
entered the lakes by this route. 

The Green River fossils include not 
only representatives of plants and ani- 
mals that actually lived in the lakes 
but also remains of terrestrial forms 
from surrounding land areas. In addi- 
tion, the adjacent contemporaneous 
flood plain and stream channel de- 
posits furnish further evidence on the 
life of the lake environment. Around 
the lakes and throughout the inter- 
montane basins grew an almost con- 
tinuous mixed forest. Upland trees, 
such as spruce, pine, and fir, are repre- 
sented in the Green River beds pri- 
marily by pollen carried into the lakes 
by winds. Oak, poplar, maple, ash, 
beech, elm, and hickory grew on the 
lower slopes. Willow, laurel, and alder 



Single, 3- by -t-foot bedding slab was 
covered with 300 herrings (Knightia), 
some of which are seen here. Reasons 
for this mass mortality are unknown. 

20 



grew closer to shore, along with sago 
palms, hibiscus, and fig trees, which 
gave the region a semitropical aspect. 
The delicately preserved leaves of 
these trees are among the most beauti- 
ful of the Green River fossils. The 
ground beneath the trees was covered 
with a variety of ferns, mosses, liver- 
worts, holly, viburnum, and lilac. 

The animals that inhabited the lake 
shores were many and diverse. Am- 



phibian remains have not been found 
in the Green River sediments, but they 
are known from the interfingering 
Bridger Formation. These include a 
toad whose living descendants are 
adapted for burrowing during dry 
periods. This again suggests long peri- 
ods without rain. Crocodiles, such as 
Leidyosuchus, and several kinds of tur- 
tles also lived along the shores, where 
they basked on the mud flats. Birds 




must have been abundant and diversi- 
fied; they arc reprcHenled in the Green 
Hiver by fossil feathers and a skeleton 
of the fowl -I ike Gallinidoides. Herbi- 
vorous mammals such as eohippus, 
primitive tapirs, rhinoceroses, and ti- 
tanothcres browsed in the forests and 
open f^lades. A variety of archaic car- 
nivores, up to the size of large wolves, 
preyed upon these ancient plant eaters. 
Squirrel-like rodents moved about in 



the trees together with early primates, 
while tiny insectivores scurried about 
on the forest floor. Several well-pre- 
served bat skeletons have been found 
in recent years. 

Today the motorist who travels 
through southwestern Wyoming or 
northeastern Utah will see the Green 
River Formation exposed in a series of 
rather monotonous rounded hills, oc- 
casional high cliffs and, especially in 



Utah, steep-walled canyons. Even from 
a distance the rocks of the formation 
can be recognized by tfieir characteris- 
tic weathering pattern, their usually 
gray-buff color, and their banded ap- 
pearance. To the traveler who is trying 
to reach Reno by nightfall, these rocks 
liold little interest, but to those who 
are willing to stop and look and per- 
haps be rewarded by a fossil leaf or 
fish, the past can come vividly to life. 



J?^- 



'^^yf'^: 









Weed Is Where You Find It 




!/ 






'Vl^ «JI' 



kiT. 



II 






•■^' 



•#^ 






AN INFINITE VARIETY OF FORM AND COLOR CAN BE FOUND IN WILDFLOWERS 



A great portion of the New England states is 
covered with submarginal soil— a rocky land 
that defeated many early settlers and sent them 
West to open up more fertile farms. But in this 
soil— much of which is marshy, much acid— an 
incredible variety of wildflowers bloom from 
early spring until late autumn. The dull-white 



clusters of boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum) , 
above, are found in moist ground from July to 
September. The spectacular pink or white blos- 
soms of the sometimes tree-size rhododendron 
{Rhododendron maximum) are usually at 
their peak in the damp northern mountains 
from about the middle of June into July, right. 



Pbotograpliif by E. Javor»ky 




mm 




s 









• A 

■.'.r 
J 










Wild balsam apple, Echinocystis lobata 



Lady's thumb. Polygonum persicaria 



Mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia 




/<> 



New England aster. Aster novae-angli, 



"^^ 



BRIGHT OR DULL, 
THEY ENRICH THE LAND 



4- 



Most of these plants have been called weeds by 
someone at some time. That is because by defi- 
nition a weed is "a plant that grows where you 
don't want it," whether it be a thistle or an oak 
tree. It also applies to the wild balsam apple, 
whose September fruit is seen above; the sturdy 
mountain laurel, with its delicate spring 
blooms; the long-flowering lady's thumb; and 
the New England aster, which often decorates 
moist spots from August throughout October. 



•♦ 



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'^Jm-y. 











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i;^'*^^^^ 



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i^. 



.iy^vv- 



f^' 



'A'' «? 



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JM 



.^'- 



The Threshing Sledge 

An ancient Turkish grain-separating method still proves efficient 




'Mil harvest at small village o{ Suberde in the 
'.iiirus Mountains. Girl with fork spreads the 



wheat in front of doven, another drives, and two add their 
weight to the sledge as it threshes grain and chops stalks. 




By Jacques Bordaz 

UNTIL the development of metal- 
lurgy, man depended on stone to 
make his tools and weapons. Of all the 
types of stone used by early man, flint 
was preferred because it was extreme- 
ly hard, and yet it could be easily 
knapped. So important was it, that 
early man's technological progress can 
be measured by his ability to manu- 
facture flint tools without waste. In 
Late Paleolithic times, skillful manu- 
facture of smaller and lighter tools 
made it possible for man to extend 
his hunting range far from his flint 
sources. Even after man had begun to 
farm, flint was used until metal tools 
became common. 

However, flint was never completely 
abandoned. It was used over a large 
section of Eurasia as "strike-a-light." 
Oddly enough, in this capacity it be- 
came an essential material from the 
sixteenth to the nineteenth century, 
concurrent with the development of 
firearms. When percussion caps and 
friction matches were invented, the 
importance of flint seemed to have end- 
ed. Except for its use by a few primi- 
tive societies in marginal areas of the 
world, one would think that today 
flint would interest only archeologists, 
collectors of antique firearms, and a 
few modern knappers, who still make 
stone artifacts for fun or profit. 

Therefore I was surprised to learn, 
during the course of my archeological 
field work in Turkey, that flint was 
still an important material for riiany 
Turkish farmers who use it most effi- 
ciently for food production. Thus, the 
farmers who worked with us on a Neo- 
lithic site, rich in flint artifacts, would 



leave at the end of the day to thresh 
their newly harvested wheat with flint- 
studded sledges. 

Since about 7,000 B.C., when wheat 
was first domesticated in the Near 
East, man has searched for efficient 
methods for separating the grains 
from the rest of the plant. It is relative- 
ly easy to separate the whole spikes 
from the stalks and to break them into 
pieces by beating them w ith sticks. But 
the husks, especially those of primitive 
varieties of wheat, tend to hold the 
grain tenaciously. 

Probably the earliest solution to the 
problem was to parch the wheat ears. 
One example of a simple parching 
method could be observed in Scotland 
as late as the eighteenth century. The 
ears of wheat, still attached to the 
stalks, were held over a flame, and the 
grains were beaten oil with a stick the 
instant the husks were burned. Ovens 
could have been used to "pop" the 
grain. At the site of Jarmo in northern 
Iraq, where the first evidence for 
wheat domestication was found (Nat- 
ural History, October, 1964) , there 
were domed mud ovens, which might 
have been used for the purpose. These 
methods may have burned the grain- 
fortunately for the archeologist. Ac- 
cidents during parching, or while dry- 
ing the grain in kilns, have yielded 
large quantities of well-preserved, car- 
bonized grains that contribute to 
our knowledge of ancient agriculture. 
There is evidence that even the very 
early farmers selected those varieties 
of wheat that were easiest to separate 
from the husks. At the same time, 
other methods that did not involve the 
use of fire were developed for the sepa- 
ration of grain from husk. 



ChoI'PEU stalks and chaff are carried 
to etorage in wooden, V-khaped waicont:. 



The alternative to parching is one 
of three basic threshing methods- 
beating, treading, or sledging. The use 
of sticks to thresh wheat is obviously 
of great antiquity, and was widespread. 
A much more efficient beating imple- 
ment, the two-piece flail, was probably 
invented in Caul, but not until the 
fourth century A.D., and came into 
common use in Europe during the 
Middle Ages. It continued to be the 
most important threshing implement 
in Europe until the beginning of the 
nineteenth century, when it was slow- 
ly replaced by machines— at first essen- 
tially mechanized, multiple flails. 

The second basic method— treading 
—was developed in the Mediterranean 
area and in the Near East, where it 
is still used in some places today. The 
wheat is spread in a circle over the 
hard-beaten earth of the threshing 
area. Donkeys, cattle, or horses are 
driven continuously around the cir- 
cle until their hoofs have freed the 
grain from the husks. This method is 
often illustrated in the art of ancient 
Egypt, where it was the prevalent 
threshing method. Treading is remark- 
ably fast and efficient when many ani- 
mals can be used simultaneously. This 
method probably was not used in 
northern Europe, because unlike flail- 
ing, which can be done under cover, it 
leaves the wheat exposed to rain dam- 
age in those countries that lack an ex- 
tended dry season. 

THE third and most complex meth- 
od—sledging—was also developed 
and widely used in the countries of the 
Mediterranean and the Near East. The 
two most important implements used 
are the Carthaginian cart (plostellum 
poenicum) and the threshing sledge. 
The plostellum — basically a heavy 
wooden frame resembling a sled— is 
described in the Roman literature as 
early as the first century B.C., and owes 
its name to the toothed wheels or roll- 
ers that are used to thresh the wheat. 
These are studded with metal teeth 
and are set on two or three axles 
placed between the runners. Cattle or 
horses are used to pull the plostellum, 
and there is a seat for the driver, 
mounted on the runners just over the 
axles. The plostellum. was widely used 
in Tunisia, eastern Spain, and Egypt, 

27 




nessed by traces to a swingletree that 
is linked to a vertical wooden peg at- 
tached to the doven. 

Each farmer brings his harvest to 
his own section of a communal thresh- 
ing area on the outskirts of the village 
—an area chosen for its proper ex- 
posure to the wind, an essential in 
winnowing. The wheat is spread in a 
circle one foot thick and about forty 
feet in diameter. One man drives the 
doven in a circle over the wheat, and 
another continually turns it with a 
wooden fork until all of the grain has 
been separated and the stalks chopped 
into very small pieces. The threshed 
wheat is carried outside the circle, 
heaped into rectangular mounds, and 
winnowed. Because the grain is the 
heaviest part, it falls to the ground 
almost immediately; the chaff and the 
chopped stalks are carried some dis- 
tance away by the wind. The grain is 



Dung is carefully collecled during the 
threshing and is later burned as fuel. 



Reed huts at every family site dot 
the communal threshing area, right. 



and is still used extensively in eastern 
Turkey and central Iran. 

The true threshing sledge is of even 
greater antiquity. It is of simpler con- 
struction than the plostellum, made es- 
sentially of heavy, flat boards that 
curve upward at the front. Numerous 
stone fragments, usually flint, are set 
into the underside. The sledge is pulled 
by animals and the driver stands— or 
sometimes sits— on a chair placed di- 
rectly on the boards. 

THIS sledge is well known by its 
Roman name of tribulum, but 
much earlier references are made to it. 
For example, in the Old Testament 
(Oxford Annotated Bible, Revised 
Standard Edition 1962), in Isaiah 
(41:15), which is probably from the 
eighth century B.C., it was reported 
that God had told Israel that He would 
make her strong in these words: "Be- 
hold, I will make of you a threshing 
sledge, new, sharp, and having teeth; 
you shall thresh the mountains and 
crush them, and you shall make the 
hills like chaff. . . ." 

The tribulum was especially popular 
in northern Spain, Greece, Palestine, 
Syria, Cyprus, and Turkey, but it does 
not seem to have been much used in 
temperate Europe, probably for the 
same climatic reasons that discour- 
aged treading. Neverthless, it has sur- 
vived in the English language as the 
root of the word "tribulation." 

28 



In the Pisidian lakes region of 
southwestern Turkey, where I had the 
opportunity to observe the use of the 
tribulum, it is usually referred to as a 
doven. It is about six feet long and two 
and a half feet wide and is made by 
using two or three rectangular cross- 
pieces to join two parallel, hewn 
planks. The planks are two and a half 
inches thick and narrow slightly in the 
front, which gives the doven a trape- 
zoidal shape. The front of the sledge 
is hewn into an upward curve, and the 
area of the flat underside is often 
planed so it is thicker at the back than 
at the front. In this flat area— about 
two-thirds of the entire length— are 
chiseled six to eight hundred parallel, 
wedge-shaped slots, one to three 
inches long. Each board has twenty to 
twenty-three rows of thirteen to eight- 
een slots, which are usually arranged 
in diagonal rows or in a herringbone 
pattern pointing to the front. The slots 
hold flints that are knapped in trian- 
gular or rectangular flakes, two to four 
inches long. They are shipped south in 
canvas bags from the Kiitahya and 
Eskisehir regions to carpenters who 
specialize in the manufacture of 
doven, and to hardware stores that 
supply farmers with repair materials. 

Pairs of animals are hitched to the 
sledge. When cattle are used, a chain 
on the yoke is attached to a hook on 
the front crosspiece. Horses, which 
sometimes are used singly, are bar- 




packcrl into canvas bags after Iieinj; 
sifted tiirough round, fine-meshed 
screens to remove earth and other de- 
bris. Each farmer |)iies his chojiped 
stalks and chad into rectanfi;ular heaps, 
which he carts to the villafi;e and stores. 

This chopped straw has several uses 
—as a fodder during the winter, mixed 
with dunp; for fuel, and mixed with 
mud to make bricks or to cover walls. 
Its imjxirtance to the farmer explains, 
in part, the continuing; popularity of 
the threshing sledge, which, in one op- 
eration, provides him with two vital 
products. In other methods the farmer 
must chop the stalks separately. 

It is known that treading with many 
animals is faster than threshing with a 
sledge, and probably destroys less 
grain. On the other hand, in order for 
treading to be efficient, many animals 
must be used during harvesttime when 
they are in most demand for other pur- 



poses. Furthermore, one or more expe- 
rienced men are needed to handle a 
large number of unharnessed animals 
simultaneously. Those men could be 
better used in the harvesting and cart- 
ing. In contrast, sledging is a simple 
task, especially with cattle. It is gener- 
ally carried out by old peo])le and even 
by young children, who ribviously en- 
joy the work and are also able to con- 
tribute to harvest activities. 

Since cattle were the first domesti- 
cated animals able to pull a threshing 
sledge, one may date its first use close 
to the time of the first evidence of cat- 
tle domestication— that is, perhaps as 
early as 7,000 years ago. The ancient 
threshing sledge will very likely re- 
main an efTicient grain-threshing and 
stalk-chojjping implement for many 
farmers of the Mediterranean lands 
and the Near East until mechanized 
agriculture becomes more prevalent. 




.<tv 



( iiin I ii I I 1 ■ 1 - 111 li'iii.iiii . 
are Wdrii -iiioolh tr<inj coiiliiuijl 










■V*^ __^ **-w 







Nesting of the 
Wood Stork 

Unusual Florida site aids in observation 



By George Heinzman 
and DoROTHA Heinzman 

FOUR of the seventeen species of 
storks of the world are called 
wood storks. The one native to the 
United States is Mycleria americana. 
of the family Ciconiidae, which is still 
often called the wood ibis. This bird 
is also known locally as flinthead, 
ironhead. and jjiourdhead— names de- 
scriptive of its heavy bill and the 
rough, black skin of its head and neck. 

Few details about the habits of the 
wood stork existed until recent years, 
when Philip Kahl. Jr.. .Mexander 
Sprunt IV. and the late Robert Porter 
Allen undertook studies in Florida for 
the National Audubon Society. Our 
studies, with the Florida Audubon So- 
ciety, were made in central Florida. 

The wood stork, which nests in colo- 
nies and is usually found in groups 
throughout the year, prefers an en- 
vironment of wooded swamps sur- 
rounded by broad marshes. At one 
time the bird ranged through most of 
the southeastern United States, west to 
Texas, and south through Mexico into 
South America, but its known breed- 
ing range within the United States is 
now limited to Florida— although there 
are migratory wanderings in other 
states. The fourteen known wood stork 
colonies in Florida can be divided 
roughly into two breeding populations 
—those in south Florida, which nest 
through the winter months, and those 
in central Florida, which begin later 
but overlap in time and nest on 
through the spring months. 

The handsome wood stork is 3 to 
3% feet tall, has a wingspread of 
about 5y2 feet, and weighs 6 to 10 



These storks chose an unconventional 
nesting area— the tops of dead oaks. 




Althovch graceful in flight, wood 
stork is awkward and clumsy on foot. 



pounds. Its white plumage is broken 
bv the iridescent black flight and tail 
feathers with green and purple hues. 
There is no visible difference between 
the plumage of the sexes. During the 
breeding season, the white undertail 
coverts become plumelike, and a pale, 
pinkish cast appears under the wings. 

The birds' dark legs are sometimes 
so covered with excreta that they ap- 
pear chalky. Its heavy bill, which is 
bright vellow in nestlings and dark 
in the adult, equips the bird for a 
groping type of feeding rather than for 
the stabbing type that is typical of 
herons (Natural History, June, 
1962). It gropes in shallow water, 
senses the food matter, and clamps its 
bill shut. Foot stirring and wing move- 
ments, used in conjunction, probably 
startle small fish and crustaceans into 
conspicuous activity. 

Although its flapping flight appears 
heavy at low elevations, the stork 
soars effortlessly once it is aloft. To 

31 





Courtship, which includes bill clapping, wing flapping, 
head shaking, and posturing, immediately precedes and also 



continues during the stork's nest-building period. Within 
a week after arriving at rookery, female lays her first egg. 



reach distant feeding grounds, it often 
soars high on rising columns of warm 
air and lines out in a slanting glide. 

During the 1960 to 1961 breeding 
season, one of the central Florida colo- 
nies provided us a unique opportunity 
for observation. Ancestral breeding 
grounds at Panther Point in Polk 
County had been converted into a 
settling basin for water drainage from 
phosphate mining, and the trees died 
as the sludge slowly rose around them. 
The storks, however, moving from 
cypress to oaks, refused to leave the 
area. The sludge finally rose to a point 
just below the birds nesting in the 
upper branches of the trees, and pro- 
vided us with an excellent opportunity 
to take photographs from a boat. 

Late in February the storks began 
to congregate at the breeding grounds. 
By mid-March, we estimated 400 birds 
to be present, and at the high point— 
mid-April— more than 1.000 storks in- 
habited the colony. On May 28, some 
288 nests were still in use, and the 
last young fledged in late July. We 
estimated that during the entire sea- 
son, which extended over a five-month 
period, there were about 400 active 
nests in the colony, and that most 
of them produced two to four young. 

The wood stork's courtship involves 
a mixture of hostility and sexual be- 
havior—a not-unusual pattern in birds 
(Natural History, April, 1964). 
Once pairing begins, it proceeds 
rapidly. Bill clapping, wing flapping, 
head shaking, and posturing form part 
of the ritual. The flimsy nest, a com- 
paratively small platform for such a 
large bird, measures 30 to 36 inches 
in diameter and is constructed of 

32 



sticks, twigs, Spanish moss, and, al- 
most invariably, freshly added green 
leaves. It is built, and the first egg 
is laid, within a week after copulation, 
and nest repair continues until the 
young are fledged. 

DULL white eggs are laid at inter- 
vals of one to three or more days, 
and incubation begins at once. Both 
adult birds participate in incubation, 
which has been estimated as lasting 
about 32 days. Often the mate of the 
bird on duty stands by for long peri- 
ods. At other times, it forages for 
food. A bowing ceremony and billing 
accompany its return to relieve the 
mate on the nest. 

The young, unlike those of many 
birds, do not hatch at approximately 
the same time; they may emerge sev- 
eral days apart. Some observers have 
pointed out that this could well be one 
means of perpetuating the species. In 
years of plentiful food supply, all 
nestlings may live, but in lean years 
the oldest, and hence the strongest, will 
get their fill first, while the younger, 
weaker nestlings may starve. In this 
manner, at least a portion of the year's 
young will be salvaged, while if all 
nestlings had been the same size, all 
might have died. 

The newly hatched wood stork re- 
quires constant protection from the ex- 
tremes of weather. Its first few days 
are highly critical. Direct exposure 
of its nearly naked skin for more than 
a very few minutes could prove fatal, 
and its rapid growth rate requires 
many feedings. Thus, one parent bird 
must remain on the nest while the 
other makes trips to the feeding 



grounds. On hot days, we have often 
seen storks stand for hours, shading 
their nests with half-opened wings. 

The parents regurgitate food into 
the nest, and the young retrieve it. 
At first, the food is partially predi- 
gested in this manner, although a 
little later, small fish are deposited al- 
most intact. Toward the end of the 
nesting period, we have seen fish up to 
ten inches long brought to the young. 

Within ten days a white, woolly 
down begins to form, and in two weeks 
the nestling is covered. (We believe the 
accompanying photographs of nest- 
ling wood storks under two weeks of 
age are the first to be made under nat- 
ural conditions. ) At the age of about 
three weeks, black begins to show 
against the white down on the pri- 
maries, and the young begin to stand. 
Wing exercise begins and increases 
until the birds leave the nest. By the 
sixth week, a striking black-and-white 
plumage pattern is well developed, and 
the head and neck feathers begin to 
turn a smoky gray. 

By the eighth week the nestling is 
nearly as large as its parents. It prac- 
tices flying, flapping its wings strenu- 
ously and hopping into the air. With 
three or four large youngsters on 
such a comparatively small nest, con- 
ditions become very crowded, and 
each bird must wait its turn at exer- 
cise. The nestlings are noisy, while 
adults are apparently almost voiceless, 
their sounds largely limited to hissing 
and a resounding bill clapping. When 
the young are fully fledged, at about 
60 to 65 days, they have attained adult- 
size, although they will retain the gray 
plumage on head and neck until adult- 




Time lapse in hatching is shown by 
three nestlings 7 to 11 days old (top); 
12-day-old beside unhatched eggs; and 
3-week-old towering over 1-week-old. 



At 6 WEEKS, plumage pattern is well 
developed. Head and neck are now gray. 





Typical wood stork nest is flimsy, 
shallow, and quickly built. Repair 

hood, probably about the third year. 
The stork's first flights are short and 
are limited to the limbs immediately 
surrounding the nest. Gradually the 
flights become longer— from tree to 
tree in the colony, and finally to areas 
outside the colony. During the inten- 
sive feeding period, the adults we 
observed seemed to forage at more dis- 
tant feeding grounds, leaving nearby 
grounds virtually untouched. Later, 
although the parents continued to 
bring food to the nest for a few days, 
the newly fledged young visited these 
closer grounds and collected a portion 
of their own food. 

IMMATURE birds often form flocks, 
flying and feeding by themselves 
and mingling with adults only at the 
colony. Shortly, however, the colony 
begins to thin out, and within a month 
or so after the last young have flown, 
the birds begin their summer wander- 
ings. At this stage, we have seen small 
bands of immatures in shallow, 
marshy waters far from any colony, 
with no adults nearby. 

After the nesting season, wood 
storks wander generally north and 
northwest in more of a dispersal than a 
true migration pattern. Possibly de- 
pending on food abundance, these 

34 



continues through season, and birds 
often rob sticks from another nest. 



wanderings may reach, although 
rarely, the northeastern and far west- 
ern states. Then, as the breeding sea- 
son approaches, the birds again con- 
gregate in the colony's general vicinity. 

What triggers the breeding season 
is not clearly understood. The dif- 
ference in starting dates between col- 
onies in south Florida and those in 
central Florida is so great that it is 
unlikely that temperature or light are 
governing factors. Food availability 
seems important, however, because a 
large stork colony requires literally 
tons of food during a season. The Na- 
tional Audubon Society has estimated 
that up to 50 pounds of food are re- 
quired for each nestling wood stork. 
Thus. 12.000 young storks, which 
might be raised in one colony such as 
Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary, require 
300 tons of food, mostly fish. This fig- 
ure is for nestlings alone, and does 
not include adult bird requirements. 
Probably the total consumption at the 
small colony at Panther Point would 
approximate 50 tons. 

One theory of food availability, 
developed by Philip Kahl, Jr., is 
based on water level. In comparatively 
flat Florida, heavy rains can more 
than double the water surface and 
cause a wide dispersal of food. But 



when the food concentrates in smaller 
areas as a result of falling water levels, 
it is more readily available to the 
birds. Extreme drought, on the other 
hand, so dries the marshes that food 
is greatly reduced. Another factor, we 
believe, may be the formation of fa- 
vorable air currents that enable the 
stork to range farther in search of 
food. If rising columns of thermal air 
allow the bird to double its feeding 
radius, the feeding area is quadrupled 
while the bird expends very little addi- 
tional energy. Most days during the 
nesting season— in central Florida, at 
least— are favorable to the formation 
of these currents, and perhaps breed- 
ing begins partiafly as a result of j 
these. After a cold night, there may be i 
as much as a 40- to 50-degree tem- 
perature rise from dawn to noon at 
ground level, causing fast-rising col- 
umns of air. We have seen some birds 
seek such a thermal current and rise in 
minutes to an estimated height of a 
mile without moving a wing. 

THE wood stork has had a long his- 
tory of decline, brought about 
more by destruction of habitat than 
by any other single factor. Timber cut- 
ting and marsh drainage have reduced 
the stork population's preferred envi- 
ronment. The 1961 to 1962 season was 
a notable failure. While three stork 
colonies in the mangroves of Ever- 
glades National Park were active, 
those in the "big cypress" of south 
Florida and those in central Florida 
were non-productive. Birds appeared 
at or near some of the colonies but did 
not nest, while at other colonies, no 
birds appeared. The decrease was at- 
tributed to limited feeding facilities 
because of drought. Most of these colo- 
nies became active the following sea- i 
son, 1962 to 1963, and we located a ' 
new one in central Florida that re- 
placed one small colony that was lost. 
At the Panther Point colony that year i 
the birds returned to find trees in the 
area deeply submerged in sludge, with ! 
their protruding tops rotten and crum- ' 
bling. As a result, the storks nested in 
live trees about a mile away. 

Although three of the past four 
nesting seasons have been successful, \ 
the wood stork is currently in a pre- } 
carious position. Its future in the 
United States hinges upon man's con- 
servation of its remaining habitat. 
Land drainage and timber destruction 
continue at a stepped-up pace in Flor- 
ida, effectively destroying the major 



factors of the wood stork's ecology— 
lrc<-s to accommodate nests near 
marshes lar^e enough to provide food. 
'I'he National Audubon Society 
owns and protects Corkscrew Swamp 
Sanctuary, the largest remaining stork 
colony, and three other colonies re- 
ceive protection in Everglades Na- 
tional Park. The Florida Audubon So- 
ciety has co-operated with private 
landowners to make sanctuaries of 
three more colonies. These and other 
co-operative efforts may mean the dif- 
/ ference between the survival and the 
extinction of our only native stork. 




Wood stohks normally nest high in 
the tops of live bald cypress trees. 



ISf.st of four is (•row<le<] before the 
birds take flight at about 65 days. 



r 




I 



L 





'^*^^K' 



:n*?r 






'.^. ^'^•\V 




Inverted and enlarged mirages, caused by air temperature differences, occur at sea. 
Artist's rendition of "looming," on Greenland's east coast, was published in 1821. 



36 





Curved light rays create images in the sky 



By David Linton 

MIRAGES, often portrayed as halluci- 
nations caused by extreme thirst, 
are actually just as real as images seen 
through a telescope, and both are pro- 
duced by a bending of light rays. In a 
telescope, rays of light coming from 
an object are bent by glass lenses be- 



fore they reach one's eyes. In a mirage, 
they are bent in much the same way by 
layers of hot and cold air. 

The most common mirage is the 
shiny "wet" patch that appears far 
ahead on a highway but disappears as 
it is approached. Often blue in color, 
this mirage is an image of the sky. It 
glistens on the highway because the 



sun striking' the pavement heats the 
layer of air nearest the road, Gauging 
it to expand and bef-ome thinner. This 
layer of thin air is topjjed by a layer 
of heavier air, and the normally thin- 
ner air is then on top of that. (Ordinar- 
ily, the atmosphere near the earth is 
dense and becomes thinner at higher 
altitudes. I It is this giant sandwich, 
or "temperature inversion." that can 
bend light rays in much the same way 
water in a bucket seems to bend a stick 
projecting from it. The path of light 
that carries the image of the stick to 
one's eyes is straight until it reaches 
the water, a denser medium, and then 
it continues at a different angle. 

LIGHT will also be bent in the at- 
_ mosphere. although the change in 
density from one layer of air to an- 
other is less abrupt than the change in 
density from air to water. When one 
sees a "lake" on the highway, the light 
reaching one's eyes has actually trav- 
eled in a long curve through layers of 
varying air density from the sky, and 
what is seen is not the highway, but 
the sky. In the same w-ay. the light 
from a rising or setting sun is so re- 
fracted by the atmosphere that when 
one sees the sun at the horizon, it is 
actually below it. For this reason, as- 
tronomical observations must be cor- 
rected for refraction. 

Because mirages depend on large 
temperature differences in the air, they 
occur most often in places where tem- 
perature ranges are extreme— in des- 
erts and polar regions. Deserts can be 
very cold at night and very hot in the 
day, and lakes often appear in the des- 
ert just as they do on a highway. Dur- 
ing summer months in the polar 
regions, when there is almost continu- 
ous sun, the land warms quickly, while 
the sea stays cold much longer. When 
warm air from the land forms a layer 
above tlie cold air from the sea, in- 
verted or enlarged mirages may occur 
above the surface of the sea. 

Inverted images of ships, islands, or 
icebergs may be seen in the spring 
along the seacoast in the polar regions. 
The optical effect is similar to the in- 
verted image of an object that one 
views through a camera. Sometimes, 
depending on the refractive index of 
each layer of air, the real object is vis- 

37 




Iceberg, inside gray haze, appears doubled. Thin white line near top is inverted 
mirage of the lower, apparently solid, white line— actually floating pieces of ice. 



ible, right side up, and the inverted 
image just touches it at the top. A 
lighthouse in the Strait of Belle Isle, 
between Newfoundland and Labrador, 
is often seen "double" in this way. At 
other times the object itself is over the 
horizon {see diagram below), and 
only the upside-down image may be 
seen. The crew of a Canadian govern- 
ment supply ship on a summer voyage 
in Hudson Strait once saw a sailing 
ship upside down in the sky. The im- 
age was so clear, they reported, that 
they could see the ropes in the rigging 
and sailors walking about the deck. 
Later in the summer they encountered 
the actual ship, and a comparison of 
the ships' logs showed that they had 
been 75 miles apart when the mirage 
occurred. The inverted mirage takes 
place occasionally in the desert, too, 



causing towns or oases to appear m 
the distance when they are actually 
over the horizon many miles away. 
The stories of travelers having been 
fooled by these mirages are largely 
fictitious ; only a very confused and ex- 
hausted traveler could fail to notice 
that the buildings and palm trees were 
upside down ! 

A more common, though less spec- 
tacular, type of mirage often seen at 
sea is the enlarged mirage, a phe- 
nomenon known as "looming," in 
which objects are greatly magnified 
in height and occasionally in width. 
When the object is viewed through 
horizontal layers of air of varying den- 
sity, the layers act as a lens, magnify- 
ing the object in a vertical direction. 
If the atmosphere is likewise vertically 
stratified, the object will be magnified 





Light rays, bent by air layers of varying density, can either produce an inverted 
image, as at the top, or create the effect of "looming," as seen in loiver sketch. 

38 



in width as well. In Europe this effect 
is called the fata morgana, after a 
mirage that recurs frequently across 
the Strait of Messina, which separates 
Sicily from the Italian mainland. From 
across the Strait, the opposite shore 
seems to be stretched upward, and 
everything on it is magnified. The ef- 
fect was named the fata morgana as it 
was originally thought to be the work 
of Morgan le Fay, legendary sister of 
King Arthur. Fata is fairy in Italian. 

Looming can occur almost any- 
where along the seacoast. A band or 
layer of slight haze forms along the 
horizon and whatever is within that 
layer will seem to have been stretched 
upward. Ships and islands appear 
taller than normal and often seem to 
float just above the sea's surface. 

Inverted and elongated mirages will 
sometimes appear together. The 
stretched image will be surmounted 
by an inverted image, and on rare oc- 
casions, several images will appear one 
on top of the other, alternately right 
side up and upside down. An inferior 
mirage, in which the image of an ele- 
vated object (usually a cliff or head- 
land) is seen inverted and below the 
real object, is even rarer. 

MIRAGES rarely remain unchanged 
for long. A slight breeze or warm- 
ing by the sun is enough to dissipate 
them, and they seldom seem complete- 
ly clear. A mirage can be seen from 
one viewpoint, but not from others, 
and it is not uncommon for the helms- 
man of a ship to see an "island" while 
the lookout in the crow's nest sees 
nothing. The mirage will move and 
change if the observer moves, and it is 
never possible to get close to it. This 
explains old sailors' stories about un- 
charted islands that are sighted from 
time to time but always disappear or 
recede when approached. Lucian of 
Samosata (a.d. 120-180) mentions 
one, called the Isle of Dreams, in his 
True History. Columbus writes in his 
diary that the inhabitants of two is- 
lands in the Canaries told him that 
every year at a certain season they saw 
an island to the west. They had sent 
several expeditions to look for it, but 
it always disappeared. 

Elusive as they are, however, mi- 
rages are not always unpredictable. 
Because of local weather and ocean 
conditions, there are places where they 
occur fairly regularly. The Strait of 
Messina is one of these, and the coast 
of Labrador is another (see photo- 



graphs at ri^lil) . The cold Labrador 
Current comes down from the Arctic 
carrying a mass of floating ice about 
one hundred thousand square miles in 
area. In summer the tem])erature of 
this water is still near frei;zing, but 
a few miles inland from the coast, the 
air temperature may be in the eighties 
or occasionally even higher. 

Near the mouth of Hamilton Inlet, 
a giant fiord that penetrates 120 miles 
into the interior of Labrador and dis- 
charges warmer water into the cold 
/sea, there are several small islands that 
almost always "loom." This mirage is 
such a regular occurrence that ship 
captains who sail the coast habitually 
can set their course by it while still too 
far away to see the islands themselves. 

IN 189Q, R. W. Wood, a British sci- 
entist, succeeded in reproducing 
mirages experimentally by viewing 
objects over a series of heated slate 
slabs. Since then, the optical condi- 
tions that produce mirages have been 
analyzed mathematically, and lenses 
can be made that will reproduce the 
effects seen in nature. These lenses are 
made of material of varying density, 
like the air, and form the same sort of 
"sandwich"— a dense layer between 
two layers of lesser density— that pro- 
duces mirages in the atmosphere. 

Most mirages are merely curiosi- 
ties, but we do know that on at least 
one occasion a mirage altered the 
course of history. In 1818, Sir John 
Ross was sent by the British Admiralty 
to look for the Northwest Passage. He 
turned back in Lancaster Sound (sit- 
uated in the Canadian Arctic between 
Baffin Island and Devon Island) be- 
cause, according to his report, Voyage 
of Discovery for the Purpose of Ex- 
ploring Baffin's Bay, he "distinctly saw 
land round the bottom of the bay form- 
ing a chain of mountains connected 
with those which extended along the 
north and south side." Ross then 
named these the "Croker Mountains" 
after a Secretary of the Admiralty. 
But his second-in-command, Lt. Ed- 
ward Parry, who was to become a fa- 
mous explorer in his own right, in- 
sisted that the mountains were no more 
than a fantastic optical illusion. Ross 
was the subject of ridicule and sus- 
picion when he returned to London, 
despite his genuine contributions to 
geography. We now know that Parry 
was right, and Lancaster Sound does 
lead to the Northwest Passage. The 
Croker Mountains were a mirage. 




Ih'adland and small island on Labrador coast were photographed by author as his 
skip sailed past. Seen from nearby, above, shore appears only slightly distorted. 




Wavy line near the top of the headland marks the upper limits of an atmospheric 
'''temperature inversion," which is causing the land to seem vertically stretched. 




Left slope of headland begins to look like a cliff, above, and island on left 
changes its shape. Air stratification is most pronounced in photograph below. 









I 



..>- - 









■''^ 



The Cross and Orb 



in Egypt 



hy ]OHN D. COONEY 



IT was about the year a. d. 50, according to an an- 
cient tradition, when the Apostle Marie arrived in 
Alexandria carrying the Gospel to the Egyptians. The 
magnificence and intellectual feats of that fabled city 
then were commencing to fade under the rising glory 
of Rome, but only commencing. The Alexandrian 
Library probably still stood, and not far away was the 
magnificent Temple of Serapis with its "Daughter Li- 
brary," the haunt of world-famed scholars. Tourists 
— and Egypt was even then a tourist country — gaped 
at the tomb of Alexander the Great with its golden 
sarcophagus, which contained the hero's body em- 
balmed in honey. Dominating the city, sea, and coun- 
tryside, the famed Pharos, or lighthouse, a scientific 
and architectural masterpiece, still flashed its warning 
light to mariners. The palace of the Ptolemies, looted 
of some of its treasures by the conquering Augustus, 
but still filled with royal collections accumulated over 
many centuries, looked down over these wondrous 
sights set in the midst of an opulent city. 

Probably such masterpieces of Greco-Egyptian civi- 
lization meant little to Mark. His purpose was to bring 
the Gospel to the Egyptians, and in that he seems to 
have succeeded. What he could never have known, for 
it became apparent only long after his death, was that 
he was establishing the last great cultural period of 
ancient Egypt, the Christian culture of the Egyptians 
known as the Coptic period. 

Here there is a difficulty, perhaps even a looseness, 
in the use of words. The adjective "Coptic" correctly 
is reserved for anything connected with Christianity in 
Egypt. This degree of precision is almost unobtain- 
able; for instance, certain reliefs from Terenuthis are 
of uncertain religious affiliation but are of very marked 
style — one that we recognize as Coptic. So the word 
Coptic is used, somewhat ambiguously, to identify one 
branch of Christianity and a school of art, which may 
or may not be Christian. 

Almost nothing is known of the progress of Chris- 
tianity in Egypt during the first three centuries of its 
existence beyond the fact that it did spread through the 
country. By a.d. 350, Christians probably outnum- 
bered pagans. Not more than a generation or two be- 
fore that date, the cultural change introduced by Mark 



xainted stone slela, probably A.D. 300, from 
Antinoe is pagan in subject but Coptic in style. 



■^s 



\ 



V3» -^ F 1 



« ^ 



LJioscoros and his sister, with Anubis, are 
shown on limestone stela in an attitude of prayer. 



had made its first great contribution in a new form of 
writing the ancient Egyptian language. Writing had 
appeared under unknown circumstances in ancient 
Egypt about 3100 b.c, and during the following mil- 
lenniums underwent changes in structure, form, and 
script. At all times, though, there must have been a 
great gap, as there was in Latin, between the written 
and spoken word, and reading and writing the various 
forms of Egyptian were confined to a limited percent- 
age of the population. Over the centuries the form of 
the written language was changed from the pictorial 
hieroglyphic to the simpler hieratic and then to de- 
motic, which, in Mark's time, was in general use. But 
even demotic was difficult to master. 

By the time Christianity came to Egypt, the edu- 
cated classes had become bilingual, for Greek was the 
court and literary language under the Ptolemaic kings. 
This explains why so much Greek literature has sur- 
vived until now in Egyptian papyri. In Lower Egypt, 
Greek probably predominated, but the average Upper 
Egyptian farmer must have known nothing of that 
rich tongue. The language of his Pharaonic ancestors 
was fine for speech, but written Egyptian, like Hebrew 
and Arabic, used no vowels. As a result, for one who 
lacked fluency in the language, an almost insurmount- 
able difficulty was presented in writing it. 

It was certainly in some ecclesiastical institution in 
Egypt that, late in the third century, a group of monks 
brilliantly solved the language difficulties of the time by 
establishing the system of using the Greek alphabet to 
write Egyptian (or Coptic, whose etymological deriva- 
tion is obscure ) , and introducing for the first time since 
3 100 B.C. the written expression of vowels in Egyptian. 
To cover those few Egyptian sounds not known in the 



41 




S/aiyuin, or funerary portrait, in tempera on a 
wood panel, was inserted over face of a mummy. 



Greek tongue some signs were continued from de- 
motic. The clarity and simplicity of the Greek alpha- 
bet enormously simplified the task of reading and 
writing Coptic and, obviously, helped greatly in bridg- 
ing the communication gap between Greek-speaking 
and Egyptian-speaking persons. But its chief value, 
anciently at least, was to develop a sense of individu- 
ality and importance among the less powerful classes 
in Egypt by making them literate. 

Coptic does not rank high as a literary language. 
It produced only one great stylist, the famed Shenuda 
of the fifth century— a great orator, a brilliant writer, 
a theologian, administrator, monastery builder, and 
foe of paganism. For the most part, however, Coptic 
was devoted to religious writings, a translation of the 
Bible, and innumerable, rather childish stories of now 
almost-forgotten saints. In the last two centuries Cop- 
tic has been of enormous interest, as it was one of the 
keystones in the rediscovery of reading hieroglyphic. 
Above all, it is our sole, if precarious, guide to the 
pronunciation of the language of Pharaonic Egypt. 

This clear development of the Coptic language and 
its impact on morale in Egypt is not paralleled in the 
development of Coptic art. Among the many reasons 
are that Egyptologists disdain the Coptic period as too 
late for their attention; inscribed, dated, or document- 
ed works of art are few; and, chiefly, far too few Coptic 
sites have been scientifically excavated or studied. 
While much existed, little has survived; early Coptic 
structures were frequently built directly over pagan 
monuments-even within them— and the Egyptological 
zeal of nineteenth-century excavators swept away 



Coptic remains as barriers to the sought for dynastic 
remains. Losses must also have been considerable at 
the time of the Arab conquest in the seventh century, 
and the destruction in later persecutions is known to 
have been very great. It is surprising, on reviewing 
modern studies in Coptic art, to find that the first im- 
portant study of surviving Coptic architecture in Cairo 
was not produced until the publications of A. J. But- 
ler in the 1880's. A charming and still-important work, 
it gives an unflattering picture of the intellectual level 
of the Copts at that date, when not even they were 
remotely interested in their own culture. Also in the 
nineteenth century Lord Curzon (on his productive 
tour of the monasteries of the Levant) had reported 
conditions much the same. 



COPTIC art was slow in maturing. For centuries 
after adopting Christianity, the Egyptian Chris- 
tians incorporated their pagan inheritance in their 
religion. For whatever reason, as late as the fifth cen- 
tury monks and laymen of undoubted orthodoxy bore 
names like Horus, Apollo, Amon, or Anubis, all 
names of contemned pagan deities. So it was with the 
art. The form, if not always the meaning, of typical 
Hellenistic or Roman monuments and objects seems 
to have served the Copts adequately. It is hard to find 
anything in the way of purely Christian art in Egypt 
before the fourth century, and there is little of that 
date that is unquestionably Christian. 

When Christian art did appear it was not a separate 
stylistic movement inspired by Christian artists seek- 
ing a new kind of expression, but in form, at least, it 
followed the style then current in the country, with 
the addition of Christian subject matter. Evidence is 
still lacking for conclusive proof of this statement, 
but a strong argument could be developed from the 
change in style of the Faiyum, or mummy portraits 
(funerary portraits in wax and tempera on wooden 
panels), which certainly end in full Coptic style, what- 
ever the religion of the subject, and a similar trend is 
evident in mummy cartonnages. 

The uncertainty surrounding the beginnings of Cop- 
tic art is illustrated in the stela shown on page 41, an 
example that is known to be typical of a cemetery at 
Terenuthis in the Nile Delta dating about a.d. 300. 
Here Dioscoros— described as "fond of his brothers" 
—and his sister Heraklea, who seems to have died at 
the age of thirteen, stand in the attitude of prayer 
(orans) in the presence of Anubis, the sacred jackal. 
Within the past months it has been argued, very reas- 
onably, that these gravestones are actually Christian, 
their pagan symbols being due to the unquestioning 
acceptance of a time-honored heritage, the original 
meanings of which had long since been forgotten. It 
hardly matters if the claim that these bear the earliest 
Christian inscriptions yet known will be generally ac- 
cepted, for, pagan or Christian, they are so far the 
earliest monuments to show the mature Coptic style. 



N, 



ereid within the border of birds and flowers 
appears in wool and linen tapestry, ca. A.D. 300. 



42 



At just about the same time (a.d. 300), far to the 
south of Tcrenuthis, what may have been a studio 
was protlucing sculptures in the Coptic style. That was 
at Sheikh Ibada near Anlinoii, where there apparent- 
ly was an important shrine of the goddess I sis. The 
sculpture is typical of the work of this Upper Egyptian 
school (pciifc 40). All the monuments represent boys, 
standing or seated within a niche, in most cases clasp- 
ing a dove and a bunch of grapes, symbols of the god- 
dess Isis in whose service these novices were dedicated. 
In subject the monuments arc pagan, but in the large 
eyes, squat bodies, and disregard of factual propor- 
tion, there are basic elements of Coptic style. 

Perhaps contemporary with these Isis sculptures— 
but in any case not much later in time and apparently 
from the same site — arc a series of Coptic sculptures 
that seem to come from the same workshop as the 
pagan monuments. Christian signs, chielly the cross 
and orb, were substituted for the symbols of Isis. 
Apart from their details, these monuments are indis- 
tinguishable from pagan prototypes. Unfortunately, 
the excavations at Sheikh Ibada were clandestine, and 
so we know nothing about them. Nor is it yet possible 
to trace the influence of the school on later work. 



BY the fifth century Coptic art was well developed. 
It is only a slight exaggeration to say that the fifth 
and sixth centuries marked the great period — develop- 
ment and decline, almost the disappearance — of Cop- 
tic art. If Coptic art is never truly free of an clement 
of provincialism, even in its greatest period, it is 
hardly to be wondered at. The wonder is that in those 
difficult times anything of consequence was made. 
Egypt was a poor country exploited as a crown prov- 
ince both by Rome and Constantinople. The Coptic 
clergy, devout and sincere, were intolerant and opin- 
ionated. Their attacks on pagans and pagan institu- 
tions in Alexandria were brutal and shocking, and the 
conduct of the patriarch was all too often vigorous 
rather than charitable. The Church was generally ad- 
dicted to theological disputes, and because it refused 
to give up its belief in the single nature of Christ (Mo- 
nophysitism), it was declared heretical by the Council 
of Chalcedon in a.d. 451. So it was that in the middle 
of the fifth century the Copts became isolated from 
both Eastern and Western Christianity. 

In this unfavorable climate, architecture and sculp- 
ture flourished. The Church had considerable political 
power and did receive gifts of buildings and perhaps 
even funds from the court at Constantinople. Curi- 
ously, even in the fifth century. Christian subjects were 
still rare in Coptic sculpture — and Coptic sculpture is 
largely relief. One would expect the various episodes 
of the life and death of Christ to be represented as the 
basis of the new faith, but such scenes are almost un- 
known. The Coptic — probably clerical — mind seems 
to have been nationalistic and somewhat petty in 
choosing religious scenes for the sculptures. In place 



Vresco painting from the Monastery of St. Apollo 
shows Christ, angels, apostles, Virgin and Child. 



of scenes of the life of Christ, which were the mainstay 
of the Western Church, the Copts depicted conversions 
and martyrdoms of Eastern saints, and only a few of 
them are readily recognizable today. All too often, 
perhaps even in the majority of scenes, the meaning 
is so obscure that precise identification is often im- 
possible and almost always debatable. The enigmatic 
scene in a relief now at the Princeton Museum (pane 
46), has been imaginatively identified as the Church 
receiving a military saint into heaven. Such groups 
must have had more meaning to the Coptic mind than 
they have to us. The doll-like figures arc typical and, 
rather touchingly. like amateur actors they stare at the 
spectator. The Christian scenes found on ivory objects 
of Alexandrian origin are. on the other hand, easy to 
identify for they are usually of biblical subjects. 

Coptic sculpture shows diversity to the extent that 
it lacks unity. This could be considered cither as a 
merit or a defect, but it does leave the impression that 
a series of local schools were working in Egypt at the 
same time and in very different styles. The Princeton 
relief cannot be far in time from the reliefs that can 
now be seen in The Brooklyn Museum. Yet all three 
are different. The frieze of animals galloping within 
foliage is a splendid example of Coptic ability to pro- 
duce architectural ornament in limestone in the Hel- 
lenistic spirit. It is difficult to reconcile this with the 
style of the Princeton relief or the one below, which 




L 



otKS flowers form background for god of the 
Nile and nymph. Relief is from school of Ahnas. 



is attributed to the school of Ahnas in Upper Egypt, 
perhaps the best source for fine Coptic sculpture. Here 
the subject seems to be the god that personifies the 
Nile, and the earth goddess Gaea. or Ge, amid lotus 
flowers. The angular, stylized treatment of the bodies 
with deep undercutting is as typical of this school of 
Ahnas as is the use of pagan subjects. The sculptors 
at this site did produce fine reliefs with Christian 
themes, but usually they show boys, called piitti, 
gracefully displaying a cross or some other Christian 
symbol, the treatment being entirely classical pagan. 
The pagan tradition, culturally at least, was still strong, 
and even at this late date — the fifth century, and into 
the sixth — some remarkable examples of Hellenistic 
style are known to have survived. 



45 



In the sixth century, for whatever cause, a new and 
rather widespread trend toward a iiat relief seems to 
have overtaken Coptic art. The work gives the impres- 
sion of having been created by a series of incisions and 
is suggestive of the technique of woodcutting. Even 
when the subjects are interesting, as is often the case, 
the workmanship is dull; the reliefs leave one with the 
impression of inferior work produced by artisans cut 
off from the cosmopolitan world. It was the beginning 
of the end of the brief life of Coptic art. 

With almost no exceptions, these sculptures were 
produced for churches and ecclesiastical buildings. 
Tombstones, rarely of more than historical interest, 
are perhaps the only exceptions to this statement. 
There seems to have been no use of sculpture for pub- 
lic buildings or for private use, and there is almost no 
mention in Coptic literature of works of art. Occasion- 
ally, a writer mentions the destruction of pagan monu- 
ments or the donation of ritual vessels to a church, but 
otherwise there is silence. 



/udging from the remaining ruins, early churches 
of the Copts seem to have been impressive monu- 
ments. Several of these were famous throughout the 
early Christian world. One in the desert not far from 
Alexandria was devoted to St. Menas, who was always 
shown flanked by kneeling camels. Pilgrims came from 
all over Europe to visit this great shrine, and the little 
flasks in which they carried back miraculous water 
from the holy spring have survived by the thousands. 
The building, in large part the gift of a Byzantine em- 
peror (Arcadius) late in the fourth century, was an 



impressive structure in marble and limestone in the 
form of a basilica of cruciferous plan. The materials, 
form, and floor plan of this shrine are typical of other 
buildings constructed from Sakkara into Upper Egypt 
during the next century. In this great period of Coptic 
art the churches and similar important buildings were 
almost always built of fine limestone. Construction in 
brick or mud with the use of many small domes, char- 
acteristics which today are associated with Coptic 
churches, came into use at a later date when the 
Church was impoverished. This explains the present 
appearance of the churches in the older section of 
Cairo, many of which were founded at a very early 
date but were so completely renovated during the Mid- 
dle Ages that they retain few early details. 

The early churches were divided into nave and aisles 
by the use of columns frequently torn from earlier 
pagan buildings; they were often made of costly hard 
stone such as marble, porphyry, and black and red 
granite. They were topped by limestone capitals of 
the most intricate workmanship, one of the important 
original developments of Coptic architects. Some were 
imaginative variations of the traditional Corinthian 
capitals; others combined Christian devices with elab- 
orate vine patterns; and, finest of all, there were the 
so-called basket capitals, which were versions of 
woven work in stone. Most of the architectural details 
were painted to the point of gaudiness. Long, narrow 
panels of wood were frequently used as friezes above 
the capitals. Their coarse carving was disguised with 



Cjtone relief from Upper Egypt is interpreted 
as reception of a military martyr into heaven. 





E 



xcepliunally fine relief of various uuinutls 
within foliate franie.s is of the Ahnas school. 



a heavy layer of gesso to which paint was applied, and, 
unlike most of the rest of Coptic art, they continue 
some of the traditional scenes of river life so frequent 
in the Pharaonic period. 

Not all ecclesiastical architecture, even in the early 
period, was on this splendid scale. In Upper Egypt, far 
t'rom the great centers, and particularly in Nubia, this 
relative luxury was out of reach. In remote areas the 
Copts took over the deserted pagan temples, some- 
times building a modest brick church in the vast outer 
courts, and many, covered with rubbish, have survived 
into recent times. But more frequently the build- 
ers took one of the smaller, inner rooms, often the 
ancient sanctuary, covered the walls with plaster and 
carved a niche in the back wall. These simple renova- 
tions seem to have provided satisfactory, if not im- 
pressive, places of worship. In many cases the plaster 
applied to hide the pagan reliefs from the faithful has 
preserved them for our age. 

In both the simple provincial churches and the 
stately stone structures of Lower Egypt the walls were 
literally covered with great frescoes. Even in later and 
poorer times the tradition was continued, and an echo 
can probably be found in the icons that cover the altar 
screens in every Coptic church today. These early 
paintings are great, complex compositions of Christ 
in glory, the Ascension, the Virgin enthroned, and 
other basic Christian themes. These are the very scenes 
not found in relief sculpture, and their absence there 
can possibly be explained by their presence in paint- 
ing. The colorful fresco shown on page 44 is from the 
great monastery of Bawit in Middle Egypt and was 
probably executed in the sixth century. It looks monu- 
mental, but it is actually of rather small dimensions. 
Similar paintings, drawn from the Old and New Testa- 
ments, were painted on the plastered walls of the con- 
verted pagan temples in Upper Egypt and especially 
in Nubia, where many have survived to this day. The 
tradition remained very strong there, for recent dis- 
coveries have shown that even as late as the twelfth 
century the Nubian churches were decorated with fres- 
coes of biblical subjects. In style these paintings are 
clearly provincial versions, often spirited ones, of the 
Byzantine school centered in Constantinople. The in- 
fluence may have been direct or it may have come 




T, 



wo putti support Coptic cross over table in 
what is possibly scene from the New Testament. 



through S\ria. From two discoveries also made at 
Bawit we know that icons were already in use in the 
sixth century. From the little painting that has survived 
from this period one suspects that it had more spirit 
than did the sculpture. 

The most famous product of Coptic artists was cer- 
tainly their textiles, which have survived in quantity. 
Their preservation is due to a curious reversal of Egyp- 
tian burial customs. In ancient Eg}'pt, apparently for 
ritual reasons, people were buried in plain linen cloth. 
It is well established that these Egyptians had pat- 
terned textiles, embroideries, and beadwork fabrics, 
which, while not used in burials, were sometimes de- 
posited in the tomb. With the rise of Christianity in 
Egypt the church authorities railed against the ancient 
practice of mummification, presumably only because 
of its pagan connections. In any case the practice, a 
costly one at best, was gradually disappearing. Some- 
time around the third century we find burials of Egyp- 
tians, presumably Copts, in their elaborately patterned 
clothes. It is quite plausibly assumed that these were 
their everyday clothes, and that with the dropping of 
mummification the related custom of using plain linen 
was also dropped. This change in burial customs has 
preserved for us the greatest collection of textiles sur- 
viving from any ancient civilization. 

The bulk of the textiles were tapestry woven; those 
in loop technique were less frequent. Embroideries 
were rare, as was the technique of resist dyeing. (The 
latter is a method in which the design is sketched on 
a fabric and areas that are not to have color are cov- 



47 



ered with a substance, such as wax, that will not ab- 
sorb dye.) The materials used were wool and linen, 
as cotton was unknown until a much later date; the 
silks seem to have been imported. The sudden appear- 
ance of these splendid fabrics has led some to think 
all of them were imported, but because of the enor- 
mous numbers that have been found it seems probable, 
although we have no knowledge of how or where they 
were produced, that they were made in Egypt. 

In design and subject matter these fabrics closely 
follow the development of Egyptian sculpture of the 
same period. The earliest surviving textiles are clearly 
Hellenistic in style and subject, although it must be 
stressed that the exact dating of Coptic textiles is far 
from settled. Excavations have been of little assistance 
in working out sequence or dating, mainly because of 
the lack of inscriptions. The splendid panel on page 
43 with a reclining nereid is probably as early as the 
third century. Not only is the subject classical and 
spirited; the colors are brilliant and clear. This piece 
was probably a detail of a wall hanging or tapestry. 
Far larger, if slightly later, examples are of so great 
a size that they must have served as wall hangings or 
curtains, a use unknown in ancient Egypt. Many of 
these materials have come down to us as discarded 
fabrics that were used to support the head of a corpse 
or to fill out spaces at the sides of coffins. Rugs, which 
also probably first appeared somewhat to the east, 
now became known for the first time in Egypt, al- 
though woven mats had been used as rugs at an earlier 
date. Almost every Roman period dump heap in Egypt 
has yielded discarded textiles of Coptic origin. Many 
of the subjects were standard and appear to have been 
used over a long period of time. Judging from the 
examples we have, scenes of classical origin and style 
continued in use well into the fifth century. 



Wo 




bathing of the baby Jesus, a subject rare in 
Coptic art, is seen in this sixth-century relief. 



ooden altar screen in Church of Abu Sarga, 
in Old Cairo, shows scene of the loaves and fishes. 



One of the mainstays of the textile industry was the 
manufacture of elaborately patterned clothing for daily 
use. The most usual type was a tunic of very ample 
proportions — the Copts seem to have wanted to bulk 
large — looped up around the waist with a cord. The 
patterned areas were restricted to long strips that went 
around the neck and ran down the front of the tunic, 
cuffs, and sometimes the roundels, or inserts, on the 
chest area. The backgrounds on which these woven 
parts were stitched were of one color. The earlier 
tunics were of light yellow or cream-colored wool 
( now turned brown ) , but the later tunics were of flam- 
boyant exuberance. They flaunted every shade of red, 
orange, green — light and dark — purple, and brown, 
and when the even more vividly patterned strips were 
added, the effect of several persons gathered together 
must have been arresting in the extreme. 

Christian subjects appear at a rather late date in 
these textiles and they remain rare. With the advent 
of the sixth and seventh centuries, the classical designs 
give way to the more abstract — usually convention- 
alized foliate designs or interlacing geometric patterns. 
This is in keeping with the development found in re- 
lief sculpture. The influence of these later Coptic tex- 
tiles on Islamic fabrics made in Egypt in the later 
seventh and eighth centuries is obvious and extensive. 



WITH the Arab conquest of Egypt in 641 the 
progress of Coptic art was halted and its ulti- 
mate disappearance made certain. Few details are 
available of conditions in Egypt immediately foflowing 
the conquest, but two facts at least are clear. Many 
of the Copts were converted to the religion of the con- 
querors, and with the establishment of Islam as the 
state religion, the Coptic Church lost poHtical and 
economic power. Again we are faced with the lack of 
dated monuments, tombstones excepted, and while 
some work was executed after the conquest it seems 
to have been only an afterglow of earlier work. Coptic 
craftsmen were employed by the conquerers, but the 
Copts soon were in the uncomfortable position of be- 
ing a persecuted minority. Persecution was sporadic, 
but it must have weaned away the weaker of the faith- 
ful and discouraged Coptic invention in the arts. With- 
in a century or two following the conquest, Coptic 
work had merged with Islamic to the extent that they 
were indistinguishable, except for the occasional use 
of Christian themes by the former group. A few, scat- 
tered woodcarvings, such as that at right, were ex- 
ecuted early in the Middle Ages and were charming 
examples of folk art. They were also the last expres- 
sion of Coptic art, and even they are almost submerged 
in the spirit of Islam. The Coptic language lingered as 
the liturgical tongue of the church, but was understood 
by fewer and fewer. It is said to have died out as a 
spoken language in the seventeenth century. But it is 
thought unlikely that it lingered even to that late date. 



48 



SKY 
REPORTER 

Study of Mars is accelerating 

By Thomas D. Nicholson 

ONE of the memorable periods in the annals of investiga- 
tions of Mars was the fifteen-year interval between 
1877 and 1892. The interval began and ended with two of 
the most favorable oppositions of Mars during the cen- 
turies in which it has been observed by telescope. On 
September 5, 1877, Mars came within 35,050,000 miles of 
earth. Fifteen years later, on August 4, 1892, the distance 
between the planets was less than 35,100,000 miles. During 
the six oppositions that occurred between these years, the 
distance from earth to Mars was much greater than at 
either end of the interval. But a famous discovery made at 
the time of the 1877 opposition heightened interest in the 
planet considerably, so that astronomers waited anxiously 
for each successive opposition to occur, climaxed by the 
excellent position of the planet in 1892. 

The director of the Observatory of Milan, Giovanni 
Schiaparelli, planned an extensive program of observations 
for the summer and fall of 1877 to take advantage of the 
close opposition of September 5. The apparent size of Mars 
in the skies above the earth at that time was larger than 
it would be again for fifteen years. Indeed, for several 
months before and after that date, Mars would be larger in 
apparent size than it could be expected to be at some later 
oppositions {see illustration, page 52). 

During his observations, Schiaparelli carefully sketched 
the surface details he could see through his telescope. Upon 
reviewing his sketches, he found that many of them con- 
tained dark, relatively straight lines, consistently in the 
same positions. When he later prepared drawings of the 
appearance of the Martian surface, refreshing his memory 
from the sketches, he included these dark markings. 

Earlier observers of Mars had not noticed such mark- 
ings, although sketches of the planet's telescopic appear- 
ance dated from the time of Christian Huygens, in the mid- 
seventeenth century. Many early observers had noted, and 
represented in their drawings, the prominent dark areas 
that had been given the names of bays, seas, gulfs, and 
oceans, and the lighter-colored "continental areas." The 
labels given to these features did not really reflect the 
belief that these were bodies of land and water on Mars, 
but rather followed the convention that had been used in 
naming features on the moon's surface. 

Thus, Schiaparelli gave the name canali to the new dark 
markings he had found. His use of the word was in refer- 
ence to their channel-like appearance, and the Italian word 
canali can be translated as "channels." Unfortunately, 
canali also bears a close resemblance to the English word 
"canal," and as such it was translated by popularizers of 
science. To many persons, canal is suggestive of water- 
ways planned and constructed by intelligent beings, and a 

50 




vast body of literature arose concerning the possibility that 
the canals were evidence of intelligent life. 

In the years following the discovery of the Martian 
canals, many other observers looked for them and found 
them. Still others could never see anything in the tele- 
scopic appearance of Mars bearing any resemblance to 
them. Schiaparelli, however, saw the markings repeatedly. 
With each succeeding opposition, and the opportunity each 
gave him to study the planet, he continually improved his 
drawings and maps of Mars to show the presence of the 
canals, among the other permanent markings he observed. 
His map, reproduced above, is still one of the best drawings 
of the planet's appearance. Based on observations he made 
from 1877 to 1886, the map locates and names the principal 
canals that he identified with certainty. It also represents a 
number of the canals as being double, and shows the larger 
dark areas, or oases, as they came to be called, where sev- 
eral canals intersected. 

Another extremely valuable chapter in the history of 
Martian research may be written when the spaceship Mari- 
ner IV swings by Mars about the middle of July this year. 
In the past, scientific interest in Mars has generally in- 



• Meridies 

310 320 330 




I 280 290 300 310 320 330 3W 350 

Septentno 



creased every 15 or 17 years— the interval at which Mars 
makes its closest approach to the earth. The last significant 
year in that cycle was 1956, and the next will be in 1971. 
This year, 1965, is clearly out of step as a usual year of 
interest in Mars. Previously, astronomers could observe 
I only the region of the universe visible from earth, but the 
space age has given them the opportunity to select more 
freely the time and place of their observations. 

IN past decades, telescopic observations of Mars in the 
years of favorable oppositions have produced a good 
deal of our knowledge about the planet's physical features. 
These observations have also produced some controversy, 
especially over the well-known canals. Mariner IV may 
clear up this controversy and uncover other valuable facts 
j should it succeed in furnishing us with photographs when 
i it passes by the planet in July. 

' Mars becomes a prominent object in earth skies at in- 
i tervals of about two years and two months or, more pre- 
[ cisely, 780 days. This interval is the synodic period of Mars 
—the time it takes the planet to return to a given position 
( in our sky relative to the sun. For example, if Mars should 



Map of Mars follows the convention of labeling dark areas 
as if they were bodies of water. Based on obsersations of 
Schiaparelli, map also includes the controversial ''canals." 



be observed at opposition, exactly 180 degrees around our 
sky from the sun, on a given date, it will return to that 
same position (opposite the sun) after 780 days have 
elapsed. Throughout most of the duration of the synodic 
period, Mars is faint, and located so close to the sun that 
it is not easily visible from earth. To see why the planet 
seems to enter and leave the evening sky quickly, let us 
examine the circumstances that preceded and will follow 
the opposition that occured this past March 9. 

On February 17, 1964, Mars was in conjunction with 
the sun, on the far side of its orbit in relation to the earth. 
Its distance from earth on that date was about 220.500,000 
miles. It was not until the end of August, 1964, that Mars 
became separated from the sun by 45 degrees; it rose in 
the morning sky three hours before the sun. By then, it 
had approached to within about 194,300.000 miles of the 
earth and had a stellar magnitude of -|-1.7. hardly bril- 
liant. In early December, however. Mars was 90 degrees 

51 




Chart shows distance between earth and Mars over eight 
synodic periods, from 1875 opposition to that of 1892. 
In 1877 and 1892, Mars was 35 million miles from earth. 




Relative size of Mars is compared over four oppositions. 
The comparison also shows how the planet's apparent size 
changes rapidly before and after the oppositional periods. 

52 



Dr. Nicholson, the regular author of this column, is also 
Chairman of The American Museum-Hayden Planetarium. 



west of the sun, rose about midnight, and remained visible 
until dawn. About 121,800,000 miles away, it had bright- 
ened to magnitude +1.0. 

After early December, 1964, the planet brightened 
rapidly as its distance from the earth decreased. On Janu- 
ai7 9, 1965, it was high in the east at midnight, with 
magnitude +0.3, and was 94,190,000 miles distant. A 
month later, on February 9, it rose shortly after sunset, 
and had become easily noticeable among the stars of the 
early night, at magnitude —0.4. It was then 71,650,000 
miles from earth. Then, on March 9, as we mentioned 
above, it rose at sunset, and was an outstanding object 
among the stars all night long. At its distance from earth 
of about 62,200,000 miles, it had a magnitude of — 1.0. A 
month after the opposition, on April 9, it is 70,100,000 
miles away and has a magnitude of —0.5. In another month, 
by May 9, the distance will increase to 87,800,000 miles 
and the brightness will fade to +0.1. By then. Mars will 
be setting in the west shortly after midnight. 

By the middle of June, Mars will be strictly an evening 
star, appearing in the south about sunset and setting by 
midnight. It will have then diminished to magnitude +0.7, 
and its distance will have increased to 114,200,000 miles. 
After that it remains an evening star for many months, 
continuing to fade in magnitude, setting progressively ear- 
lier each night. In late October, when it is 183,000,000 
miles away, it will be at magnitude +1.4 and will set only 
three hours after the sun, again hardly of special note in the 
sky. Finally, it returns to conjunction with the sun on April 
29, 1966-228,300,000 miles from earth. 

EACH time it arrives at opposition during a synodic pe- 
riod (from conjunction to conjunction). Mars comes 
closest to the earth. But the distance from earth to the planet 
varies from one opposition to another because of the ellip- 
ticity of the Martian orbit and because the oppositions 
occur progressively at different positions around the orbit. 

The point in Mars's orbit where it approaches the sun 
(and the orbit of earth) most closely is located in the direc- 
tion of the stars in Aquarius. Should an opposition occur 
when earth and Mars are in that direction, Mars will then 
be in the part of its orbit closest to earth, and the distance 
between the two planets will be the least possible— about 
35,000,000 miles. However, when earth is located on that 
side of its orbit (in the direction of Aquarius from the 
sun ) , it is late August in our calendar. This is why close, or 
favorable, oppositions always occur in our late summer. 

The last opposition of Mars, which occurred near peri- 
helion in the Martian orbit, was on September 7, 1956, 
when Mars came within about 35,120,000 miles of the earth. 
As we showed earlier, successive oppositions after that time 
must occur at points on the Martian orbit that are progres- 
sively 50 degrees farther east around the orbit. The seventh 
opposition will therefore be 350 degrees around the orbit to 
the east, or about 10 degrees west of the last favorable 
opposition. It will occur in August, 1971, when Mars will be 
about 35,000,000 miles distant. Each of the seven opposi- 
tions occurs at 780-day intervals, a total of about 15 years 
for the entire cycle, although the cycle may last 17 years if 
the eighth opposition proves to be the most favorable one. 






'■'•>?. 



IMCNITUOe fCAU 

■^'. -0.1 and brtgMcr 
„ Oa to +09 
it +lj0to+l.9 

* +2X)to+2.9 
■♦• +34) to +3.9 

• 44AandfaM«r 



■-■■•^ " 2^. •■ '■*/■/ 



.+..---.. ..x- 






* .:. V, 



New Moon April 1, 7:21 p.m., EST 

First Quarter April 8, 7:40 p.m., EST ^ 

Full Moon April 15, 6:02 p.m., EST _jfl^HH 

Last Quarter April 23, 4:07 p.m., EST S^S^^^Kl 

April 4: Jupiter and the three-day-old crescent moon are 
close together in the western sky after sunset this evening, 
with the moon some distance to the right (west) of Jupiter. 
They are in conjunction about 1:00 a.m., EST, on the 5th. 

April 8: Mercury passes between earth and sun, at Inferior 
conjunction, and enters the morning sky. 

April 11-12: Mars Is near the gibbous moon in the eve- 
ning sky on these two nights. On the 11th, Mars Is the bright 
red star to the east (left of the moon); on the evening of the 
12th, Mars is to the west (right) of the moon. Conjunction 
of Mars and the moon occurs at 7:00 a.m., EST, on the 12th. 

April 15: The full moon tonight determines the date of 
Easter this year. Actually, the paschal full moon (determined 
by ecclesiastical rule) occurs on April 16. The following 
Sunday, April 18, Is celebrated as Easter Sunday 

April 20: Mercury Is stationary In right ascension and 
resumes direct (easterly) motion. 

April 21: Mars is stationary In right ascension and resumes 
direct motion. It can be observed moving eastward among the 
stars of Leo from this night on. The Lyrld meteor shower, 



TIMETABLE 

April 1 10:00 p.m. 

April 15 9:00 p.m. 

April 30 8:00 p.m. 

(Local Mean Time) 

unfortunately for observers, reaches maximum at midnight 
tonight, but the last quarter moon will definitely Interfere 
with viewing of the phenomenon. 

April 25: Many communities in the United States go on 
daylight time early this morning, the fourth Sunday In April. 
Clocks, in these communities, are set ahead one hour at 
2:00 A.M. (Spring ahead, fall back.) 

April 26: Saturn and the waning crescent moon are in con- 
junction at 10:00 P.M., EST, tonight. Saturn and the moon 
appear close together In the eastern sky tomorrow morning, 
just before dawn. The planet may be observed above and to 
the right of the moon. 

April 29: Mercury, approaching greatest westerly elonga- 
tion, is quite near the late crescent moon, low In the eastern 
sky very early today. Just as the moon rises this morning, 
look above and to the left of the moon at a distance of about 
four moon diameters. Mercury, a first magnitude object, is In 
conjunction with the moon at 6:00 a.m., EST. The sky is 
brightening rapidly, however, so you must have a clear easterly 
horizon and scan It with speed. Binoculars will be of help. 



m 



Photographs by Kurt Severin 




Caraja potteh arranges clay fipuriiies 
above a fire to bake them several hours. 



Dark, circles on cheeks of the figures 
at right represent Caraja ritual scars. 



Old woman, left, moistens her fingers 
often to keep clay wet while working it. 



Fine stick is used to impress rib and 
navel markings on figure of sick person. 




Figurines 
of the Caraja 



THE Caraja Indians of Central Brazil 
live in an area called the Ilha do 
Bananal, which is enclosed by tw o arms of 
the Araguaia River. The Caraja are adept 
at making small figurines, such as those 
shown here, of clay in which spicules of 
an indigenous fresh-water sponge are in- 
corporated as a tempering agent. Painted 
mainly in black, red, and blue, the fig- 
urines are sought as souvenirs by visitors 
to the region, and the Caraja now pro- 
duce them with an eye to the tourist mar- 
ket. In addition to representing people in 
various aspects of daily life, the Caraja 
also make their pottery in the shapes of 
those animals with which they are familiar. 

55 



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About the Authors 

Dr. Bobb Schaeffer and Marlyn 
Mangus, co-authors of "Fossil Lakes 
from the Eocene." are members of the 
scientific staff at The American Museum. 
Dr. Schaeffer is Curator of the Depart- 
ment of Vertebrate Paleontology, and 
Miss Mangus is a Scientific Assistant. 
Dr. Schaeffer, who is also a Professor of 
Zoology at Columbia University, received 
his B.A. from Cornell University and his 
doctorate from Columbia. His research 
interests include the vertebrate evolution 
and history of the fishes. Miss Mangus 
is a graduate of Vassar College and holds 
a master's degree from Columbia. Her 
work at The American Museum involves 
stratigraphy. 

Dr. Jacques Bordaz, who wrote "The 
Threshing Sledge." is an Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Anthropology at the Graduate 
School of Arts and Science. New York 
University. Dr. Bordaz collected material 
for this article while conducting archeo- 
logical field work at a Neolithic site near 
Seydisehir in southwest Turkey. He has 
written several articles for Natural 
History in previous years. 

"Nesting of the Wood Stork" was writ- 
ten by George Heinzman and his wife, 
Dorotha, and was based on their four 
months of observing and photographing 
a Florida wood stork colony in 1961. 
Both are members of the Florida Au- 
dubon Society and have done field work 
in ornithology for many years. They are 
conducting a long-term study of the 
American bald eagle, and received the 
Florida Audubon Society's Conservation 
Award in 1962 for their efforts in form- 
ing the Kissimmee Co-operative Bald 
Eagle Sanctuary. 

David Linton, author of the article 
on mirages, is a contributing editor to 
Natural History, and has written the 
camera column for many years. He is 
a well-known magazine photographer 
and has traveled widely. In 1954, on 
one of his many trips to the Arctic, he 
was able to photograph the mirages that 
accompany his article. "After a three- 
year search for the proper conditions," 
he says, "I photographed these mirages 
all in one day." 

The author of "The Cross and Orb 
in Egypt" is John D. Cooney. who is 
Curator of Egyptian and Classical Art 
at the Cleveland Museum of Art. Mr. 
Cooney received his undergraduate ed- 
ucation at Harvard College, did grad- 
uate work on Semitic languages at the 
University of Pennsylvania, and was in 
charge of the Egyptian collection in the 
Brooklyn Museum for almost thirty 
years. He is currently engaged in writ- 
ing the history of the glass industry 
in ancient Egypt. 



FRESH 



as an 

april 

breeze 



PENETRATING 

as the 

august 

sun 

CLEAR 

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icicle 

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NATURAL HISTORY 
IS A GIFT FOR ALL 
I^SEASONS-^l 

Spring, summer, winter, fall — a 
NATURAL HISTORY gift subscrip- 
tion is both timely and timeless. 
And in addition bestows all the ben- 
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Membership in The American Mu- 
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Central Park West at 79 St., N.Y. 10024 

Please enter a one-year NATURAL HISTORY 
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in the Museum. $5.00 payment enclosed. 



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S6 



SCIENCE UN ACTION 



'Winter bark, slow fire 



I By Dudley C. Lunt 



AND Standing faire alongst by llio 
I shore, about twelve of the clockc 
of the same clay, we came to an anker, 
where sixe Indians in a Baske-sliallop 
with mast and saile, an iron grapple, and 
a kettle of copper, came boldly aboard 
us, one of them apparelled with a waist- 
coat and breaches of blacke serdge, made 
after our sea-fashion, hose and shoes on 
his feet; all the rest (saving one that had 
a pair of breeches of blue cloth) were 
all naked." 

So reads in part the record of Bar- 
tholomew Gosnold's voyage along the 
western coast of Maine as he trended 
southward in the little bark Concord in 
the spring of 1602. He continues, 

"These people are of tall stature, 
broad and grim visage, of a black swart 
complexion, their eie-browes painted 
white; their weapons bows and arrows; 
it seemed by some words and signs they 
made, that some Baskes or [men | of 
St. John de Luz, have fished or traded in 
this place, being in the latitude of 43 
degrees." 

The significance of this account, one 
of the earliest about the Maine Indian, 
lies in the wealth of the detail that sug- 
gests earlier contacts between the white 
man and the Indian. The source of these 
is lost in the mists of the past. 

The Indian of the Maine woods was a 
nomad. He was also a river man. He had 
his villages along the banks of the Saco, 
the Androscoggin, the Kennebec, the 
Penobscot, and a host of lesser streams. 
In the fall of the year and in winter he 
went upstream to hunt; in the spring 
of the year and in summer he paddled 
downstream to the coast to camp amid 
the wealth of shellfish and seafood with 
which the coast of Maine abounds. His 
birchbark canoe was his conveyance, and 
the waterways of the country of the 
Maine were his highways. 

Without doubt that canoe is the In- 
dian's outstanding contribution to mod- 
ern America. His birch is a thing of the 
past, and the construction of the canoe 
is all but a lost art. But its lines, thwarts, 
gunwales, ribs, and planking are all to 
be seen in the canoe of today. A canoe is 
the proper craft for the man who hankers 
after an interlude on the waterways of 
the wilderness, and sleeps dreamless and 
content on a fir-bough bed. 

The building of a birchbark canoe was 
a considerable undertaking. In Thor- 
eau's time the Penobscots were adept at 
the art. At Old Town, Maine, in 1853 he 
watched old John Pennyweight at work 



cm one that was nearly completed, and 
four years later, up on the West Branch 
near Northeast Carry, he came upon one 
in an earlier stage of construction. His 
account of the process in his Journal 
accords with the finding of later re- 
searches, the most notable of which 
is Fanny Hardy Kckstorm's detailed 
description. Her knowledge of the handi- 
crafts of the Indians of Maine is unsur- 
passed, and to this source must go anyone 
who would have an authoritative account 
of this example of aboriginal woodcraft. 
Winter bark was the first requisite; 
that is, bark that was taken from a canoe 
birch before the sap began to run. Old 
John Pennyweight went fifty miles up- 
river to the head of Passadumkeag. and 
there, says Thoreau. it took him "two 
days to find one tree that was suitable," 
that is, free of knots, burls, and blemish- 
es for at least twenty feet. The birch was 
felled onto a cradle for the butt as well 
as the top. The trunk was then girdled at 
each end of the bark to be taken and a 
gash scored lengthwise along the trunk. 
Next came the careful peeling with wood- 
en wedges, a process that was aided by 
the heat of a slow fire. 

Preparation of Bark 

MRS. EcKSTORM paints an interesting 
picture of how the Indians got the 
bark out of the woods. The single sheet 
was turned over and rolled from the butt, 
with the inner side of the bark outside. 
This roll was lashed with cedar bark and 
lifted on a man"s shoulders crosswise, 
with the ends sticking out on each side. 
With a tumpline that encircled the roll 
and came forward around his forehead, 
and another around his chest, the Indian 
would walk away with the heavy load. 

The next step in the process was to 
roughhew the white cedar that would 
be needed for the gunwales, the ribs, and 
the lining or planking. Thereafter these 
and the thwarts, for which rock maple 
was sought, would all be fashioned with 
the ax and crooked knife, and the ribs 
would be steamed and bent to shape. 

With these materials and a good sup- 
ply of spruce roots— preferably white- 
all was ready for the construction. A 
spot was chosen in the shade of a tree, 
on hard and perfectly level ground near 
a stream, where the roll of bark would 
be soaked out. Thoreau watched a St. 
Francis Indian so engaged up on the 
West Branch, and his description of this 
stage of the work has the interest of a 
firsthand account. 



Ornithological 
Tour 

From the Caribbean 

through the Andes 

to the upper reaches 

of the Amazon 




"From the trackless forests of the Ama- 
zon and the Orinoco to the wind-swept 
paramo of the Andes, a fascinating bird 
world awaits amateur and professional 
alike. 

Nowhere in the world can be found, 
within the boundaries of a single coun- 
try, the number of forms recorded from 
the Republic of Colombia. Its 1556 spe- 
cies (twice as many as the United States 
can claim) represent 56°i of those re- 
corded from the entire South American 
continent!"-From: the birds of Colombia 

AVIANCA, The Colombian Airline, has 
coordinated a tour based on the recent 
and well received book, THE BIRDS OF 
COLOMBIA. The author, Mr. R. Meyer de 
Schauensee, is Curator of Ornithology at 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phil- 
adelphia, and is acting as Scientific Con- 
sultant to the tour. 

Date of Departure: August 7, 1965 
For further information on the 

Ornithological Tour, please write: 



6 West 49th Street 
New York, N.Y. 10020 • JU 6-6040 

Please send me by return mail, 
copy of your folder describing 
Ornithological Tour. 



S7 



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that will give you years of outstanding 
service and absolutely top quality slides 
and prints, see the J-P or J-5 at your 
dealer's. But while you're looking, have 
him show you how adaptable these single 
lens reflexes are; how they can accept an 
almost unlimited variety of Yashica (and 
other) automatic and preset lenses and 
accessories to extend their reach from 
the smallest microorganism to the far- 
thest nebula. Then you'll really appreciate 
their value. Send for the Yashica SLR 
and Accessory Lens Brochures. 

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DEPT. N 



Mr. Lunt's latest book is The Woods 
and the Sea.© Alfred A. Knopf, a work 
about the lore and yarns of the lakes, 
rivers, and rocky shores of Maine, 
from which this excerpt was taken. 



"As near as I could see, and under- 
stand . . . they first laid the bark flat on 
the ground, outside up, and two of the 
top rails, the inside and thickest ones, 
already connected with cross-bars, upon 
it, in order to get the form; and, with 
logs and rocks to keep the bark in place, 
they bend up the birch, cutting down 
slits in the edges from within three feet 
of the ends and perpendicularly on all 
sides about the rails, making a square 
corner at the ground; and a row of stakes 
three feet high is then driven into the 
ground all around, to hold the bark up 
in its place. They next lift the frame, i.e. 
two rails connected by cross-bars, to the 
proper height, and sew the bark strongly 
to the rails with spruce roots every six 
inches, the thread passing around the 
rail and also through the ends of the 
cross-bars, and sew on strips of bark 
to protect the sides in the middle. The 
canoe is as yet carried out square down 
at the ends, and is perfectly flat on the 
bottom. (This canoe had advanced thus 
far.)" 

Next would come the lining and the 
fitting of the ribs, and then the ends 
would be finished, a task that called for 
great skill and care. In the extensive 
sewing, an awl made of bone or the tail 
of a horseshoe crab was used to puncture 
the birchbark for the entry of the spruce 
root. The sewing of the seams presented 
a crisscross pattern. 

Sealing with Pitch 

THE last phase was pitching to make 
the canoe watertight. Before the com- 
bined use of grease and pitch was 
learned from the white man, spruce gum 
was used, the squaws doing the chewing. 
Pitching a canoe was an art in itself. 
The craft lay bottom up on a pair of 
horses. The pitch was heated in a pitch 
kettle and was applied to the seams with 
a flat stick and then worked in and 
shaped with the hands after they had 
been dipped in cold water. And so it was 
with the constant repairs necessary to 
keep this tender craft watertight. 

The only decoration was a pair of eyes, 
a circle, or a star on each side at one 
end. This at once made that end of the 
double-ended craft the bow and, says 
Mrs. Eckstorm, "enabled the canoe to 
see the dangers and rocks ahead." 

Such in rough outline was the aborigi- 
nal construction of a birchbark canoe, 
and the interested reader is referred to 
Mrs. Eckstorm's account in The Handi- 
crafts of the Modern Indians of Maine 
for a most precise and meticulous de- 
scription of this all-but-forgotten art. 



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Electricity on tape now provides a new source of power. 
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59 




THE BEST TELESCOPES WILL HAVE QUARTZ MIRRORS 



Half the Queslar telescopes we now produce have 
mirrors made of quartz. We started using this 
precious material back in 1957 because quartz 
mirrors are the very best obtainable. When we 
take one from a warm room into colder outdoor 
air, quartz resists the thermal shock about 5 
times better than Pyrex low-expansion glass. The 
superiority of quartz lies in this greater stabiHty 
of the crystal. 

The price of fused-quartz disks is awfully high 
because they are terribly difficult to construct. A 
raw disk 61 inches in diameter costs $250,000. 
Since the cost and weight of such disks, like 3- 
dimensional objects generally, increases as the 
cube of a dimension, and not as the square, you 
can readily understand why there are only a few 
hundred telescopes with quartz mirrors in the 
entire world. We ourselves have probably made 
most of them. 

As \nu rn.iv knew, we still have to make each 
asphcnc s^l of Onestar spiles at least 3 times, 




until its resolving power is astonishing, and each 
will support images that do not break down at 
more than 800 diameters. This unusual ability to 
resolve, coupled with small aperture, allows these 
little fellows to pierce indifferent seeing hke a 
thin rapier when larger apertures are more se- 
verely damaged by heat waves in the air. 

This is the Questar idea, the Questar secret. 
In the 8 years of research we spent before mar- 
keting our product, we sought and found the 
best size to make it; we looked for the point 
where the greatest number of favorable factors 
came together. That point turned out to be at 
only 3.5 inches aperture instead of the 5 inches 
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This very smallness becomes another favorable 
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PRE-COLUMBIAN 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL 

SITES 

in PERU 

GUATEMALA 

HONDURAS 

MEXICO 

and 

YUCATAN 



For the third consecutive year 
we have organized a Pre-Colum- 
bian tour to such famous sites as 
Machu Picchu, Chan-Chan, Tikal, 
Copan, Teotihuacan, Mitla, 
Monte Alban, Chichen Itza, Ux- 
mal and many others. 

In fact— due to the success of the 
previous field trips, we have set 
two departures in 1965— one in 
JULY and a second in OCTO- 
BER. 

This is to offer an opportunity 
to the many who cannot travel 
at any other time than summer. 

A numher of improvements have 
been made— including a length- 
ening of the stays in Lima and 
Yucatan to allow for rest and 
relaxation. 

Expert guides and archaeologists 
will travel with the group 
throughout, to lecture on the 
sites about the splendid civiliza- 
tions that flourished long ago 
under the Incas and Mayas and 
Aztecs. 

Send for the interesting and at- 
tractive folder: 



Lindblad Travel, Inc. 

One East 53rd Street, 
New York 22, N. Y. 

Send your folder describing the pre- 
Columbian ARCHAEOLOGICAL TOUR. 



(Mr. Mrs. Miss) 
ADDRESS 



6o 



nature 

and the 

Imicroscope 

hexagons, prisms, 
and cubes 

by Julian D. Corrington 



WHEN the chemist or geologist un- 
limbers his microscope to embark 
311 the study of crystals, rocks, or miner- 
ils, he will probably use an elaborate 
and expensive form of optical instru- 
ment, and his illumination will be polar- 
ized light. I plan to discuss these 
(natters later, but there are certain ele- 
mentary approaches to the microscopic 
study of crystals that the amateur micros- 
copist, even with the simplest of equip- 
ment, may pursue with profit and 
Enjoyment, and that should precede ad- 
vanced work. 

Crystals may be either inorganic or 
organic in chemical classification and, 
while non-living, they are organized, in 
the physical sense, and can grow. Of 
20urse, all matter is organized at the 
itomic level, but in our ordinary usage 
ai this term, at visible and microscopic 
iizes, we may divide inorganic materials 
into the crystalline and the amorphous 
(without form). The latter exist as sub- 
stances of indefinite and variable shapes, 
sizes, and amounts— as a shovelful of 
earth, a slab of rock, a glass of water, or 
a pot of glue. A crystal, on the other 
hand, is bounded by plane surfaces sym- 
jmetrically arranged— the external ex- 
pression of a definite internal structure— 
and appears as a cube, prism, hexagon, 
or other regular form. 

These differences are well illustrated 
by the contrasting definitions of mineral 
and rock. A mineral is usually a solid at 
ordinary temperatures (the exceptions 
are mercury and water, which are 
classed technically as minerals). Miner- 
als have a definite chemical composition, 
being either an element or a compound 
for which a regulation chemical formula 
may be written; for example, bauxite, 
the aluminum ore. is represented by the 
formula Al203«2H^0. Minerals occur 
naturally and almost always have a defi- 
nite molecular structure expressed 
visibly as a crystalline form with specific 




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optical properties. By a loose extension 
of the system used with animals an 
plants, they are grouped into such catt 
gories as classes, families, species, an 
the like. Commonly, their names end i 
the suffix -ite, as in halite for commo 
salt (sodium chloride), or cuprite fo 
native red oxide of copper, an importar 
ore mineral. 

A rock, by contrast, has no definit 
geometrical shape or size. It is a mas 
of mineral material in the earth's crus 
sometimes composed of a single minera 
species, more often of two or more in 
heterogeneous mixture. If a piece o 
granite is examined one may see th 
crystals of three different minerals mixei 
without any order in their arrangemen 
—quartz, feldspar, and mica cementet 
together and commonly having impuri 
ties. Moreover, there are two kinds o 
feldspar and two kinds of mica; ni 
chemical formula for granite could bi 
written. Technically, a particle of cla; 
or a grain of sand are rocks. These ob 
jects are also classified into taxonomit 
groups, and their names may also en( 
in -ite, as granite and syenite. 

Methods of Studying Rocks 

THE geologist uses both field and labo 
ratory procedures in studying rocks 
In the field he employs instruments t( 
register the dip and strike of exposec 
beds of sedimentary rock. The dip ii 
a measurement of the displacement fron 
the horizontal position that all stratifiec 
beds originally occupied; it is the angu 
lar inclination of the bed from the hori 
zontal. The strike is measured at righl 
angles to the dip and is expressed as £ 
compass direction. Thus a given lime 
stone bed may be tilted up to an angle o\ 
19 degrees from the horizontal, and its 
face may be directed NE. by N. Manj 
other field data are recorded, then a spec- 
imen is taken into the laboratory. The 
rock is tested for hardness, color, luster, 
and the streak it makes on a plate of un- 
glazed porcelain, often a different coloi 
from that of the mineral itself. This color 
variation occurs for the same reason 
that a pane of glass appears transparent, 
but when crushed is opaque white: the 
particles cause reflections and refrac- 
tions not present in a uniform surface, 
The rock is also tested for specific grav- 
ity, form, cleavage, type of fracture when 
struck with a hammer, magnetism, taste, 
odor, and the effects on it of heat, water, 
and such reagents as hydrochloric acid. 
Water, for instance, will dissolve some 
minerals such as salt, but not quartz; 
HCl will dissolve limestone, but also 
will not affect quartz. These are the 
common analyses used in determinative 
mineralogy, and some of them can be 
applied to the rock as a whole. Detailed 
study involves making thin sections of 
the rock and inspecting them under 



62 



Diarized light wilii a special form of 
iliiiiiient, liie pelroKrapliJc microscope. 
Much can be gained, however, from 
low-|Kiwer cxaminalion of whole, siiiull 
urlions of various ro(;l<s. To jirc'pare 
aecimens, break rocks into pieces that 
re roughly V^- to i^-inch i^ubcs. Wash 
lese thoroughly in running water and 
jilow to dry. Now make a number of 
inall containers, called cells, thai are 
|;mented to the center of blank micro- 
pope slides. Plastic or glass tubing from 
2 to % inch in diameter can then be 
jit into y2-inch lengths for this purpose 
Itid bone embroidery rings may be em- 
jloyed for small i'<-ils. (Jardlxiard b(jxes 
ne inch on a side can readily be made 
ith the help of glue or adhesive tape. 
Ilastic boxes with hinged lids and snap 
Inclosures, 1 by 1 by % in^h, may be 
urchased from supply houses. Wliat- 
yer type of cell is made, paint the in- 
ferior with flat black paint. When it is 
iry, affix a mineral or rock specimen 
ithin its cell with a spot of household 
ament. If the specimen is very small, 
levate it from the cell floor on a small 
yramid of cork, cement cork to cell bot- 
jm and when dry. cement the specimen 
) the cork. A lid should be used to pro- 
:ct the cell from dust when it is not in 
se. The cells, in turn, are cemented to 
16 center of blank microscope slides. 



If preferred, specime/is may be afiixed 
to the bottom of pillboxes that are 
painted black within and placed directly 
on till- microsiope stage for examination. 
Use low power and strong incident il- 
lumination. 

The different kinds of rocks for cell 
mounting are too numerous to list. Any 
type with a variety of colorful mineral 
crystals will make an interesting exhibit. 
Also do not overlook the metals such as 
curved wires of native silver and bits of 
native gold. The fidlowing are among 
the minerals that will make for an at- 
tractive basic collection. 

Aziiritc, monoclinic crystals composed 
of blue basic carbonate of copper, a 
copper ore and pigment. 

Malachite, usually in the form of 
mammillary masses of concentric fibrous 
structure; green basic copper carbonate. 

Sunstunr, a variety of oligodase, 
which is a triclinic soda-lime feldspar 
exhibiting schillcrization. a bronzy lus- 
ter caused by great numbers of minute, 
sparkling inclusions. 

Janu'sonite, gray, orthorhombic crys- 
tals with metallic lu>lcr. also occurs in 
fibrous masses; sulpliantimonite of lead. 

Opal, an amorphous silica; a mineral 
gel commonly deposited from hot or 
warm silica-bearing waters. Contains 
varying amounts of water; occurs in 




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We are happy to announce that JAL has been chosen to operate this unique tour of 
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63 



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amorphous masses. Precious opal, a gem- 
stone, presents a peculiar play of deli- 
cately tinted colors. 

Opalized ivood, wood petrified with 
opal, showing the original grain. 

Garnet, a complex silicate of many 
varieties, including green, yellow, brown, 
red, black. Some garnets are used as 
gemstones, others as abrasives. 

Cuprite, cuprous oxide or red oxide 
of copper, appears as isometric crystals 
or in masses; important copper ore. 

Fluorite, or calcium fluoride, a trans- 
parent or translucent mineral of many 
different colors, often very beautiful; 
commonly occurs in cubes, also tetra- 
hexahedrons, and massive. Mineral is 
important for commercial uses. 

Galena, chief lead ore, is a lead sul- 
phide. Cubic or octahedral crystals or 
massive. Bluish gray with metallic luster, 
galena often contains enough silver to 
rank as a silver ore. 

Halite, native salt, sodium chloride 
(see following experiments). Occurs in 
cubical crystals. 

Calcite, calcium carbonate, hexagonal 
crystals. Occurs as limestone, chalk, 
marble, dogtooth spar, Iceland spar, 
stalactites, and stalagmites. May show 
nailhead crystals and butterfly twin for- 
mation; in many colors. 

Quartz, or silica, Si02. Occurs in 
numerous crystalline forms such as ame- 
thyst, rock crystal, rose quartz, citrine, 
smoky quartz, tigereye, chalcedony, car- 
nelian, chrysoprase, agate, jasper, and 
silicified wood. 

Crystallization 

CERTAIN substances, such as chalk or 
sand, are insoluble in water. If fine 
chalk particles are stirred or shaken in 
a glass of water, only a mechanical mix- 
ture—a suspension— results. When sugar 
is stirred in a cup of coffee, however, a 
true physical solution occurs, the sugar 
molecules being dispersed through those 
of the water. Of a different nature is the 
electrolytic solution, in which a com- 
pound breaks down into its elements or 
combinations of elements in the phenom- 
enon of dissociation. Thus when table 
salt is dissolved in water, the solution con- 
tains separate atoms of sodium and chlo- 
rine, called ions, but no salt molecules. 
The quantity of salt that will break 
down in solution in a given amount of 
water varies with the temperature; 
hot water dissolves more salt than cold. 
Whenever the liquid has dissolved all of 
the solid possible at a given temperature, 
and there is an excess of the undissolved 
substance, the mixture is termed a 
saturated solution. If no solid is present, 
the solution may become supersaturated 
through the evaporation of some of the 
solvent, and if a solid crystal of the sol- 
ute is then introduced, the excess of sol- 
ute will be deposited upon it. Crystals 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL 

SITES IN 
LEBANON, SYRIA, 

JORDAN, 
ISRAEL and TURKEY 

with 
DR. CYRUS H. GORDON 

Departure from New York 

July 29, 1965. Return 

August 28, 1963 

Our "Cuneiform World" tour which 
departs in April has been sold out 

for many months and in order 

to accommodate those who could 

not come, Dr. Gordon has agreed 

to return to the sites 

in the Near East in August. 

Our lecturer. Dr. Cyrus Gordon, 

has served as an archaeologist on 

many expeditions in the Near East. 

He participated in the unearthing 

of the Royal Tombs at Ur, 

in discovering the mines of King 

Solomon, and deciphering the 

Tell al-Arinarna tablets found 

in Egypt. 

Dr. Gordon is the author of many 

books and articles on the ancient 

countries we are visiting. A mong the 

books are ADVENTURES 
IN THE NEAREST EAST: THE 
WORLD OF THE TESTAMENT, 
and BEFORE THE BIBLE: THE 
COMMON BACKGROUND 
OF GREEK AND HEBREW 
CIVILIZATION. For many years 

he has taught the languages, 

history and archaeology of Egypt, 

Greece, and the Near East. 

We visit Beirut, Baalbek, Ugarit, 

Krak de Chevalier, Aleppo, 

Palmyra, Damascus, Jerash, 

Amman, Petra, Qumran, Jerusalem, 

Ashkelon, Caesarea, Tiberias, 

Troy, Hattusas, Alacahoyuk, 

Ephesus and Pergamum. 

The number of participants 

is limited and we therefore suggest 

an early registration. 

Send for descriptive folder. 



LINDBLAD TRAVEL, INC. 

ONE EAST 53rd STREET 
NEW YORK 22, N. Y. 



Send folder on Dr. Cyrus H. Gordon's Near 
East tour next August. 



Name (Mr. Mrs. Miss)_ 



City- 



64 






A WORLD OF 
DIFFERENCE IN 



Color 



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MAGNIFIERi 

^for your Pockety 
or Purse 



Slip this cigarette-lighter 
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grow this way in nature and can be 
made to do so artificially in the labora- 
tory—sometimes to a very large size. 
This growth is accomplished by accre- 
tion— the addition of new particles upon 
the surface of the older body. It is not 
true growth in the biological sense, but 
instead is like that of a snowball rolling 
downhill. Cells of animals and plants 
and whole organisms grow by intussus- 
ception, the addition of the new particles 
among the older ones. 

There are two methods by which the 
microscopist may watch the process of 
salt crystallization under magnification. 
In the fusion method, a small bit of a 
solid salt is melted on a slide with gentle 
heat; crystal formation can be observed 
under the microscope as tiie liquid cools. 
Or you may make saturated solutions of 
a salt and watch crystallization by the 
solution method as the solvent evaporates 
or hot solutions cool. Try the latter with 
common salt; make a saturated solution 
in very hot water by pouring in salt and 
stirring until no more will go into solu- 
tion. Then place two drops of this fluid 
on a slide. It is well to add a few sand 
grains upon which to secure a focus. No 
cover glass is needed. You will see cubes 
of solid salt pop up from the clear 
liquid right before your eyes— a startling 
experience. These crystals will form first 
around the edges where cooling and 
evaporation are most rapid. Try both low 
and high power and watch the crystals 
grow, noting the intricate pattern of 
etchings on the sides of the cubes, no two 
patterns being exactly alike. Repeat the 
entire process, using a cover glass. On a 
third slide, add two drops, then im- 
mediately spread the water into a film, 
using a warmed needle as a spreader. 
Examine at once, either covered or un- 
covered. Any of these methods work well. 
Pyrogallic acid and hydroquinone. 
two reagents found in every photo- 
graphic developing room, will make fas- 
cinatingly beautiful crystal designs. 
Household chemicals may also be used. 
Cream of tartar (potassium bitartrate) 
forms white crystals ; tartaric acid, 
found in grapes, is an organic compound 
that lends itself well to a number of 
experiments. If the solution method is 
used, small and regular crystals appear, 
but by the fusion method the outcome 
is wholly different. Prepare by dissolving 
the acid in hot water and allowing it to 
crystallize out on a slide. Next melt some 
of this material on a slide and spread 
the resultant fluid into a thin film with 
a heated needle. Allow it to stand thirty 
seconds, then draw the point of the 



RECORDINGS of SOUNDS in THE FORCZJS, 
SMMPS and FIELDS of NEV ENOLMD. 




"Mr, Peter KiLham 
DroLL Yankees Inc., Providence, R.I. 
Dear Mr. Kilham: 

Many thanks for your nice LiitLe 
record, THE BROW. It's basic theme is 
clever, the subjects are well chosen, 
and the presentation is ejrcellant." 

"- - And you can use these comments 
about SONGS OF THE FOREST: It captures 
the mood and exuberance of a New England 
woods at the time when the foliage is 
freshly green and the wildf lowers are 
blooming prof use ly in every glade. I es- 
pecially liked the narration, its infor~ 
mality and enthusiasm, and its New Eng~ 
land accent for authenticity. Indeed I 
had the pleasurable sensation of listen- 
ing in on Al Hawkes' remarks rather than 
listening to them. It was as if he were 
unaware of anyone present other than his 
companion. He's a pro who doesn't sountf 
like one !" 

Dr. OLIN SEWALL PETTINGILL, Jr. 

Director, Laboratory of Ornithology 

Corneli University, Ithaca, New York. 



"Dear Mr. Kilham, 

I have enjoyed listening to Droll 
Yankees latest production The Swamp in 
June recorded at North Pomfret in the 
state of Vermont. Side 7 :s easy to lis- 
ten to and yet packed with interesting 
biological information about the beaver, 
the Pickerel Frog, and other amphibians, 
a species of cricket who tells you the 
temperature, and a number of birds in- 
cluding the common Song Sparrow and the 
Black-capped Chickadee. Side 2 is 

without narration and presents a sound- 
picture of the swamp, I was particularly 
gratified to be able to pick out the song 
of the Chickadee, which Frank M. Chapman 
described as 'the two clearest notes 
this side of Heaven' ". . 

JEFFERY BOSWALL, Bristol, England. 
Compiler of A World Catalogue of 
Gramophone Records of Bird Voice. 



Price of the records, shipped postpaid: 
I i THE BROOK, 7 inch hi-fi, S 1.25 

I 1 SONGS OF THE FOREST, 12" LP S 5.00 

I i THE St/AMP IN JUNE, 12" LP $ 5.00 
I % All three (monophonic) S 10.00 

DpgII ^FiKee^ Ifig. 

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65 



don't remove your glasses 




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dealers, and Guild opticians. Write Dept. 
28 for free binoculars booklet. 



Carl Zeiss, Inc., 444 Fifth Ave., New York 18, N.Y. 




nothing 



EXPOSURE METER 



Whether you're shooting flora or fauna, wild 
life or still life, color or black-and-white... 
In blazing sun, candleglow, even moon- 
light, the Gossan LUNASIX gives you the 
perfect camera setting., .every time.' 

There's nothing like a LUNASIX. ..the most 
sensitive, most accurate, widest-range ex- 
posure meter ever made! 

SPECIFICATIONS: Smooth one-hand opera- 
tion • Weighs only 7 oz. • Measures re- 
flected and incident light • Narrow 30° 
measuring angle • Automatic needle lock • 
Built-in battery tester • Computer Range: 
ASA 6/1° to 25,000/13°; f/1 to f/90; 
1/4, 000th sec. to 8 hours; Cine: 8 to 128 
frames per second- 
At better camera stores; or write for literature. 



ICIiilBrG-PHOTO CORPORATION 



needle through the film. Crystallization 
will start from this needle point and will 
assume a markedly different form— long 
monoclinic crystals. Now prepare a 
saturated solution in hot water. Place a 
few drops on a slide and keep warmed 
to hold in solution. In the center of this 
pool place a very small drop of a hot, 
saturated solution of bicarbonate of 
soda. When crystallization occurs, both 
chemicals will be seen, together with a 
third form— their compound— at the junc- 
tion of the two. In place of bicarbonate, 
try Epsom salts (magnesium sulphate 
heptahydrate), Rochelle salt (sodium 
potassium tartrate) , hypo (sodium hypo- 
sulphite or thiosulphate) , borax (sodium 
tetraborate), and alum. 

Another substance that behaves dif- 
ferently according to treatment is sul- 
phur. Remembering that fumes of this 
element are noxious and, in large 
amounts, poisonous, slowly melt a small 
amount of sulphur in a porcelain dish 
or a cleaned "tin" can, then allow it to 
cool and solidify. Crystallization begins 
around the margin ; when the edges are 
solid but the center is still liquid, pour 
off the central fluid. The crystals re- 
vealed in the marginal ring are pale 
yellow, transparent, long monoclinic 
needles which, unfortunately, are not 
permanent, passing into the next form 
within a few hours. Natural crystals of 
sulphur are rhombic octahedra, and are 
best prepared by the solution method, 
using carbon disulphide as the solvent. 
This solvent is highly flammable and 
explosive, so make sure that there are no 
open flames in the vicinity. 

Crystals of organic compounds are the 
most elaborate in both pattern and color, 
and of these, hippuric acid has long 
been a favorite. To prepare, saturate in 
absolute alcohol, warm, then place a 
drop on a slide. For a permanent mount 
use castor oil or natural balsam; xylene 
balsam will not be satisfactory because 
xylene will dissolve hippuric crystals, 
whose delicate feathered bodies are 
representative of the beauty to be 
found in the microscopic examination 
of various rocks, minerals, and crystals. 



This list details the photographer, artist, 
or other source of illustrations, by page. 



COVER-George Holton, 
Photo Researchers, Inc. 
ID-Chester S. Tarka 
11-Bobb Schaeffer 
12-13-AMNH after Bobb 
Schaeffer 

14-left, C. A. Davis, U.S. 
Geological Survey 
15-21-Chester S. Tarka 
except 17— right, top and 
center, W. H. Bradley, 
U.S. Geological Survey; 
bottom, C. A. Davis, U.S. 
Geological Survey 
22-25-E. Javorsky 
26-29-Jacques Bordaz 
30-35— George Heinzman 
36-37-AMNH Archives 



38-39-David Linton ex- 
cept 38-bottom, AIVINH 
40-41-Lee Boltin 
42— The Brooklyn Museum 
43-The Cleveland Mu- 
seum 

44— George Holton, 
Photo Researchers, Inc. 
45-and 47— top. The 
Brooklyn Museum 
46-47-Lee Boltin 
48-49-George Holton, 
Photo Researchers, Inc. 
50-52-AMNH Archives 
53-AIVlNH 

54-55-Kurt Severin, 
Birnback Publishing 
Service 




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2414 Larchwood Rd. • Wilmington 3, Del. 



On Grand Lake, Maine 




_ CANOE 

RRO\V TRIPS 



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Write: George N. Darrow, 780 Millbrook Lane. Haver- 
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<^r 



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Share the Thrills 
01 Exploring 
outer Space* 

All DYNASCOPES, including this 
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Now It's easy to join ttie thousands of serious 
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FASCINATING GUIDE 
YOURS FREE! 

Read these valuable facts be- 
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coupon or postcard for your 
complimentary copy of this 
helpful guide. 

Criterion Manufacturing Co. 
331 Church St., Hartford 1, Conn. 

® TM Registered U.S. Pat. Office 




CRITERION MANUFACTURING CO. 

Dept. NH-54, 331 Church St., Hartford 1, Conn. 

Please send your free Telescope Guide. 



Address- 
City 



66 



If you are 
Taking Pictures 



■ni Binno 



ulhor dit, 



Ihe 



Depth. of.Fli-Iif 
lijeet of sharp 
plidr. 



al lerniH. ] 
populnr {and anme "Iforntd") 
and Rivei the render concise inatniclii ;na 
to Improve their picturen. Mr. Carnflii 
I how to incrcme Ihe field of shnrpneM hut 
Blvei advice how to limit thi« sharpneo to 
lain •iihjccl. Thli achievej a «lrikinK eftecl. 
Nature Photography. The hook 



contain, complel 
lennthn and for luhjecl din- 
tanrra from cloHe.up to 
■cenir thoti. The hook is 
all "meat" : no leiiRthy the- 
oretical discussions. Every- 
thing is practical advice, 
ffiven by a professional to 



of all foral 



the 



pho 



i im- 
aphie 
Depth.of-Field 
Book ii the first in a aeries 
and purchasers will be noti- 
fied when future books be- 
come available. Please note: 
You MUST Rive Make and 
Model of your 



CARAVELLE 

916- D McLean Ave- 
Yonkers, N.Y. 




■ CARAVELLE. 



CARAVELLE, 

916-F McLean Avenue, Yonkers, N.Y. 



i the Depth.of. 
. I may return 
not deliRhtcd. 



I 
I 

t Address : -^^_____.__^^_^_^^_^^_ ^m 
City, State, Zip: ^_— __^-^____ H 



I enclose ZSt*. Plea 
Field Book by Bin 
it for full refund 
My Camera is: 

Name : 




If you love children, your heart will go out to Tommy 
Littleravon, a 9-year-old American Indian boy who is 
attending school off the reservation for the first time. Going 
to school in town frightens Tommy. He is afraid that his 
non-Indian schoolmates are laughing at his tattered cloth- 
ing, at his faulty English. 

He yearns to join the school club, buy personal books, 
clothing, go out for a soda with the other boys. But his 
parents are too poor to give him pocket money. And so 
Tommy wanders off by himself and dreams that someday 
he will have the money to do what his non-Indian school- 
mates do. 



I^, ' if you love children 



Make a dream come true! You, your school or group can make this dream 
come true for an Indian child like Tommy. Contribute $12.50 a month and provide one 
Indian youngster with suitable clotlu'ng, personal books and a cash allowance. You will 
receive the photograph and story of the child you help and enjoy a warm person-to-person 
relationship through an exchange of letters. Please give one Indian youngster an even 
break — and the sense of security and confidence he needs to join the mainstream of 
American life. 



"National Sponsors 

Faith Baldwin 
Joan Crawjord 
Henry R. Luce 
Norman Rockwell 
Frank Sinatra 
Mrs. Earl Warren 



Founded 1932 
SAVE THE CHILDREN FEDERATION 

.N'orwalk, Connecticut 
I wish to contribute {ISO.OO annually to help an American 
Indian girl Q boy O 
Enclosed is my first payment; 

$12.50 a month D $ 75.00 semiannually C 

$37.50 a quarter D $150.00 annually Q 

I cannot sponsor a child, enclosed is contribution of $ 

Name 



I Ion deductible 



SEE SCANDINAVIA EXCLUSIVELY 

The Nordic couHtries more than others in Europe, 
represent a way of life— the so-called "middle of the 
road" approach to the problems of our world. 

Why not take the opportunity to see for yourself 
how it works while you are making that long put off 
trip to Norway, Sweden and Denmark. 

Mac Lindahl, U.S. correspondent for one of Swe- 
den's largest and most influential newspapers, will 
take you to Scandinavia's cultural highspots as well 
as off the beaten path. He will introduce you to well- 
known personalities in cultural and industrial life, 
organize visits to the ateliers of famous artists and 
designers, take you to church coffee in Dalecarlia 
where you will meet the "society" of the small 
village. 

Few persons are better suited to lead you on this 
tour of a beautiful and fascinating part of the world. 

SCANDINAVIA EXCLUSIVELY departs from 
New York on August 7, 1965 and returns on Sep- 
tember 8. 



LAPLAND-THE TOP OF EUROPE 

This special tour, though announced only recently 
has caused more interest than any other tour we 
have advertised in NATURAL HISTORY! Have 
you secured your folder? 




j Send for folder to 

I LINDBLAD TRAVEL, Inc. 

I One East 53rd Street 

I New York 22, N. Y. 

I Send folder on SCANDINAVIA EXCLUSIVELY to 
I 

I NAME (MR., MRS., MISS) 



L. 



67 



CATCH INVADING CHIPMUNKS 




Take them alive unhurt! 



Safe HAVAHART traps capture invading chip- 
munks, squirrels, rabbits, mice, rats, sparrows, 
opossums, skunks. Take mink, coon without in- 
jury. Sizes for all needs. Easy to use— open ends 
g-ive animal confidence. Galvanized. No jaws or 
springs to break. Straying: pets, poultry released 
unhurt. Write today for FREE illustrated guide 
with trapping secrets. 



HAVAHART, 158-P Water Street 
Ossining, New York 



Please sen 
price list. 



FREE new 48-page guide and 




THE HEARTWARMING GIFT 

Give yourself, your family, friends (and Hum- 
mingbirds!) the one and only "Hummy-Bird 
Bar"® for gift "occasions". These jewel-like 
rascals can play and sip 4-at-a-time on the 
"HBB". (See real photo). Bees or other birds 
can't reach the honey-water. It's dripless, rust- 
less, so easy to clean! Money back guarantee and 
instructions. Sorry no COD's. $2.95 plus 24^ 
postage. In Calif, add 12(' tax. Design by Erwin 
Brown. HUMMINGBIRD HEAVEN, Dept. N, 
6818 APPERSON STREET, TUJUNGA, 
CALIFORNIA. 

Stevens Western Safaris 

TO THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AND PACIFIC WEST BY PRIVATE 
VISTA-DOME PULLMAN FROM CHICAGO. »795 EACH 



Spring 

MAY 13-JUNE 1 



Autumn 

SEPT. 230CT. 12 



DIFFERENT ITINERARIES. EMPHASIS ON NATIONAL PARKS. 
TIMING AVOIDS TOURIST RUSH. MAXIMUM, 32 GUESTS. ALSO 
PULLMAN /SELF-DRIVE TRIPS. WRITE FOR DETAILS. 

OUR 4TH YEAR > PRODUCED AND ESCORTED BY 
ROBERT T. STEVENS, JR., BOX 786, LEESBURG, VIRGINIA 



BACK LOG CAMP, on Indian Lake, Adiron- 
dacks, New York, attracts those who love 
the unspoiled wilderness and actively wel- 
come escape from civilization's "advan- 
tages." July 2nd to September 4th. Reduc- 
tions for families and longer visits. Bro- 
chure: Mrs. H. J. Cadbury, 774 Millbrook 
Lane, Haverford, Pa. 



RIVER TRIPS- 1965 



Suggestions available for worthwhile summer projects — 
field trips. 

WILD RIVER EXPEDITIONS 

Box 930 Aspen. Colorado 81611. 



Suggested 
Additional Reading 

FOSSIL LAKES 
FROM THE EOCENE 

Limnology and the Eocene Lakes of 
THE Rocky Mountain Region. W. H. 
Bradley. Bulletin of the Geological So- 
ciety of America, VoL 59, pages 635- 
648, 1948. 

Stratigraphic and Facies Relation- 
ships OF Upper Part of Green River 
Formation and Lower Part of 
Uinta Formation in Duchesne, Uin- 
tah, AND Wasatch Counties, Utah. 
Carle H. Dane. Bulletin of the Ameri- 
can Association of Petroleum Geolo- 
gists, Vol. 38, No. 3, pages 405-425, 
1954. 

Stratigraphy of the Green River For- 
mation IN the Bridger Basin. Daniel 
A. Textoris. Ohio Journal of Science, 
Vol 63, No. 6, pages 241-257, 1963. 

THE THRESHING SLEDGE 

Life in a Turkish Village. Joe E. 
Pierce. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 
N.Y., 1964. 

Sur Le Tribulum. G. Luquet and P. 
Rivet. Melanges offerts a Mr. Nicolas 
lorga par ses amis de France et des 
pays de langue frangaise. Librairie 
Universitaire J. Gamber, Paris, pages 
613-639, 1933. 

NESTING OF THE WOOD STORK 

Flight into Sunshine: Bird Experi- 
ences in Florida. Helen C. Cruick- 
shank. The Macmillan Co., N.Y., 1948. 

Mysterious Mycteria— Our American 
Stork. M. Philip Kahl, Jr., and Alex- 
ander Sprunt IV. Audubon Magazine, 
Vol. 62, No. 5, September-October, 
1960. 

Florida Bird Life. Alexander Sprunt, 
Jr. Coward-McCann, N.Y., 1954. 

MIRAGES 

The Nature of Light and Color in 
the Open Air. Marcel G. J. Minnaert. 
Dover Publications, N.Y., 1954. 

Physical Optics. R. W. Wood. The Mac- 
millan Co., N.Y., 1914. 

THE CROSS AND ORB IN EGYPT 

Late Egyptian and Coptic Art. J. D. 
Cooney. Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, 
1943. 

Coptic Sculpture 300-1300. John Beck- 
with. Tiranti, London, 1963. 

A Short Account of the Copts. Wil- 
liam H. Worrell. University of Michi- 
gan Press, Ann Arbor, 1945. 

A General Introductory Guide to the 
Egyptian Collections in the Brit- 
ish Museum. A. F. Shore. British Mu- 
seum, London, 1964. 




I^—j/Cp^v/^^x. 



Ten miles af sea, ten cool miles from the 
mainland's cacophony and crowds. Sea- 
scape and skyscape undimmed and un- 
marred by streetlights, neon, jukeboxes, 
billboards. 

Dramatic cliffs and shoreline, spruce 
forests explored by seventeen miles of 
trails. Peaceful. And beautiful. $12 to $22 
a person daily, with meals. Brochure. 

THE ISLAND INN 
Box H, Monhegan Island, Maine 



Hdw to Save 

Precious 

Natural 

Areas 



Complete story 
of how one group 
did this in Genesee County, New York 
State, is told in "A SWAMP STORY" 
— a beautifully printed and illustrated 
GYi" X 91/^ " 36 page brochure now avail- 
able at $1.10 postpaid from: Dept. NH-4 

BERGEN SWAMP PRESERVATION SOCIETY, Inc. 

37 Suburba Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 14617 
Free Information About Society on Request 



CA]\OE TRIPS 

Complete or partial outfittinj 
for wilderness canoe trips 
low daily cost! Free kit wit! 
niap, lists, rates. Write Dept. H 




Border Lakes 

BOX 569 • ELY, MINN. 




FOR ORIOLES ONLY 

This unique new Oriole Feeder will attract man; 
black-and-gold beauties to your garden. (Se 
unretouched photo.) Their colorful antics a 
true delight. A heartwarming gift for any o 
sion. Rustless, easy to clean. Money back guar 
antee, full instructions. Sorry no COD's. F 
$3.95 plus 32c postage. In Calif, add 16c tas 
Designed by Erwin M. Brown. Hummingbir 
Heaven, Dept. N, 6818 Apperson St., Tujunga 
Calif. (Also makers of the original and popula: 
"Hummy-Bird Bar."®) 



68 



GET READY FOR THE SPACE and SCIENCE ERA! SEE SATELLITES, MOON ROCKETS CL0SE4JP 



for FUN, STUDY or PROFIT 



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fit Boy' American Mode! 
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ounted with Itglil 
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' BLACK LIGHT MAGIC-GLOW KIT 

■--^ With this Kit. you can collect fluores- 
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BE READY FOR THE MOON SHOTS 

Hanger, .Stiru-jor, Kiiiiar OrblUT uniuaniied (pace proiit 
will ilicd cjclilng new llglil on the nijiu-ry or the moo 
and oiuiir upaii-. See Ihe re.ulu rloio-up. Kilniund |..w-..ii.l 
tiip-((uallty I'liulfiineni and B(refr>orli'S put you rlglil tli'-r 
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Stock No. 1544-E only $74.80 pstpd. 

7 X 35 AMERICAN MADE BINOCULARS 
Stock No. 904-E ^ 560.50 pstpd la\ iiid ) 

Stock No. 9C3-E S33.00 pstpd {1i\ incl I 

WOODEN SOLID PUZZLES 

12 DilTerent puzzles lliat will stimulate 
your ability to think and reason. Here 
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THE WORLD OF DINOSAURS 

iV^ ..--'■V,, ONE HUNDRED MILLION 

ij^jV'*^'^-*- r*^ YEARS AGO 
In this set of monsters — the dinosaurs that ruled the earth 
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EDMUND SCIENTIFIC CO., Barrington, N. J 

MAIL COUPON for FREE CATALOG *'E" 



I EDMUND SCIENTIFIC CO., 

I Barrington, New Jersey 

* Completely New 1965 Edition- 
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When you talk about 
'Ihe system 'there's no 
brand X to compare it with. 




JL here's "the system" 
and then there are 
"cameras." To com- 
pare the two is like 




Left to right: Zeiss 250inm, loOmm, and 
SOinm lenses. 

mixing apples and oranges. And 
certainly does "the system" an in- 
justice. Because "the system" is 
more than a camera. It's a unique 
and complete combination of 
interchangeable components that 
offers more versatility, more opti- 
cal excellence than anything 
called "camera." 



JLn the area of lenses, for 
example. "The system" doesn't 
have one or two 
or even three. 
The number is 
six. 50, 80, 120, 
150, 250 and 
500mm. Each 
one is pi'ecision- 
crafted Zeiss. 
Each has a Syn- 
chro-Compur shut- 
ter, automatic and 
manual diaphragm, 
and coupled EVS 
system. And all 
are completely in- 
terchangeable. 




No 




Josef yl. Schneider, internationcillij famous 
photographer of ehildren, was introduced 
to Hasselblad ichile faki)tg a portrait of 
the Crown Prince of Sweden 15 years ago. 
He holds the intiqtte distinction of being 
the first Awcriean ]>hiifographer to use 
"the system" commercially. 



low take 
film backs. You get a 
choice of 4 separate and 
interchangeable maga- 
zines. 3 for roll film, each 
in a different size for- 
mat, one for cut 
film. So you can ^ 

change from black 
and white to color, 
from indoor to out- 
door film mid-roll. 

J_hen there's view 
ers. We don't expect you 
every shot the same way. Your 
needs change, right? So do our 
viewfinders. "The system" gives 
you five. (Four more than you get 
on most "cameras.") Eye-level 
prisms, sportsviewers, magnify- 
ing hoods. And sunshades, filters, 
proxars, bellows, exposure me- 
ters, cases. You name it. 



J.>ow you might say, 
"Aren't there any cameras that 
give me this kind of versatility?" 
The answer is simple: No. Sure, 
people have tried to duplicate 
"the system." It doesn't happen. 
"The system" was born to be a 
system. It wasn't just a camera 
with things added 
on. Weasked 
Josef Schneider. 
" 'The system'," he 
said, "lets me do any- 
thing. Without limita- 
tion. I know 
that what I 
see in my 
head is going 
to come out 
on the film." 



Hasselblad 

5 OOC with 

2 5 0mm lens, 

fast winding 

handle, ei/e- 

level prism 

finder, 

foeu s i n g 

handle and 

sunshade. 



I ow you know what 
we mean by "the system." Know 
it well. This is "the system," not 
to be confused with a "camera." 
For literature, write your dealer 
or Paillard Incorporated, 1900 
Lower Road, Linden, N.J. 

HASS€LBLAD 



11^. ^ 




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alo^din hoase. Ltd, 

520 Fifth Avenue, New Yo 



^ 




THE CLEOPATRA LOOK! 



Genuine Egyptian Scarabs served three purposes: 
as charms, seals, and for adornment. A small col- 
lection of ancient faience Scarabs has been set ill 
modern 
3000 yt 
Superb 
GOLD 



Jewelry . . . combining Ihe arlislry oj 
Its ago with Jewelry fashions of today! 
ill-occasion gift in Sterling silver or 14K 

h Jewelry case) f.t.i. 

Pendant Earrings 

$19.89 $27.79 

$24.89 $37.79 



(displayed 
Charm 

Silver $17.89 

Gold $19.89 




CLEOPATRA AGE JEWELRY 



Ancient Egyptian faience beads (3rd Cent. B.C.— 
4th Cent. A.D., CLEOPATRA AGE), from ex- 
cavated caches. Enlombed for centuries, these 
exotic, colorful heads in concert form a necklace 
treasure; a tasteful complement to casual or 
formal attire. 

24 inch Necklace of ancient beads S15.50 f.t.i. 
Sterling Silver drop bead earrings $ 5.75 f.t.i. 
Complete Set: Necklace & Earrings S19.75 f.t.i. 
FREE: Elegant display case with Necklaces & 
Earrings. 



BRONZE AGE 
ARROWHEADS ... * 

Excavated from famous archaeological 
sites in "AMLASH" (near the mts. of 
LURISTAN !) Bronze Arrows date from 
15th-8th Cent. B. C. & exhibit rich 
malachite green patina ! Each arrow a 
magnificent display piece , . . unique 

SELECT Arrowhead 3"-5" S6.50 

Average Arrowhead 2"-3" $4.50 

PREE: Plastic display stand for arrow 

*SEE-"The Illustrated London News", 

May 5, 1962, P. 699-701 




-HER JEWEIRY- 



EXOTIC COINS 

. . . from the "sinister" 
gaming dens of Siam's 18th 
and 19th Centuries ! Used 
as a means of exchange, 
these attractively fashioned 
porcelain coins reflect the 
simple beauty inherent in 
Oriental art. Now these 
very coins crafted with 
sterling silver make exotic 
all occasion jewelry. In 
ddition, you can frame 
hem creating a unique 
vail decoration. 
Siamese gambling por- 
celain coin, each $1.75 
Collection of 6 dif- 
ferent design coins 37-90 
-HIS JEWEIRY- 



CKAIN & 

PENDANT 

$7,95 



TIE 



ANTIQUITY GIFTS 



TEMPLE BUDDHAS . . . 

(irom lSth-}9lh Cent. Siam) 



deep 



the 
Sia 
ikwood sta 
black 



landoned vegcta- 

meval forests of 
Superbly crafted 



tes, lacquered red 

several Buddha^ 

richly finished in Gold leaf, somt 
uith hand inscribed prayers/ State- 
ly display (7"-10") complimenting 
home & office decor. A distinc- 
tive all-occasion gift! CHOICfc 
Buddha, rich Gold leaf finish & 
inscribed prayers S35. 

Select Buddhas, rich Gold leaf S25. 





PRE-COLUMBIAN DISCOVERY! 

over 2000 Years Old . . . 
busts & torsos from the Valley of Mexico's primi- 
tive Indian culture dating from before the Birth 
of Christ. Masterful artisans crafted these myste- 
rious clay figurines, early examples of pesteltaje 
technique (applied features) used in pre-classic 
American art. Approx. 1%" high, attractively 
mounted on walnut base, these ancient creations 
make fascinating museum-like displays for home 
or office. Unique gift idea! 

SELECT Specimen, mounted S12.75 

Average Specimen, mounted $ 9.75 




Now 



ANCIENT OIL LAMPS 

over 1364 Years Old . . . 
ilable for display in your home or office! 



Actually excavated in Ancient Palestine, they dati 
from 4th- 7th Cent. A.D. You can rekindle lamp's 
ancient glow with wick and vegetable oil. Lamp 
symbolizes knowledge ! Will stimulate thought- 
provoking conversation. A superb all-occasion gift 
to be admired forever! Lamp on hardwood base 
with parchment certificate of authenticity $17.00 



CUFF 
LINKS 
$9.50 



POSSESS THESE GENUINE RELICS . . . 
YOURS AT NO EXTRA COST! 

No additional sales & Federal tax charges. 

No additional charge for insured postage. 

Authenticity Certificate with your order! 

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PLUS: Ask about "FREE Lay Away Service" 

. . . useful, long range payment plans! 



FREE Gift Catalog 



. . . Illustrating: Crosses, Buddhas, Amulets, 
Bronze Weapons, Lamps, Scarabs, Jewelry, 
Figurines, Masks, Roman Glass, Pottery, Coins, 
Shawabtis, Coptic Textile & morel Collectors, 
Students, Gift Givers S Ihe intellectually curious, 
will enjoy this stimulating reference boolc. 
Write for your free copy today! 

ALADDIN HOUSE, LTD. 

Dept. N-5C • 520 5th Ave. • N.Y., N.Y. 10036 



OSIRIS, KING OF THE GODS 

s according 
Egypt. His 1 
iof hissubjc 



Osiris, the King of the gods, was according to 
Plutarch a wise and good ruler of Egypt. His life 
was spent improving t' '" * 
and the same for the other nations of the world. 
He was the husband of Isis, "King of the Gods," 
"Lord of Eternity" and the judge of the dead. He 
was considered the ideal father and Isis the faith- 
ful wife. The bronze figurines, 21/2" to 31/2" in 
height, belong to the XXVI Dynasty (663-524 
B.C.) and the Ptolemaic period (332-30 B.C.). 
OSIRIS Bronze figurine on handsome display 
$35.00 



/f^ 




COIN OF INDIA 

The heavy silver coins of the 
Shah Jahan Empire (1632-1653) 
have been transformed into mag- 
nificent handcrafted jewelry. This 
famed Indian ruler built the Taj 
Mahal, the worlds most sump- 
tuous memorial to a beloved 
/ife. Coins of Shah Jahan, 
historically symbolizing his 
immortal love for the Em- 
press Mahal, are now avail- 
able as regal charms, pend- 
ants & cufflinks. A gift truly 
expressing eternal love! 
Silver coin pendant ,., $23.50 

Silver coin charm $19.50 

Silver coin cufflinks ....$28.50 



Va billion YEARS OLD . . . 

animal fossil (blastoid) frequently 
called "Sea Bud," actually lived over 
230 million years ago. Nature's de- 
sign, five vents surround center giving 
the blastoid a futuristic look. Now, 
this fantastic fossil has been 
crafted with sterling silver, creat- 
ing unique jewelry . . . while re- 
maining an alluring scientific 
curio! Give as intriguing gift from 
"The Dawn of Life on Earth"! 
PENDANT CHARM EARRINGS 
$6.95 $4.95 ».95 



"A 




Miniature OPIUM WEIGHTS 

The sale of opium in 17th-19th Cent. Siam & 
Burma was state controlled. Used to weigh 
opium, these stylized bronze lions, ducks & 
elephants, handsomely mounted on walnut bases 
(or lucite) are approx. V2" to 1" high, weighing 
approx. 2/5 to 1 oz. Useful & unique as paper- 
weights, they make an exotic addition to all 
collections . . . a most intriguing gift from the 
Orient/ 

Opium Weight, i/»" high, walnut base $5.89 

Opium Weight, 1" high, lucite base $9.50 



Aladdin House, Ltd., Dept. N-5C 

520 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y., 10036 

n Please send FREE Gift Catalog only! 
□ Please ship me the following: 



_Check enclosed $_ 



Address- 
City.^ 



_Zip_ 




WORLD TRADER 



From Argentina to Australia . . . from Tanzania to Turkey, CM's familiar trademark 
is constantly on the go from country to country throughout the world. 
With 49 manufacturing, assembly or distribution centers in 22 foreign countries, 
employing more than 150,000 people, General Motors sells its products in more 
than 150 countries. 

Who benefits? Everybody. Overseas customers get vehicles and other useful prod- 
ucts built to their precise requirements. Resultant taxes, wages and technical skills 
help stimulate the economy of foreign countries. The U. S. gets vital inflow of 
dollars from overseas sales. 

And it's all made possible by the people of General Motors ... at home and 
abroad. 

General Motors Is People.., 

making better things for you 



PRESIDENT 

Alexander M. White 

DIRECTOR 

James A. Oliver 

ASSISTANT DIRECTORS 

Walter F. Meister, Joseph M. Chamberlain 



MANAGING EDITOR 

Robert E. Williamson 

EXECUTIVE EDITOR 

Helene Jordan 

SENIOR EDITOR 

John S. Erwin 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

Harry Atkins, Beth Stokes 

COPY EDITORS 

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REVIEWS 

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PHOTOGRAPHY 

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CONTRIBUTIONS 

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CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

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EDITORIAL ADVISERS 

Gerard Piel Gordon F. Ekholm 

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ADVERTISING 

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PROMOTION MANAGER 

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Natural History 

Incorporating Nature Magazine 

THE JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



Vol. LXXIV MAY 1965 No. 5 

ARTICLES 

SABINO GROVE ECOLOGY STUDY 

Eric Leshan, Nelson Samuels, Bruce Hobson, and Charles Coughlan 14 

AFRICAN PINK-BACKED PELICAN James Hancock 24 

NATURE BEHIND THE SCENES Photographs by Gert Berliner 34 

WATER, HISTORY, AND THE INDUS PLAIN George C. Taylor, Jr. 40 

LIFE CYCLE OF SECLUSION Ralph J. Donahue 50 

COURTSHIP BEHAVIOR OF ARACHNIDS Theodore Savory 52 



CIRCULATION MANAGER 

Joseph Saulina 



DEPARTMENTS 

BOOKS IN REVIEW 

SKY REPORTER 

ABOUT THE AUTHORS 

TRAVEL FAR AND NEAR: 
KINISHBA PUEBLO RUINS 

SCIENCE IN ACTION: 

STEPS TO A NEW ASTRONOMY 

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL READING 



Robert Cushman Murphy 4 

Thomas D. Nicholson 30 

57 

Jay Ellis Ransom 58 

George A. Rothrock 

70 




COVER: Eric Leshan, seen here, is a student at Pacific High School in Palo 
Alto, California. With a biology teacher and other students, he has made three 
trips into Mexico to examine the flora and fauna of a Sonoran sabino grove. 
This spring-fed "ecological island" was chosen for special study because of its 
unusual situation in the midst of a semiarid short tree forest. The article that 
begins on page 14 was written by the students themselves and reveals the depth 
of knowledge that teen-agers can achieve when they explore an environment and 
take notes of what they see. All the photographs were taken by Jesse Alexander. 

The American Museum is open to the public without charge every day j 
during the year. Your support, through membership and contributions, 
helps make this possible. The Museum is equally in need of support 
for all of its work in the fields of research, education, and exhibition. j 

i 

Publication Office: The American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York 
N. Y. 10024. Published monthly, October through May: bimonthly June to September. Subscription: 85.00 a 
year. In Canada, and all other countries: 85.50 a year. Single copies: 8.50. Second class postage paid at 
New York, N. Y., and at additional olHcea. Copyright, 1965 by The American Museum of Natural History. 
No part of this periodical may be reproduced without the written consent ot NiTDBii, HiSTORT. The tiUo 
Nature MACiziNE, registered U.S. Patent Office. Unsolicited manuscripts and illustrations submitted to tho 
editorial office will be handled with all possible care, but we cannot assume responsibility for their safety. 
The opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect The American Museum's policy. 
You will find Natural History magazine indexed in Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature in your librarr. 




This is your private, twin-engined Piper Aztec. 

[t will take you on the kind of African safari that up to now 

has only been available to the very, very rich. 



You are scudding over the plains of Screngeti 
in your rod and silver Piper. There are 6 peo- 
ple in your plane. You, (he 4 other members 
of your parly and your personal pilot. Below 
you, column after column of migrating wilde- 
beest scurry and scatter as you skim over them 
at 180 mph. You are on the 17th day of your 
22-day BOAC Wings Safari. 

This totally new kind of safari is based on one 
very simple idea. That it's easier to see more of 
Africa if you fly from one interesting spot to 
the next. This way you can travel where land 



vehicles can't. Cover huge distances quickly. 
See things from the air that couldn't possibly 
be seen any other way. 

Where do wc take you? To the remote Sam- 
buru tribal center of Maralal to watch leopards 
on the kill. To rarely-visited Lake Rudolf to 
fish for giant 11)0 lb. perch. To the nearly-for- 
gotten island of Lamu, where huge-sailed Arab 
dhows still crowd the harbor. You take a 2-day 
break at the Mnarani Club on the Indian Ocean 
to swim and sail and water-ski. Spend 3 days at 
the incredibly luxurious Mount Kenya Safari 



Club. And a night at theworld-famousTrcctops 
Hotel. You leapfrog deserts, plains, scrub, and 
coral-bottomed ocean. Stare down into the cra- 
ters of extinct volcanos. In short, you sec it all. 
What does it cost lo go on a trip like this? 
Less, perhaps, than you might think. S 1 ,99 1 for 
everything. ( Round-trip fare from New York, 
meals, accommodations, the lot. Wc even pay 
for your visas!) Like the sound of this new 
kind of African safari? Sec your Travel Agent 
or clip the coupon and we'll send you an in- 
teresting brochure. 



Or would you rather go on a safari that's a little more 

down to earth? 




Your Land Rover hums its way along the 
road from Amboseli, through Masai villages, to 
Ngorongoro. Above you loom ice-capped Mt. 
Kilimanjaro and Mt. Meru, and, in front, the 
wall of the extinct Ngorongoro volcano. You're 
going to stay the night in a lodge perched right 
on the rim of the crater. From its windows you 
can look 1000 ft. down onto the strange, 12- 
mile-wide crater floor. You'll drive down there 
tomorrow to spend the day among its teeming 
thousands of wildebeest, zebra, eland, and ga- 
zelle. Lion. Hippo. Jackal. You've had 13 days 
like this on BOAC's "Value Safari. You still 
have 5 more to go. 

What's the difference between this and our 
airborne safari? Just that you keep your feet on 
the ground. Naturally, you can't cover as much 
distance, but we've arranged your route so you 

Only 10 people can go on each Wings Safari. 



BRITISH OVERSEAS AIRWAYS CORPORATION 
Dcpt. A-233 530 Fifth Avenae 
New York, N. Y. 10036 

Please send me your big. beautirul 16-page brochures 
about Africa. I think Td like to take the Wings 
Safari n The Value Safari Q (Check one. Or both.) 



see the best of Uganda, Kenya, and Tangan- 
yika. You visit thundering Murchison Falls 
with its herds of elephants. Fort Portal and the 
Mountains of the Moon. The pygmies of Ituri. 
The Kazinga Channel, where you can sneak up 
on elephants and hippo, safe on board a motor 
launch. Spend the night under canvas beneath 
Kilimanjaro. Cruise up the Nile. Sleep in the 
Manyara Hotel, perched 4,100 ft. up on the 
Rift Wall. 

What does an 18- 
day trip like this cost? 
$1,482' for every- 
thing. (Extensions are 
available to 22 or 44 
days.) Now do you 
see why we call it the 
Value Safari? 
20 on the Value Safaris. See your Travel Agent or clip the coupon and you're on your way^ 



All overthe world BOAC 
takes good care of you 




56 kids long and 100 million years old 

See him at Sinclair Dinoland 
at the World's Fair 



3a 




fty-six youngsters give you an 
ea of the size of Brontosaurus. 
This 70-foot creature roamed the 
rth over a hundred million years 
:o when Nature was mellowing the 
;troleum that Sinclair now refines 
to the best gasolines and oils, 
hat's why Sinclair uses the dinosaur 
its famous trademark. 
In Sinclair Dinoland at the World's 
air, you can see Brontosaurus and 
ght other life-size dinosaurs; they're 



authentic and realistic, they look alive. 
Youngsters, especially, are thrilled by 
this exciting re-creation of prehistoric 
times. We at Sinclair hope our exhibit 
will inspire young people to learn more 
about our earth's strange past. 

Over five million Fairgoers visited 
Dinoland last year. Sinclair invites you 
and your family to come to New York 
this summer. To make your trip more 
pleasant, we'll be happy to plan your 
route through interesting and historic 



sections of the country. For example, 
the New England Heritage Trail is 
a fascinating trip which includes over 
1000 points of interest: battlegrounds, 
seaports, parks, beaches, recreation 
areas and many other attractions. 
This Sinclair service is free. Write 
Sinclair Tour Bureau, 600 Fifth Ave., 
N. Y., N. Y. 10020. r-Z ~ > 
Tell us the areas you \OinCiUlf j 
want to visit in the \ ^^ 
U.S., Canada or Mexico. 



3b 



aVIT^G WORLD 



SOOXS _ 




From birth to maturity, 

America's wild creatures 

observed and photographed 

in native surroundings. 

1 THE WORLD OF 
THE RACCOON 

LEONARD LEE RUE, HI 

This new book about the masked 
rascal of the woods — illustrated 
with nearly 100 unusual photo- 
graphs — describes and shows the 
way a raccoon spends the year, 
where he lives, what he eats, how 
he hunts, what eats him, how he 
fights, and how the young are 
raised. 

Other LIVING WORLD Books 

2. The World of the COYOTE 

JOE VAN WORMER 

3. The World of the BOBCAT 

JOE VAN WORMER 

4. The World of the RED-TAILED HAWK 

G. ROLAND AUSTING 

5. The World of the BEAVER 

LEONARD LEE RUE, UI 

6. The World of the WHITE-TAILED DEER 

LEONARD LEE RUE, HI 

Send for your choice 

Use the coupon below to order one 
or all of these superb wild-animal 
books. Each book is illustrated with 
approximately 100 photographs 
throughout the text. Bibliographies. 
Large size: T/z x 10". Each $4.95 

Mall this coupon now 

J. B. IIPPINCOTT COMPANY ^^ 

E. Washington Sq., Philadelphia, Pa. 1910S 

Please send me postpaid the books whose 
numbers I have circled below. 



I enclose $_ 



.(Price $4.95 each) 



name | 

AHrlr»t< 1 


City 


Stale, Z- 


1 



BOOKS I IN REVIEW 



/Man against the insects 



(By Robert Cushman Murphy 

Pesticides and the Living Landscape, 
by Robert L. Rudd. University of Wis- 
consin Press, $6.50; 320 pp. Beneficial 
Insects, by Lester A. Swan. Harper & 
Row, $7.95; 429 pp., illus. 

THESE two volumes would have de- 
lighted Rachel Carson, whose Silent 
Spring (1962) revolutionized the think- 
ing of the world. Her book was at first 
belittled and even reviled by the manu- 
facturers of pesticides. One official 
spokesman of a huge chemical industry 
publicly called it a "hoax." But as calm 
and authoritative opinion rallied to Miss 
Carson's thesis, the antagonists subsided, 
first to a semblance of courtesy and later 
to a realization that their entire stance 
needed reconsideration. 

Dr. Rudds work is the best kind of 
appraisal of the great bomb of publicity 
that burst three years ago. Supported by 
the Conservation Foundation, the author 
had freedom to write exactly as his in- 
vestigation led him. His consideration of 
the subject fits into a fivefold frame: (1) 
how man. the so-called ecological domi- 
nant, exploits the living environment; 
(2) how he combats organisms that chal- 
lenge his exclusive interests; (3) how 
successful he is in controlling these com- 
petitors; (4) the methods he uses in 
control; (5) the price he has paid for 
his practices. 

Six chapters cover the history of the 
dilemma, the responses of a wide variety 
of organisms to pesticides, the human 
hazards, changes produced in the biolo- 
gical landscape, and the place of pes- 
ticides in the food chain, leading to 
delayed expression of objectionable re- 
sults. An appendix incorporates the 
recommendations of President Ken- 
nedy's Scientific Advisory Committee on 
the Use of Pesticides, and there is an ex- 
cellent bibliography. 

Man, of course, builds up the popula- 
tions of his pests by his simplification of 
complex environments through planting 
pure stands of a crop over large areas. 
He thus rejects a balanced fauna and 
flora of thousands of mutually compet- 
ing species in favor of one or a few 
species specially adapted to subsistence 
on his harvests. We have been altering 
environments at a pace that precludes 
our understanding of what we are doing. 

Rudd minces no words in confirming 
that millions of birds have been killed by 
DDT, and that the fire ant campaign of 
the U.S. Department of Agriculture was 
a fiasco. Despite such findings, the 1964 
Yearbook of the Department flatly states 



that DDT has no serious effects on wild- 
life populations. Just how far can mul- 
ishness go? 

After noting that perspective in chemi- 
cal control has been lacking for the past 
two decades. Rudd strongly emphasizes 
the importance of biological control, 
which has proved to be the only reas- 
onable solution of the Japanese beetle 
problem and a number of others. This 
leads directly to Lester Swan's book. 

Beneficial Insects, a 429-page volume, 
is an eloquent and convincing plea for 
integrated pest control in which preda- 
tors (including vertebrate animals), 
parasites, weed eaters, bacteria, viruses, 
yeasts, fungi, and other infectious or- 
ganisms share a role with control by 
"artifice." The last represents such pro- 
cedures as the sterilization of male in- 
sects, the synthesis of sex attractants as 
bait, light-attractant traps, mechanical 
barriers, repellents (odors, sounds, and 
high-frequency electrical fields), re- 
sistant strains of crop plants, the en- 
couragement of parasites, and much 
more. Effective case histories are cited. 

We used to be told that only about two 
hundred species of insects in all the 
world are seriously injurious to man. 
Today, the reckoning may be higher, but 
it is still an infinitesimal percentage of 
the insect fauna. Instead of the "million" 
species commonly mentioned, the exist- 
ing species probably exceed five million. 
Professor Brues. of Harvard, presented 
strong evidence on that a score of years 
ago. From man's point of view, most in- 
sects are either neutral or beneficial. 

Dr. Swan's accounts of the habits and 
life history of insects that are inimical 
to other insects provide fascinating and 
eye-opening reading. What we evidently 
need to keep our agriculture and stock 
raising in balance with the rest of the 
environment is as many kinds of insects 
as possible, rather than the largest num- 
bers of only a few kinds. As D. A. Chant 
says in the Forward. "Pesticides are 
merely temporary palliatives, not per- 
manent solutions. . . ." 

Dr. Murphy, Lament Curator Emeritus 
of Birds at The American Museum, is 
also a well-knoivn zoologist and author. 



Animal Communication, by Hubert 
and Mabel Frings. Blaisdell Publishing 
Co., $2.50; 204 pp., illus. 

Communication between animals in- 
volves the giving ofE by one indi- 
vidual of some chemical or physical sig- 




"A beautiful and highly informative 
book . . . 

1 he author is director of the Suchdol Herpetological Station near 

l'i:ii;iic, wiih extensive experience as a collector and wiih a specialized 
inlciest in ilif character and psychology of reptiles and amphibians. He 
provides practical and detailed insiruciions for preparing vivaria, the 
care of reptiles and amphibians, and specific discussions of individual 
species. "-IRSION r. barnes, WuilUiiKion Posl 
253 photographs, 36 in color $12.50 

REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS 

by Zdenek Vogel 



"A most entertaining book... 

v\/ith 25 appealing clra\/vings 

by Ralph Thompson." 

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zoo keeper with communicable laughter . . ." 

—Virginia Kirkiis Bulletin Illustrated $3.95 



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by Peter Hill Beard 

Breath-taking photographs and a fascinating text make stun- 
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The accomplishments and depredations of white men are re- 
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Introduction by EDWIN WAY TEALE 



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nal that, on being received by another, 
influences its behavior." With this basic, 
operational, and objective definition. Dr. 
and Mrs. Frings have reviewed a major 
area of interest in animal behavior. 
Their examples were chosen carefully 
from the gamut of animal forms, with 
special emphasis on invertebrates, and 
arranged in categories according to func 
tion: species identification, social co 
operation, sexual attraction, courtship, 
and parental care. Chapters on the 
mechanisms of production of signals, 
methods of behavioral research, and evo- 
lutionary significance of communication 
are included. Some examples of com- 
munication are described in detail, such 
as odor trails in ants and guidance 
dances in bees, but the small size of the 
book and the vast scope of the field made 
it necessary to reduce other examples 
to brief statements. 

In attempting to limit the coverage 
the authors emphasized communication 
within species, and excluded so-called 
incidental signals, such as feeding 
sounds or non-specific odors, that are 
not produced by specialized structures. 
Inevitably, many instances of inter 
species communication do crop up and 
"incidental" signals often play an im 
portant role in behavior. In order to be 
effective, communication signals must be 
readily separable from any background 
sounds, colors, smells, and so forth. Sig- 
nals can be distinguished by their in 
tensity, quality, or temporal patterning 
The Frings show how this basic fact has 
influenced the evolution of signaling and 
receiving devices. 

These two biologists are eminently 
qualified and knowledgeable in their 
field. Their writing style is clear, con 
cise. and well organized— and they have 
included a good bibliography and index 

This is an excellent example of com- 
munication in itself, and demonstrates 
that scientists are capable of producing 
a readable and factually accurate exposi- 
tion for the educated layman. 

William N. Tavolca 
The American Museum 

Theory and Method in Ethnomusi- 
COLOGY, by Bruno Nettl. The Free Press 
of Glencoe,'$5.95; 306 pp. 

Bruno Nettl's Theory and Method in 
Ethnorrjusicology—iaT more read- 
able than its title might suggest— tries to 
set the young discipline of ethnomusi- 
cology on its feet by formulating a com- 
mon theoretical background and method 
of approach. 

Nettl defines ethnomusicology as the 
study of music outside the realm of West- 
ern civilization— a field belonging to, bul 
neglected by, musicologists and anthro- 
pologists alike. The author then formu- 
lates a background of theory and methoc 
and discusses, clearly and pertinently 




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Tall Trees and 
Far Horizons 

Adventures and Discov- 
eries of Early Botanists 
in America 
By VIRGINIA S. EIFERT 

A noted American nature writer 
here tells the eventful story of the 
intrepid, restless men — Hariot, 
Linnaeus. Michaux, Nuttall, 
Douglas, Whipple. Thoreau. Muir, 
and many more who turned an un- 
known continent into a place of 
knowledge, and through whose ef- 
forts tens of thousands of plants 
were found and named. Each 
chapter has an excellent bibliog- 
raphy. 

Illustrated with drawings and pho- 
tographs by the author. $5.00 



Scientists Who 
Work With 
Cameras 




By Lynn and Gray Poole 

From the depths of the sea to the 
far reaches of the universe, the 
camera is extending man's knowl- 
edge. This book describes the ca- 
reers and work of twelve scientists 
who explore with the camera: 
strobe light investigator Edgerton; 
astronomers Whipple, Schwartzs- 
child, McCrosky. and Davis; bota- 
nist Alexopoulos; radiologist 
Morgan; ultra-high-speed-action 
photographer Courtney-Pratt; 
space and undersea explorer Lee; 
laser light experimenter Ellis; 
moon searcher Edson; and earth 
mapper Shrader. 

Illustrated with photographs 
showing the scientists at work with 
their cameras. $3.50 

DODD, MEAD & COMPANY 
^____ New York 10016 ^^_^__ 



the problems and techniques of field 
work and of transcription. He spends 
some time elaborating on the nature and 
description of style, and it is at this point 
that the reader who lacks musical train- 
ing might feel out of his depth. 

In the section dealing with musical 
instruments, Nettl broadens the field to 
show his concern with the close inter- 
relationship between ethnomusicology 
and anthropology, and treats music in its 
widest social context. 

Ethnomusicology has "only begun to 
scratch at the surface of its possibili- 
ties." says Nettl. but "music the world 
over is more than artifact ... it is. even 
in the simplest cultures, an essential part 
of human life." 

Colin M. Turnbull 
The American Museum 

The Glory That Was Greece, by J. C. 
Stobart. revised by R. .1. Hopper. Haw- 
thorn Books, Inc.. S10.95: 265 pp., illus. 
The Etruscans, by Emeline Richardson. 
The University of Chicago Press, $7.95; 
285 pp., illus. 

AN old friend makes its appearance 
. togged out in fresh garments. The 
first edition of The Glory That JFas 
Greece, a cultural appreciation of the 
Hellenic spirit from its emergence in 
prehistory to its conquest by Rome, was 
published in 1911. While excising some 
minor infelicities, the new editor, R. J. 
Hopper, had as his main task the inte- 
gration of a vast amount of new material, 
only recently available to the historian, 
without losing the style and flavor of 
Stobart's original writing and thinking. 
The pictures and drawings of the earlier 
editions were completely replaced by 
excellent photographs. A new bibliog- 
raphy provides the curious reader with 
a fine selection of the latest scholarly 
but popularly written books, in which he 
can read in greater depth after this spec- 
tacular summary. 

In some ways it is now a curious book. 
In it the latest reports to be drawn from 
Minoan-Mycenaean Linear B— from the 
new grave circle at Mycenae and from 
the fresh excavations in progress in Tur- 
key—are coupled with quaintly archaic 
notions of the upward progress of man- 
kind, and with delightful Victorian pro- 
priety: "There is no truer sign of civili- 
zation and culture than good sanitation." 
But Stobart's book remains, after half a 
century, a fine summation of a marvel 
ously rich people. We must beware, how- 
ever, of Stobart's idea of ieZos— that the 
pattern of history is characterized by an 
aim for perfection. We also must forgive 
his utter devotion to the Hellenic ideals 
that his generation, although perhaps 
not the Greeks themselves, worshiped. 

Unlike the Greeks and their more 
ambitious neighbors, the Romans, the 
Etruscans did not leave behind an exten- 



A fascinating journey 

among the 

tribes of 

Guiana 



THROUGH 
INDIAN EYES 

by Colin Henfrey 

A young anthropologist tells of 
his experiences on a journey 
that took him from coastal 
Guiana, through the remote 
villages of Venezuela and 
Brazil, to the "disinherited" 
tribes of the Macusi and the 
Wapistana. This remarkable 
record of three months spent 
among the Amerindians vividly 
re-creates a primitive world 
that, until now, has been 
shrouded in mystery. 

Photographs. $6.00 
At your bookstore, or from 
n HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON, INC. 

^ 3SZ Madison Ave., N.Y., N.Y. 10017 



THE ROCK PAINTINGS 
OF THE CHUMASH 

CAMPBELL GRANT 
Scattered through the coastal 
mountains of southern CaHfpr- 
nia are many strangely painted 
caves and rocks. Reminders of 
the extinct Chumash Indians, 
the paintings range from sunple 
line drawings in red to complex 
polychrome designs. Dozens of 
reproductions of the paintings 
are included in this book and 
are discussed in terms of sub- 
jects, meaning, techniques, and 
dating. 

"The definitive work on the 
rock paintings of the Chumash 
Indians . . . whose cave art is 
the finest in North America." 
— Robert F.Heizer $10.00 
Coming Summer 1965 

UNIVERSITY OF berkeley 

los angeles 
California press newyork 



' Is Jerry Schatzberg part of 
"the system"? -a.Q 



Or vice versa? ^ 




We 



e don't really know. 
But let us explain. "The .system" 
we refer to is the Hasselblad 
system. And it offers the photog- 
rapher a unique and complete 
combination of interchangeable 
components that allows for 
greater versatility than anything 
[Called "camera." 
Because it does 




more, photographers depend on 
it more. To the exclusion of "cam- 
eras." And after a while we won- 
der whether they become part of 
it, or it of them ? We asked Jerry 
Schatzberg. 



and .500mm lenses, 

there's nothing you 

can't take. And 

when they're all 

Zeiss, with manual 

and automatic dia- 

))hragm, and cou- 
pled EVS system, 

you know you're 
hooting with the 

nterchange- 
If I didn't 
have 'the .system, 
I'd have, say, 
three or four 
cameras loaded 
with different 
film. Not for me. 
'The system' has 
4 interchange- 
able magazines, 
3 for roll film, 
one for cut film. 
I can go from color 
to black and white, 
indoor to outdoor film, mid-roll. 




Cloektvine: Hagselbtad SOOC 

II ith gOmm lens and light mrter 

knob, 150mm Iciik, suHKhadc, filler, 

cye-levcl prism finder, 250mm lens, magni- 

fijing hood and film magazine. 

think about shooting. You might 
say 'the system' becomes an ex- 
tension of myself." 



Th 



'V 



Y 

± e 



es, I've gotten to de- 
pend upon 'the system,'" he said. 
'It's versatile enough to mini- 
mize my need for anything else. 
When you're on the job you just 
can't lug around anything extra. 
'The system's' got it all. Like six 
interchangeable lenses. When 
you've got 50, 80, 120, 150, 250, 



iewfinders, too. 'The 
system' lets me see the shot the 
way I want to see it. (Not any one 
set way like with 'cameras.') It 
gives me a choice of eye-level 
prisms, magnifying hoods, reflex 
prisms. The works. 

When you've got all 
that going for you, you just don't 
need much else. So after a 
while I don't think about 
the mechanics of how 
I'm shooting. I only 



-here's our answer: 
"The .system" does become part 
of Jerry Schatzberg. It never gets 
in the way of the picture. It leaves 
the photographer free to see, to 
feel, to shoot. Take 5 cameras out 
with j'ou. See how much or how 
little they get in your way. You'll 
let "the system" become part of 
you.For literaturewrite : Paillard 
Incorporated, 1900 Lower Road, 
Linden, New Jersey. 

HASS£LBIAD 




Jerry Schatzberg, 

Tnost contemporary of 

conteynporary Nctv York 

photographers, moves 

around fast. Look in his 

luggage and you're bound 

to find "the system.' 




Now you don't have to be present' 
to record the calls- 
thanks to the new Uher 4000 Report-S. 




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TENNESSEE .... A Nature(al) Sanctuary 




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Refresh yourself with a vacation in Tennessee for sheer pleasure and 
diversion from daily routine. 

• Waterfalls, hiking and riding trails, picnicking, camping, rustic or 
modern lodging in 22 State Parks. 

• Civil War Battlefields and other important historic sites. 

• Visit mountain settlements where women handweave their own material. 

• 22 Great Lakes with some of the finest fresh-water fishing in the world. 

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sive literature on their virtues, history, 
and heroes. In the absence of such writ- 
ings, the Etruscans have become one of 
those mystery people that arclieological 
journalists— the buffs of lost Atlantis and 
white queens of the jungle— delight in 
dramatizing. Mrs. Richardson demon- 
strates in The Etruscans that she knows 
too much about the subject to indulge 
herself in the excesses of historical ro- 
mance. With a fine hand, a sense of wit, 
and keen appreciation, she has written a 
no-nonsense book that is a primer on the 
culture of these early Italians. Drawing 
upon her firsthand knowledge of the 
land, the monuments, and Etruscology, 
she provides a solidly based account of 
the history of a people who flourished in 
those dim centuries around the middle of 
the first millennium B.C. 

We know the Etruscans best from the 
obviously biased accounts of their covet- 
ous neighbors, the Romans, and from the 
furnishings of their tombs. Fortunately, 
the Etruscans did not take death lightly, 
but built their dead elaborate under- 
ground homes with muraled walls and 
sculptured details and left with them 
their most-prized furniture and personal 
belongings. However, from such slender 
evidence only a spotty, largely hypo- 
thetical history can be organized. If Mrs. 
Richardson offers no startling new sug- 
gestions about the origins of the Etrus- 
cans, she does provide a readable book 
that makes a fine gift for the person who 
asks, "Who were the Etruscans?" 

Bernard Goldman 
Wayne State University 

Tropical Aquarium Fish, by A. van den 
Nieuwenhuizen. D. Van Nostrand Co., 
SI 5.00; 200 pp., illus. The Book of 
Exotic Fish, by R. and M. L. Bauchot. 
Stein and Day, $8.95 ; 95 pp., illus. 

Two new books on tropical fish in liv- 
ing color have arrived. A. van den 
Nieuwenhuizen's volume is a personal 
and beautifully illustrated account of 
some of the author's many and excep- 
tional accomplishments as a skilled 
aquarist. The numerous photographs 
are by the author, and their artistic qual- 
ities and unusual sharpness mirror his 
enthusiasm for his subjects. 

The book has been written on the 
charming premise, implicit on every 
page, that the reader will want to share 
the author's moments of success. Thus 
we see photographs of a particularly 
handsome pair of fish that have repro- 
duced and are rearing their young; a 
less common species is seen performing 
its courtship and display rituals and de- 
fending its small territory in the au- 
thor's aquarium. 

In addition to the personal quality of 
the writing (some of which must cer- 
tainly have been lost in translation from 
the original Dutch), an infusion of 



lO 



FRESH 



as an 

april 

breeze 



PENETRATING 



as the 

august 

sun 



LEAR 



as a 

december 

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CRISP 

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apple 

NATURAL HISTORY 
IS A GIFT FOR ALL 
SEASONS 



Spring, summer, winter, fall— a NATU- 
RAL HISTORY gift subscription is both 
timely and timeless. And in addition be- 
stows all the benefits and privileges of 
Associate Membership in The American 
Museum of Natural History. 



The American Museum of Natural History 
Central Park West at 79 St., N.Y. 10024 

Please enter a one-year NATURAL HISTORY 
subscription including Associate Membership 
in the IVIuseum. $5.00 payment enclosed. 



ADDRESS 


CITY 




STATE 


ZIP 


Sign Rift c 


ard 







scliolurly iiiformalion is evident: in the 
f;i!ii(;ral Mimmaries of a species' occur- 
ri;n<;(; in nature, in tire comparisons of 
llif) behavior of related fislies, in tlie 
dates and circumstances of a fish's intro- 
duction into the aquarium trade, and in 
the brief, formal statements at tin- end of 
each .section on the (^(-ographical distri- 
bution and on the derivation of scienli(i<- 
names of the various species described. 
There is no table of contents but there 
is an adequate index. 

A few technical errors are made. 
chiefly in the orlhofiraphy of scientific 
names. These should not lessen the 
book's desirability, but the price might. 
]''ifteen dollars could well be out of the 
range of the largest group of potential 
readers— the many and enthusiastic small- 
a(|uarium hobbyists. 

The companion book of this review. 
K. and M. L. Bauchot's The Book of 
Exotic Fish, was also translated (from 
tiie French), also has many colored il- 
lustrations, and is also overpriced. The 
text, apparently written in earnest and 
aspiring to great heights of iclithyologi- 
cal wisdom, is utter nonsense. The in- 
formation so intensely imparted is fre- 
quently wrong— in general and in many 
particulars. The misspellings, incorrect 
usages, and orthographic horrors seem 
endless. Feeble in content, unattractive 
in printing and format, and repetitious 
in illustrative material, it is a volume 
to be scorned. 

DoNN E. Rosen 
The American Museum 

Standing Up Country, by C. Gregory 
Crampton. Alfred A. Knopf and Univer- 
sity of Utah Press. $15.00; 191 pp.. illus. 
Time and the River Flowing: Grand 
Canyon, by Francois Leydet. Sierra 
Club, $25.00; 173 pp., illus. 

FOUR months and three days after the 
Declaration of Independence was 
signed, a group of Spanish explorers 
finally made their way across the Glen 
Canyon of the Colorado River on their 
way back to Santa Fe, New Mexico, after 
attempting to find a good route to Mon- 
terey, California. They had suffered 
from cold and near starvation. Father 
Escalante. an expedition priest, wrote in 
his journal that they celebrated their 
river crossing "by praising God our Lord 
and firing off a few muskets as a sign of 
the great joy we all felt at having over- 
come so great a difficulty." 

Since the days of Escalante many 
people have reached the banks of the 
Colorado, and many journals, articles, 
and books have been written about this 
fantastically eroded land. Two of the 
latest are Standing Up Country and 
Time and the River Floiving: Grand 
Canyon. They might be considered com- 
panion books. Crampton defines his 
"standing up country" as that area of 




Ancient Land 

ETHIOPIAN 
EMPIRE 

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This IS how 
leading critics 
describe 



The 

ANCIENT 

PEOPLES 

AND PLACES 

Series 

On both sides of the Atlantic, 
these books are being hailed as 
THE series in archaeology for 
both student and general reader. 
As The Economist (London) puts 
it, "the aim of this series [of 
which Dr. Glyn Daniel of Cam- 
bridge is general editor] is to 
make peoples and places more 
lively to us by dwelling on their 
material traces brought to light 
by archaeologists. In this the 
reader is greatly helped by gen- 
erous photographic illustrations, 
backed up by maps and line 
drawings." 

Among the forty volumes 
now available 

THE EGYPTIANS 

by Cyril Aldred 

MEXICO 

by Michael D. Coe 

THE CANAANITES 

by John Gray 

BONES, BODIES AND DISEASE 

Evidence of Disease and 

Abnormality in Early Man 

by Calvin Wells 



For further information on The AN- 
CIENT PEOPLES AND PLACES Series, 
write for a free descriptive brochure to 

FREDERICK A. 

PUBLISHERS 
111 Fourth Ave., New York, N.Y. 10003 



the Colorado River drainage from Boole 
Cliffs in Utah, on the north, to White 
Mesa and Lee's Ferry in Arizona, on the 
south. Leydet describes the Grand Can- 
yon from Lee"s Ferry to Lake Mead. 

Both are marvelously illustrated. 
Crampton uses black-and-white and 
color photographs to show the bigness 
and the barrenness of "slickrock wilder- 
ness" — a local term referring to the 
Navaho sandstone in this area of the 
Southwest. Since relatively few people 
have flown over the land he describes, 
the air views add a new and interesting 
viewpoint. The photographs in Leydet's 
book are all in color, beautifully repro- 
duced. Here again numerous views show 
the country's magnitude, but there are 
also many close-ups. The pictures of the 
patterns found in small sections of the 
canyon walls, in flowers, sand dunes, and 
small secluded pools serve as a forceful 
reminder that even in the presence of 
these gigantic, towering canyon walls we 
can also find beauty in microcosms. 

Crampton, in the preface, calls his 
book the first comprehensive story of the 
Canyonlands area. It covers the geology, 
geography, prehistoric Indian life, the 
early Spanish explorations and trade 
routes. Mormon settlements, ranching, 
and mining. For a detailed understand- 
ing, however, one will have to rely on his 
bibliography and much more reading. 

Leydet's book, on the other hand, is in 
the series of Sierra Club publications de- 
signed to promote their brand of conser- 
vation— "Let's leave our wilderness areas 
entirely alone." His description of his 
boat journey through the Grand Canyon 
is well written. From it he slips effort- 
lessly into the geography, geology, wild- 
life, botany, and history of the Canyon. 
At first the text is interspersed with 
short arguments against further develop- 
ments on the Colorado River. Soon the 
arguments become more frequent and 
longer until finally they comprise most 
of the text. His case against building 
dams in Marble Gorge and within the 
Grand Canyon is well documented and 
seemingly sound. He and David Brower. 
editor of the book, assert that the dam at 
Glen Canyon was not needed. I am afraid 
it will take more than these statements 
to convince everyone that the Sierra Club 
is 100 per cent right and the U.S. Bureau 
of Reclamation 100 per cent wrong. 

However, no matter how one looks at 
Standing Up Country and Time and the 
River Flowing, they are beautiful books 
full of informative reading. 

WiLLARD Luce 
Author and Naturalist 

The editors of Natur.AlL History regret 
that the millipede, a diplopod, was er- 
roneously called an insect in the subtitle 
of T. and H. E. Eisner's article. "Mystery 
of a Millipede," which appeared in the 
March, 1965, issue. 




Dinosaur 
Hunt 

by George O. Whitaker 
and Joan Meyers 

The remarkable story of the 
discovery of the first com- 
plete skeletons of the 
coelophysis dinosaurs in 
New Mexico, and of their 
removal, shipment to New 
York and preparation for 
display at the American 
Museum of Natural His- 
tory. Illustrated with draw- 
ings and photographs. 

Ages 10-14 $3.50 

[bg] HARCOURT, BRACE & WORLD 



Fishes 01 the 
Great Lakes Region 



by Carl L. Hubbs 
and Karl F. Lagler 



This famous handbook has been ex- 
panded with a new preface that is a 
nomenclatural supplement to make 
a more complete guide to the identifi- 
cation of the fishes found In the 
Great Lakes basin. The basin not only 
includes the rivers, lakes, and 
streams of the entire Midwestern 
United States, but also of southern 
Ontario and Quebec, New England, 
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia. 
Fishes of the Great Lakes Region 
contains 251 photographs and draw- 
ings, and 44 full-page color plates. 
The keys to the species and sub- 
species are easy to use making iden- 
tification simple and accurate. 
This handy book is as useful on a 
fishing trip as in the library or class- 
room. 

5y."x9" $6.95 ■■ 

Order From Dept. NH MM 

Ttie university 01 Michigan Press 



DOUBLEDAY 
NATURE 
GUIDES 

A Special Spring Offer 
for Readers of 
Natural History 



You are invited to use any or all of these world-famous field guides for 
two full weeks this Spring ... to judge for yourself - without cost or 
obligation — whether or not these invaluable, portable (4'/2 " x 7Vi") 
handbooks can increase your enjoyment of nature hobbies. Weil over 
half a million DOUBLEDAY NATURE GUIDES have been sold in bookstores; 
now, for the first time, all of these remarkable books are offered for a 
special free field trial. The secret of the series' popularity is simple. 
Each sturdy, hardcover DOUBLEDAY NATURE GUIDE is written in non- 
technical language by an expert in the field, and illustrated with 
beautiful, scrupulously accurate drawings. The popular Audubon Bird 
Guides, for example, give you nearly 1500 illustrations covering 700 
species - the vast majority in full color! For fisherman or birdwatcher, 
professional naturalist or layman, DOUBLEDAY NATURE GUIDES are 
among the most comprehensive handbooks available — at practical, 
budget-minded low prices. Choose the ones you'll want to take on your 
next field trip, and send the no-risk coupon today. 





1) NORTH AMERICAN GAME FISHES 
by Francesca La Monte 
Illustrated by Janet Roemhlld 

An original, non-teclinical guide to both fresh and salt water 
game fishes, with 153 accurate illustrations of every fish - 81 
in full color. Includes complete data on nomenclature, geogra- 
phy, size, color, living habits; official Rod and Reel charts of 
record catches; and special "identification-at-a-glance chart" 
for anglers. $4.50 



2) AUDUBON LANO BIRD GUIDE 

by Richard H. Pough 

Illustrated by Don Eckelberry 

Ker 400 full-color illustrations, and full notes on nesting, 
)ng, etc., cover 275 species of Eastern and Central North 
nerican birds, ranging from Southern Texas to Central Green- 
nd. Noted ornithologist Robert Cushman Murphy calls this 
the first work of pocket size which has solved the problem of 
icluding a colored portrait of every species within its scope 
. . with consummate success." $4.50 



3) WILD FLOWER GUIDE 
by Edgar T. Wherry, Ph.D. 
Illustrated by Tabea Hofmann 

Technically accurate, yet easy to use and follow — a handbook 
to all wild flowers of the Northeastern and Midland United 
States. W/ith common and scientific names, range, habitat, and 
cultivation data for over 500 species (192 illustrated in full 
color and 236 In black and white). $4.50 



4) THE INSECT GUIDE 

by Ralph B. Swain, Ph.D. 

Illustrated by SuZan N. Swain 

lis lavishly illustrated handbook tells how to recognize major 
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it kinds of insects. VKith background data, and 454 illustra- 
ons (330 in full color) of 251 insect species in the U. S. and 
anada. $4.50 



5) AUDUBON WATER BIRD GUIDE 

by Richard H. Rough 

Illustrated by Don Eckelberry and Earl L. Poole 

Concise bird biographies and 623 splendid illustrations (458 
in full color and 138 line drawings) cover each of the 258 
species in every significant plumage — and make this book 
the best identification guide yet devised for the layman. In- 
cludes notes concerning the birds' past and present status, 
foods, habits, etc. $4.50 



8) MARINE GAME FISHES OF THE WORLD 

by Francesca La Monte 

Illustrated by Janet Roemhlld 

he first guide of its kind ever written, this book identifies 
larine game fi